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San Francisco Art Institute

San Francisco Art Institute is a private college of contemporary art in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1871, SFAI is one of the oldest art schools in the United States and the oldest west of the Mississippi River. 400 undergraduates and 200 graduate students are enrolled. The institution is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, is a member of the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design. San Francisco Art Institute began in 1871 with the formation of the San Francisco Art Association - a small but influential group of artists and community leaders, most notably, led by Virgil Macey Williams and first president Juan B. Wandesforde, with B. P. Avery, Edward Bosqui, Thomas Hill, S. W. Shaw, who came together to promote regional art and artists, to establish a school and museum to further and preserve what they saw as a new and distinct artistic tradition which had developed in the relative cultural isolation and unique landscape of the American West.

By 1874 the SFAA had 700 regular members and 100 life members, had raised sufficient funds and the necessary momentum to launch an art school, named the California School of Design. Painter Virgil Macy Williams, who had spent nearly ten years studying with master painters in Italy and had taught at Harvard College before coming to San Francisco, became the school's first director and painting instructor—positions he held until his sudden death in 1886. During Williams' tenure, the CSD developed a national reputation and amassed a significant collection of early California and western fine art as the foundation collected for a planned museum. In 1893, Edward Searles donated the Hopkins Mansion, one of the most palatial and elaborate Victorian mansions built, to the University of California in trust for the SFAA for "instruction in and illustration of the fine arts and literature." Named the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, it became San Francisco's first fine art and cultural center, housed both the CSD's campus and SFAA's art collection.

Through this new affiliation, students of the University of California, Berkeley were able to enroll in classes at the CSD. In 1906 the devastating fire following the San Francisco earthquake destroyed the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art building, the CSD and SFAA facilities and art collection. At the time, the replacement value of the building and its contents was estimated at $2,573,000. However, the combined amount of numerous insurance policies yielded less than $100,000 for rebuilding. Within a year, the SFAA built a new but comparatively modest campus in the same location, adopted the name San Francisco Institute of Art. In 1916, the SFAA merged with the San Francisco Society of Artists and assumed directorship of the San Francisco Museum of Art at the Palace of Fine Arts, established to host the 1915 World's Fair, Panama-Pacific International Exposition. In addition, the school was renamed the California School of Fine Arts to better reflect its mission to promote and preserve regional art and culture.

In 1926 the school moved to 800 Chestnut Street, which remains the school's main campus as of 2015. In 1930 Mexican muralist Diego Rivera was hired to paint The Making of a Fresco Showing the Building of a City, located in the student-directed art gallery. During its first 60 years, influential artists associated with the school included Eadweard Muybridge and pioneer of motion graphics. S.. After World War II ended the school became a nucleus for Abstract Expressionism, with faculty including Clyfford Still, Ad Reinhardt, Mark Rothko, David Park, Elmer Bischoff, Clay Spohn. Although painting and sculpture remained the dominant mediums for many years, photography had been among the course offerings. In 1946 Ansel Adams and Minor White established the first fine-art photography department, with Imogen Cunningham, Edward Weston, Dorothea Lange among its instructors. In 1947 distinguished filmmaker Sydney Peterson began the first film courses at CSFA. In this spirit of advancement, in 1949 CSFA Director Douglas MacAgy organized an international conference, The Western Roundtable on Modern Art, which included Marcel Duchamp, Frank Lloyd Wright, Gregory Bateson.

The roundtable aimed to frame new questions about art. By the early 1950s San Francisco's North Beach had become the West Coast center of the Beat Movement, music and discourse were an intrinsic part of artists' lives. Collage artist Jess Collins renounced a career as a plutonium developer and enrolled at SFAI as a painting student. In 1953 he and his partner, poet Robert Duncan, along with painter Harry Jacobus, started the King Ubu Gallery, an important alternative space for art and music. A distinctly Californian modern art soon emerged that fused abstraction, figuration and jazz. SFAI faculty David Park, Elmer Bischoff, James Weeks, James Kelly, Frank Lobdell, Richard Diebenkorn were now the leaders of the Bay Area Figurative Movement, informed by their experience

Army of the Duchy of Warsaw

Army of the Duchy of Warsaw refers to the military forces of the Duchy of Warsaw. The Army was based on the Polish Legions, it was composed of infantry with a strong cavalry force supported by artillery. The Napoleonic customs and traditions resulted in some social tensions, but are credited with helpful modernization and useful reforms; the cadre of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw was formed by the legionnaires of the Polish Legions. In addition, it was filled by older soldiers from the Army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, who responded to the call to arms of Józef Poniatowski, patriotic youth. In 1808, after the first emergency period was over, the Duchy felt more secure, those who wished to leave the army were given leave; the army was expanded with large waves of new recruits on the eve of new wars in 1809 and 1812, when the Duchy fought other partitioners, which resulted in an influx of recruits from those territories, hoping to see their home liberated. The final recruitment phase was that in the fall and winter of 1813, when the Duchy was trying to rally to its own defense in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Upon its creation, the Army numbered 30,000. The size of the army was a considerable economic burden to the small state; the army was expanded several times. Several regiments were sponsored by the French. For the war of 1812 100,000 men were fielded – more than the Army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth numbered. In the fall of 1813, the Army, reconstructed after the defeat in Russia, numbered about 20,000 or 40,000, it is estimated. In addition to the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, Poles served in other formations allied to France. In addition to the standing army, a national guard could be called into action, as happened in 1809 and 1811. Notable Polish commanders of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw included Prince Józef Poniatowski and Jan Henryk Dąbrowski; the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw was composed of the following formations: one regiment of cuirassiers ten regiments of uhlan lancers. The Army was the site of a cultural clash of new, democratic French traditions and old Polish customs, with clashes on the role of nobility in the military – with some conservatives attempting to restrict the officer rank to the nobles.

The French revolutionary and civic traditions, passed through veteran legionnaires, resulted in more motivation of the peasant recruits, compared to the army of the old Commonwealth. The educational role of the army is seen as one of its major if unintended successes; the army was improved due to the modernization and adoption of modern French military rules and tactics. Overall, the era of the Duchy of Warsaw marked a period of modernization of the Polish Army, with a new military doctrine and science, codified by Polish military scholar of that era, Ignacy Prądzyński; the obligatory time of service was set at 6 years, with any citizens aged 21 to 28 having a chance to be randomly chosen for conscription. The Army was supported by the new schools, with the 3-year Elementary School and a 1-year Applicant School for Artillery and Engineering. Overall, the Polish units were reckoned by the French to be motivated and of high quality; the army was formed at the time of the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807.

The army participated in numerous wars on the side of Napoleonic France, including in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Peninsular War, the War of the Fifth Coalition of 1809, in the War of the Sixth Coalition of 1812–1813. In the Russian campaign of 1812, the Polish units formed an entire corps of the Grande Armée; the army sustained over 70% losses. The Army suffered further heavy casualties in the battle of Leipzig in 1813, where Prince Poniatowski died. After Napoleonic defeats in 1813, the Duchy was occupied by Napoleon's enemies; as several garrisons in fortresses held out, much of the Army followed Napoleon back to France that year. Disorganized after Poniatowski's death, in 1814, the army still had about 8,000 people in French-controlled territories in France, but was incorporated into the French Army, ceased to exist after the final defeat of Napoleon. After the Treaty of Fontainebleau most of the Polish soldiers were given into the custody of the Russians. Army of the Congress Poland Military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish Armed Forces

Chloraseptic (song)

"Chloraseptic" is a song recorded by American rapper Eminem, featuring guest vocals from American rapper Phresher. It was written by Eminem, Mr. Porter, Mark Batson, Erick Sermon, Parrish Smith, with production handled by Mr. Porter; the song was featured on Eminem's ninth studio album Revival, released on December 15, 2017. A remix was released on January 8, 2018, featuring new guest verses from rappers 2 Chainz and Phresher, as well as Eminem himself; the song's remix was released on January 8, 2018. It was announced the same day by Eminem via his Twitter account, tweeting the artwork and a link to the track. After facing heavy criticism for his previous album Revival, Eminem addresses the negative response to his album. Among the topics he addresses in his verse are the lackluster reception to the album's initial single "Walk on Water" featuring Beyoncé, fans judging the album's heavy pop presence on the tracklist, he criticizes reaction videos, saying "Y'all saw the track list and had a fit'fore you heard it / So you formed your verdict while you sat with your arms crossed / Did your little reaction videos and talked over songs".

Eminem addresses the critique of his BET Hip Hop Awards freestyle aimed at President Trump, while taking jabs at the president, saying in his verse, "Then I took a stand, went at Tan-Face, cut my motherfuckin' fan base in half and still outsold you"