Communist Party of Chile
The Communist Party of Chile is a Chilean political party inspired by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. It was founded in 1922, as the continuation of the Socialist Workers Party, in 1932 it established its youth wing, the Communist Youth of Chile, it achieved congressional representation shortly thereafter and played a leading role in the development of the Chilean labor movement. Tied to the Soviet Union and the Third International, the PCCh participated in the Popular Front government of 1938, growing among the unionized working class in the 1940s, it participated to the Popular Front's successor, the Democratic Alliance. Concern over the PCCh's success at building a strong electoral base, combined with the onset of the Cold War, led to its being outlawed in 1948 by a Radical government, a status it had to endure for a decade until 1958 when it was again legalized. By the 1960s, the party had become a veritable political subculture, with its own symbols and organizations and the support of prominent artists and intellectuals such as Pablo Neruda, the Nobel Prize-winning poet, Violeta Parra, the songwriter and folk artist.
At the time, the U. S. State Department estimated the party membership to be 27,500, it came to power along with the Socialist Party in the Unidad Popular coalition in 1970. Within the broad Unidad Popular alliance, the communists sided with Allende, a relative moderate from the Socialist Party, other more moderate forces of that coalition, supporting more gradual reforms and urging to find a compromise with the Christian Democrats; this line was opposed by more radically leftist factions of the Socialist Party and smaller far-left groups. The party was outlawed after the 1973 coup d'état. Much of the Communist leadership went underground, for a while the party's moderation continued after the coup had taken place, it has been argued by Mark Ensalaco that crushing the Communist Party was not a top priority for the military junta. In its first statement after the coup, the party leadership still argued that the coup could succeed because the Unidad Popular was too isolated, due to actions of the'far-left'.
Around 1977, the party changed direction. Communist Party members set up the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front. With the restoration of democracy and the election of a new president in 1990, the Communist Party of Chile was legalized again; as part of the Popular Unity coalition the PCCh advocated a broad alliance. Since the restoration of democracy it has acted independently of its previous partners. Between 1983 and 1987 it was a member of the People's Democratic Movement. In the 1999/2000 presidential elections the party supported Gladys Marín Millie for the national presidential elections, she won 3.2% of the vote in the first round. At the 2005 legislative election, 11 December 2005, the party won 5.1% of the popular vote, but as a result of Chile's binomial electoral rules, no seats. The small but significant support of the PCCh is believed to have aided in the electoral victories of former socialist president Ricardo Lagos in the 2000 elections, in the more recent victory of Chile's first female president, the socialist Michelle Bachelet in January 2006, both of whom won in competitive second round runoffs.
The PCCh is a member of “New Majority”, a leftist coalition led by Michelle Bachelet. KeysRP = supported a candidate from the Radical Party SP = supported a candidate from the Socialist Party PU–SP = member of the Popular Unity coalition, supported the candidate from the Socialist Party PDC = supported a candidate from the Christian Democratic Party Ind = supported an independent candidate HP = supported a candidate from the Humanist Party NM–SP = member of the New Majority coalition, supported the candidate from the Socialist Party NM–Ind = member of the New Majority coalition, supported an independent candidate Communist Youth of Chile Luis Emilio Recabarren Popular Unity Co-ordinating Committee of Communist Parties in Britain Juntos PODEMOS Más Norte Grande insurrection Olga Ulianova and Alfredo Riquelme, Chile en los archivos soviéticos: 1922-1991: Tomo I, Komintern y Chile, 1922-1931. Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, Lom Ediciones, 2005. Olga Ulianova and Alfredo Riquelme, Chile en los archivos soviéticos: 1922-1991: Tomo II, Komintern y Chile, 1931-1935.
Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, Lom Ediciones, 2009. Homepage
Senate of Chile
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile. According to the present Constitution of Chile, the Senate is composed of thirty-eight directly elected senators, chosen by universal popular suffrage vote in 19 senatorial circumscriptions; these serve eight-year terms, with half of them being replaced every fourth year. They must be eligible to vote, have completed secondary school, or its equivalent, be at least 35 years old; the Senate sessions at the new National Congress located in the port city of Valparaíso that replaced the old National Congress located in downtown Santiago, the nation's capital. Amendments to the Constitution, approved by a joint session of Congress on August 16, 2005, eliminated non-directly elected senators from March 11, 2006, the day 20 newly elected senators were sworn in, leaving the total number of senators at 38, all directly elected. According to the Constitution of 1980, "designated" or "institutional" senators were appointed to the chamber.
Two former heads of state, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Augusto Pinochet, were installed as senators for life. Pinochet resigned from this position and Frei lost his seat in the 2005 reform. However, Frei remained in the Senate by winning an elective seat; the Senate of Chile was created in 1812 to support the formulations of policies of the Government Junta. Since it has undergone several constitutional reorganizations that have altered the scope of its constitutional powers, its composition and the generation of its members. Created by Article 7 of the Provisional Constitutional Manual of 1812, it was composed of seven titular members and three alternate members and was supposed to serve as a counterbalance to the executive power of the Government Junta. The senators were directly nominated by the provinces in agreement with the central government, it functioned from November, 1812 to January, 1814, when it was reorganized to better respond to the problems caused by the successive military defeats at the hands of the advancing Spanish Army.
Created by Article 13 of the Provisional Government Manual of 1814. As its predecessor, it was composed of seven titular members nominated by the provinces in lists of three from which they were selected by the Supreme Director, it functioned from March to July, 1814, when the Spanish Army captured Santiago, putting an end to the Patria Vieja government. Created by Title III of the Constitution of 1818, it was composed of five titular members and five alternate members selected directly by the Supreme Director. It was supposed to function only when the lower house was not in function or could not meet, had the power to enact "provisory rules" that had the same effect as laws It functioned from October, 1818 to May, 1822. Key to Senate classes by regions: Class 1 consists of:-the 23 current senators whose seats expire in March 2026. Class 2 consists of:-the 20 current senators whose seats expire in March 2022. Plus 7 new senators, who will be elected in 2022 President of the Senate of Chile National Congress of Chile Chamber of Deputies of Chile Politics of Chile List of legislatures by country Senate of Chile Official web site Article from the Economist dealing with the Senate composition
Playa Ancha University
Playa Ancha University of Educational Sciences is a university in central Chile. It is a derivative university part of the Chilean Traditional Universities, belonging to the select group of twenty-five rector's Council universities; the university has two campuses: the major one in Valparaíso, on Calle Playa Ancha 850, the second one in San Felipe. The university has a vast tradition in the education area and is involved with the community of Valparaiso and San Felipe; the university was founded 1948 in Vaparaíso as "Instituto Pedagógico de la Universidad de Chile" with the intention to enhance the study of languages. Former careers were Pedagogy on Spanish and English languages. In 1981 new areas and programs were inaugurated. In 1956 the career Pedagogy for German language was added. Today the university is going through a process of modernization of its infrastructure, with a new library in the major campus, located in Valparaiso, the construction of the natural sciences and engineering faculty in the same city.
Multilingual touristic administration Geography Pedagogy in Spanish language Pedagogy in Philosophy Pedagogy in History and Geography Pedagogy in English English-Spanish translation and interpretation Design draftsman Graphic design Graduate in Arts Pedagogy in Plastic Arts Pedagogy in Musical Education Pedagogy in Technological Education Theatre Pedagogy in Special Education Preschool Education Pedagogy in Primary Education Pedagogy in Primary Education, with Mentions of Rural Education and Development Pedagogy in Biology and Sciences Pedagogy in Physics and Computing Pedagogy in Mathematics and Computing Pedagogy in Chemistry and Sciences Pedagogy in Physical Education, Ladies Pedagogy in Physical Education, Men Technology in Sports and Entertaining Librarianship Journalism Sociology Environmental Engineering Environmental Civil Engineering Industrial Civil Engineering Engineering in Informatics Statistical Engineering Kinesiology Nutrition and Dietetics Occupational Therapy Sergio Badilla Castillo Yasna Provoste Official website san Felipe
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, they give rise to different biomes. A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates as intermediates between desert climates and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are dominated by either grasses or shrubs. To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20 adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS. Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid". Hot semi-arid climates tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate; these climates tend to have hot, sometimes hot and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most found in Africa and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.
In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can be found in Europe, parts of North America, such as in Mexico, areas of the Southwestern United States, sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with rainless summers and wetter winters. Cold semi-arid climates tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate, they are found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters.
These areas see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C or more in that time frame; these large diurnal temperature variations are seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers wet winters, wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most found in Asia and North America. However, they can be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month, the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side.
As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean but mild winters. Continental climate Dust Bowl Goyder's Line Köppen climate classification Palliser's Triangle Ustic Wave height
Independent Democratic Union
The Independent Democratic Union is a Chilean right-wing, conservative political party, founded in 1983. Its founder was the lawyer and law professor Jaime Guzmán, a civilian who collaborated with Augusto Pinochet and a member of the Opus Dei. Guzmán was a senator from 1990 until his assassination on April 1, 1991, its ideological origins date back to Guzmán's Guildist Movement, born out of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in 1966, espousing the independence and depoliticization of intermediate bodies of civil society. The UDI is today a conservative political party with strong links to the Opus Dei, that opposes women reproductive rightsUDI, together with National Renewal and other minor movements, formed a coalition of right-wing parties called Coalition for Change, the successor to Alliance for Chile and rose to power in March 2010, after victory in the presidential elections of January 2010, it was the largest political party in Congress between 2010 and 2014. In the Chilean parliamentary election, 2009, UDI held the largest majority in the election of deputies, electing 40 deputies with 23.04%, got 21.21% in the election of senators.
Its bench is the largest obtained by a single party in Chile since 1990. UDI has 39 deputies and 8 senators. In the Chilean municipal election, 2008, UDI got 347 councilmen by a vote of 15.11%, obtained 58 mayors by a vote of 20.05%. That year, it was the largest party by elected councilmen and the most voted for party in the election of councilmen. UDI is the second largest party by number of mayors in Chile, it was during the university strikes of the 1960s when Jaime Guzmán, President of the Law Students Union at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile -who opposed the protests and strikes, led by the Christian-democrats and left-wing students- gathered a group of students and founded the Movimiento Gremial and ran for the University's Student Union election. The movement became one of the most important in the Catholic University, won the presidency of the University's Student Union. Jaime Guzmán criticized liberal democracy and sought inspiration in authoritarian corporatism, proposing the principle of subsidiarity and to invigorate intermediate social movements, by the way that these were independent to develop their own specific purposes.
Well into the government of Salvador Allende, some young members of the National Party and the Christian Democrats became part of the Gremialismo Movement of Jaime Guzmán. Guzmán supported a military coup against Allende's government, which happened shortly thereafter on September 11, 1973, he was a close advisor of General Augusto Pinochet. Guzmán was appointed a member of the Commission for the Study of the New Constitution, who worded the new constitution promulgated in 1980. After the 1982 economic crisis, which caused the temporary removal of the "Chicago Boys" from cabinet, Guzmán moved away from the government and decided to found the movement he desired, establishing it on September 24, 1983 under the name Independent Democratic Union Movement; the emerging movement, a supporter of the military government, had a strong empathy with the lower classes, in order to seize from the Marxist left its traditional domain. Amid the growing economic crisis of the time, UDI engaged in empowering leaders in the countryside and peripheral neighbourhoods that would help extend its influence in the middle and lower classes.
One of them was Simon Yévenes, UDI member assassinated by left-wing resistance fighters on April 2, 1986. On April 29, 1987, the Independent Democratic Union merged with other related movements such as National Union Movement, led by Andrés Allamand, National Labour Front, led by Sergio Onofre Jarpa, plus some former members and supporters of the National Party and the Christian Democrats, to form the National Renewal party, who managed to unite all the right movements in the country. However, UDI members maintained their own identity in the new party, which caused a crisis in 1988, culminating in the resignation of all former UDI members to National Renewal. Allamand stayed in charge of National Renewal, while Jaime Guzman managed to register a new political party: Independent Democratic Union in 1989. UDI supported Pinochet's remaining in power in the Chilean national plebiscite, 1988. After the "Yes" option was defeated and presidential elections were announced, the UDI joined National Renewal and formed the "Democracy and Progress" alliance.
Hernan Büchi, the former Minister of Finances under Pinochet, ran for president for this alliance. The alliance ran a common Parliament list; the UDI's option lost the 1989 presidential election, this time against the center-left Concertación's leader, the Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin. In the 1989 parliamentary elections, the Independent Democratic Union obtained a 9.82% of votes in deputies and 5.11% in the Senate. Jaime Guzmán won a seat as Senator for Western Santiago constituency. Although Guzman took third place with only 17% of the vote, behind Christian Democrat Andrés Zaldívar and Party for Democracy leader Ricardo Lagos, the two main leaders of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, the binomial system allowed Zaldívar's and his election and deferred Ricardo Lagos who got 30%. By 1990, Guzman was positioned as the leader of the opposition and was one of the harshest critics o
The Valparaíso Region is one of Chile's 16 first order administrative divisions. With the country's second highest population of 1,790,219 million in 2017, fourth smallest area of 16,396.1 km2, the region is Chile's second most densely populated after the Santiago Metropolitan Region to the southeast. Its capital is the port city of Valparaíso, other important cities include Viña del Mar, Quilpué, San Antonio; the region is on the same latitude as the Santiago Metropolitan Region. Its capital is Valparaíso, the site for the National Congress of Chile and an important commercial port. In this region is the top resort city of Viña del Mar. Additionally, the Pacific islands of Easter Island, Isla Salas y Gómez, the Juan Fernández Islands and the Desventuradas Islands fall under the Valparaíso Region's administration; the Valparaíso Region is part of the restricted range of the endangered Chilean Wine Palm, Jubaea chilensis. The Region of Valparaíso is populated by some 1.71 million inhabitants. The population density reached 94.1 inhabitants/km2.
91.6% of the population lives in urban areas and only 8.4% of the population lives in rural areas. The most populous municipalities in the region are Valparaíso, with 308,000 inhabitants Viña del Mar, with 287,000 inhabitants, which together with Villa Alemana, Quilpué and Concón form the Gran Valparaíso a continuum of 1.75 million people. There are Quillota, with about 201,000 inhabitants and San Antonio with more than 200,000 inhabitants with estimates at 250,000 to be the region's second largest city. Soon will be added as a city with large population: the planned city of El Communa del Andes since they will be brought more than 40,000 miners required for the expansion of the mine Codelco Chile Andina Division on the foot of the Andes mountains. Valparaíso developed as a trans-oceanic rest stop for fishing ships, sea cruise-liners, international naval ships. Therefore, a large proportion of residents have a variety of national origins, ethnic groups, cultures; the 16th-century colonial population was founded by male settlers from the Spanish regions of Andalusia, Asturia and León, the large Basque contingent has given rise to a substantial Basque Chilean population.
Large numbers came from other countries of Latin America from Mexico to Uruguay, esp. came during colonial rule in the 17th century. And in the late 18th–early 19th centuries came a small wave of Galician settlers from the Spanish region of Galicia, it is thought the majority of Valparaíso's people have some non-Spanish European background, such as: British and Irish and New Zealanders, North Americans and Bosnians, Dutch and Belgians, Germans, Italians and Scandinavians. There are more or less assimilated groups of Chilean Jews, as well as Christians from the Ottoman Empire Syro-Lebanese and a large Palestinian community in the town of La Calera. In racial terms, the majority of Valparaíso's inhabitants are castizos, meaning that their paternal origins are overwhelmingly from white whalers and traders of various European nationalities, while their maternal origins stems from unions between colonial Spanish men and local indigenous women, including Mapuche, Inca and North American Indian descent.
Smaller numbers of East Asians Chinese, Japanese or Korean, minuscule numbers of Afro-Chileans, as well as a component of Polynesians whose ancestors were kidnapped from Easter Island and the Marquesas Islands further adding to the region's Hispanicized melting pot. The Valparaíso region is a host of agricultural lands, wine producers, industrial activity such as copper mining and cement. Chile's largest oil refinery is located in Concón and there are two important copper ore refineries: the state-owned Ventanas and the private works in Chagres, about 55 miles inland; the region is a hub for chemicals and gas storage near the port of Quintero. In the interior valleys, there is a booming export industry around the avocado and flowers as the most important products; the most striking recent development has been the cultivation of hillsides using high tech drip feed irrigation. This has allowed otherwise unproductive land to bear high yields. C. Michael Hogan Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg Valparaíso Region, Chile Gobierno Regional de Valparaíso Official website Robinson Crusoe, Moai statues and the Rapa Nui: the stories of Chile’s far-off islands
Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million; the city is located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 650 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times; the city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic, other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal; the Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem during winter; the city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within an hour of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets in nearby Valparaíso. Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. Santiago will host the 2023 Pan American Games. In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are confused; the Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago", is an administrative division that comprises the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial governor, in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it refers to what is known as Greater Santiago, a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces.
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinas. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC; the groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River maize and beans, the domestication of camelids in the area; the villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches or Promaucae people, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill; the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. Valdivia summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura; the natives accepted and recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541 Valdivia founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as "St. Lucia". Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout.
In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, ten from east to west, were built; each solar was given to the settlers, who built houses of straw. Valdivia left months to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected; the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55-strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort; the resistance was led by a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, proceeded to put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror; the city would be rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was founded in 1565.
However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due to its proximity to the War of Arauco and