The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving the San Francisco Bay Area of northern California. It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000, it is the only major daily paper covering the county of San Francisco. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like other newspapers, it has experienced a rapid fall in circulation in the early 21st century, was ranked 24th by circulation nationally for the six months to March 2010; the newspaper publishes two web sites: sfchronicle.com, which reflects the articles that appear in the print paper, SFGate, which has a mixture of online news and web features. The Chronicle was founded by brothers Charles and M. H. de Young in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle, inside of 10 years, it had the largest circulation of any newspaper west of the Mississippi River.
The paper's first office was in a building at the corner of Kearney Streets. The brothers commissioned a building from Burnham and Root at 690 Market Street at the corner of Third and Kearney Streets to be their new headquarters, in what became known as Newspaper Row; the new building, San Francisco's first skyscraper, was completed in 1889. It was damaged in the 1906 earthquake, but it was rebuilt under the direction of William Polk, Burnham's associate in San Francisco; that building, known as the "Old Chronicle Building" or the "DeYoung Building", still stands and was restored in 2007. It is the location of the Ritz-Carlton Club and Residences. In 1924, the Chronicle commissioned a new headquarters at 901 Mission Street on the corner of 5th Street in what is now the South of Market neighborhood of San Francisco, it was designed by Charles Peter Weeks and William Peyton Day in the Gothic Revival architecture style, but most of the Gothic Revival detailing was removed in 1968 when the building was re-clad with stucco.
This building remains the Chronicle's headquarters in 2017, although other concerns are located there as well. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Newhall took a bold and somewhat provocative approach to news presentation. Newhall's Chronicle included investigative reporting by such journalists as Pierre Salinger, who played a prominent role in national politics, Paul Avery, the staffer who pursued the trail of the self-named "Zodiac Killer", who sent a cryptogram in three sections in letters to the Chronicle and two other papers during his murder spree in the late 1960s, it featured such colorful columnists as Pauline Phillips, who wrote under the name "Dear Abby," "Count Marco", Stanton Delaplane, Terence O'Flaherty, Lucius Beebe, Art Hoppe, Charles McCabe, Herb Caen. The newspaper grew in circulation to become the city's largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner; the demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner and the Chronicle to battle for circulation and readership superiority.
The competition between the Chronicle and Examiner took a financial toll on both papers until the summer of 1965, when a merger of sorts created a Joint Operating Agreement under which the Chronicle became the city's sole morning daily while the Examiner changed to afternoon publication. The newspapers were owned by the San Francisco Newspaper Agency, which managed sales and distribution for both newspapers and was charged with ensuring that one newspaper's circulation did not grow at the expense of the other. Revenue was split which led to a situation understood to benefit the Examiner, since the Chronicle, which had a circulation four times larger than its rival, subsidized the afternoon newspaper; the two newspapers produced a joint Sunday edition, with the Examiner publishing the news sections and the Sunday magazine and the Chronicle responsible for the tabloid entertainment section and the book review. From 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation; this arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle in 2000.
Beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle began to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco. The newspaper had long enjoyed a wide reach as the de facto "newspaper of record" in Northern California, with distribution along the Central Coast, the Inland Empire and as far as Honolulu, Hawaii. There was little competition in the Bay Area suburbs and other areas that the newspaper served, but as Knight Ridder consolidated the San Jose Mercury News in 1975; the Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper. The sections covered San Francisco, four different suburban areas, they each featured enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community. The newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. Despite the push to focus on suburban coverage, the Chronicle was hamstrung by the Sunday edition, being produced by the San Francisco-centric "un-Chronicle" Examiner, had none of the focus on the suburban communities that the Chronicle was striving to cultivate.
The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27, 2000, when it was sold to Hearst Communications, Inc. which owned the Examiner
No. 131 Radar Station RAAF is a heritage-listed former Royal Australian Air Force radar station at Kooragang, City of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. They are known as the Radar Igloo and Radar Buildings, they now operate as the Estuarine Interpretive Centre. It was formed at Richmond, New South Wales on 19 June 1942. After initial training the radar group was sent to Beverley Park, Kogarah on 14 August 1942 Kyeemagh on 27 August 1942 and to its final posting at Ash Island, Newcastle from 7 September 1942; the radar station on Ash Island was established to detect enemy airborne threats during World War II. It housed British mobile equipment and the most modern Canadian GCI set, well protected in two concrete reinforced igloo buildings. No. 131 Radar Station RAAF was disbanded on 18 January 1946. The remains of the Ash Island radar station, which the unit occupied from September 1942 until January 1946, were added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 16 April 2010; the earliest inhabitants of the lower Hunter River estuary were the Worimi and Awabakal Aboriginal groups.
For thousands of years, these people hunted and gathered food around the many small islands within the estuary. In 1951 when five low-lying islands were reclaimed and joined to make the industrial Kooragang Island, the natural landscape underwent substantial change which has seen a significant loss in the physical remnants of Aboriginal occupation of the area. Following European contact and Newcastle's settlement in 1804, the rich alluvial soil of the islands in the Hunter River estuary attracted the settlers who began farming and grazing the land. Ash Island was to become a significant site for dairy farming but with regular flooding with the estuary, these practices became difficult; when Japan entered the World War II, there was widespread apprehension that Australia may be vulnerable to enemy attack and invasion. In early 1942, the armed services directed increased attention to radar for locating and intercepting enemy aircraft in an effort to protect Australia's coastline and its strategically important towns and cities.
These efforts intensified again following the submarine attacks on Sydney Harbour and Newcastle on 8 June 1942. Although the shelling of Newcastle resulted in no physical injuries and little material damage, the event caused panic and highlighted the vulnerability of Newcastle and its industries to enemy attack. During the Second World War, the industrial city of Newcastle was at the centre of Australia's total war effort. Bullet-proof steel and armoured vehicles, heavy guns, explosive shells and aircraft sections and a host of other essential parts and products were manufactured in Newcastle and, being strategically important, the most advanced technology was required to protect the city from any further attacks. Only 12 days after Newcastle was shelled, 131 Radar Station was formed at RAAF Base Richmond; this mobile Ground Control Interception unit was based on British radar practices that emerged in 1940 to detect and intercept enemy aircraft before they reached the intended target. This state-of-the-art British technology allowed the operators to obtain grid references without the need to calculate the coordinates manually thus saving critical time.
131 Radar Station used uniquely advanced technology because the operators were able to estimate, in addition to direction and range, the size and height of the aircraft by assessing the strength of the signals received. This mobile GCI unit, made up of British Mark V equipment, was housed on the back of 4x4 Crossley trucks, camouflaged underneath netted canopies. In August 1942, 131 Radar Station was moved to Beverley Park at Kogarah and on to Kyeemagh where a series of test flights were logged to assess the performance of the equipment and the skills of the operating staff. In September 1942, the mobile unit received instructions and were transferred to Ash Island to be responsible for the protection of Newcastle. Upon arrival on Ash Island, the operating staff were met with swampland and mosquitoes. Although facilities were limited, the Island was an ideal location for 131 Radar Station because the surrounding water was a good reflector, assisting the radar to detect any aircraft. By late 1942, Ash Island, although typical of small RAAF stations on the coast, had become a permanent radar post and the operating staff was at full strength.
On 16 December 1942, 131 Radar Station commenced 24-hour watch and by the end of January 1943, the new Mark V transmitter and receiver, the latest equipment and technology from Canada, arrived at Ash Island in preparation for the construction of galvanized "Doover" huts to house the station. By February 1943, the WAAAF complement at 131 Radar Station outnumbered the RAAF contingent for the first time and included many of the first group of WAAAF radar operators trained at Richmond. In February 1943, the Crossley trucks that had housed the mobile GCI units left Ash Island for Maroubra and the construction of the two concrete igloos, with walls one foot thick, was underway; the impenetrable igloos were British in design and were intended to be built as underground bunkers. However, in Australia, these buildings were disguised with netting. By mid 1943, the igloos were complete and the receiver and transmitter equipment installed in one and an emergency power unit housed in the other; the new Canadian equipment delivered to 131 Radar Station was state-of-the-art technology, operated by the experienced and competent teams at Ash Island.
The unit was divided into teams of five operators and one mechanic to work in shifts of si
Carmi Schooler was an American social psychologist known for his work on personality and structural equation modeling. Schooler was born in the Bronx, New York City, New York, in 1933, he was educated at the Bronx High School of Science and attended Hamilton College and New York University. He received his Ph. D. from NYU in 1959 under the supervision of Marie Jahoda. Another one of his advisors in graduate school was Robert K. Merton. Schooler began working at the National Institute of Mental Health's Socioenvironmental Studies Laboratory in 1959, continued to work there until 2007. For his last twenty-two years there, he was the laboratory's chief. In 2007, he joined the University of Maryland, College Park, where he became a senior scientist in the Department of Sociology, he was a fellow of the American Psychological Society and a member of the Sociological Research Association. He was elected chair of the American Sociological Association's Social Psychology Section in 2003 and received their Cooley-Mead Award for Distinguished Scholarship in 2016.
Schooler married his wife, Nina, in 1956. They had two sons: Lael. Carmi Schooler died on May 11, 2018, at the age of 84