Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain; the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. There are several spoken regional languages, most notably Basque and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain and who share a Hispanic culture; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin; the Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD.
In turn, the Visigoths established themselves in Spain. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads and the Almoravids in the 11th and 12th centuries. Following the eight century Christian Reconquista against the Moors, the modern Spanish state was formed with the union of the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon, the conquest of the last Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada and the Canary Islands in the late 15th century. In the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered; as Spain expanded its empire in the Americas, religious minorities in Spain such as Jews and Muslims were either converted or expelled and the Catholic church fiercely persecuted heresy during a period known as the Spanish Inquisition. A small number of Spaniards descend from converted Jewish and North Africans, as a result of the 800 years of Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. In parallel, a wave of emigration to the Americas began, with over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrating to the Spanish Americas during the colonial period and the population of the Spanish Empire had risen to 16.8 million by the end of the 18th century In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is around one million; the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is becoming diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population; the prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country, Spain becoming once more a net emigrant country. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago.
In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC settling along the Mediterranean coast. Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age; some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain and who are believed to have developed a separate civilization of Phoenician influence; the seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought in what is now Spain and Portugal; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin, spoken in Hispania, which evolved into the modern languages of the Iberian Peninsula, including Castilian, which became the main lingua franca of Spain, is now known in most countries as Spanish.
Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric in personal union removed themselves to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths, who established in Toulouse supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD and became the dominant power in Iberia for three centuries; the Visigoths were romanized in the eastern Empire and Christians, so their integration withi
San Benito County, California
San Benito County the County of San Benito, is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,269; the county seat is Hollister. San Benito County is included in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. El Camino Real includes one mission in San Juan Bautista. San Benito County was formed from parts of Monterey County in 1874; the county is named after the San Benito Valley. Father Juan Crespí, in his expedition in 1772, named a small river in honor of San Benedicto, the patron saint of the married, it is from the contraction of this name that the county took its name. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,390 square miles, of which 1,389 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Sharing a border with Santa Clara County, San Benito County lies adjacent to the San Francisco Bay Area and is sometimes considered a part of that region.
The county is associated with the Monterey Bay Area through governmental organizations such as the Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments as well as the Pajaro River, which flows from northern San Benito County into the Monterey Bay. However, the United States Census Bureau includes the county in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara MSA and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland CSA, which the Census uses as a statistical definition of the San Francisco Bay Area; the county borders Merced County and Fresno County in the east, which lead onto California's San Joaquin Valley. The county is the location of the Mount Harlan and San Benito American Viticultural Areas; the latter contains the Cienega Valley, Lime Kiln Valley, Paicines AVAs. There are a number of plant communities that occur in San Benito County including grasslands and chaparral. Benitoite, the official gem of the State of California, was discovered in San Benito County; the county is home to the San Benito evening primrose. The plant genus.
Pinnacles National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that San Benito County had a population of 55,269. The racial makeup of San Benito County was 35,181 White, 483 African American, 895 Native American, 1,443 Asian, 94 Pacific Islander, 14,471 from other races, 2,702 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,186 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 53,234 people, 15,885 households, 12,898 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 16,499 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county in 2010 was 38.3% non-Hispanic White, 0.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 56.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.6% were of German, 6.3% Irish and 5.4% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 62.8% spoke English and 35.3% Spanish as their first language.
As of the 2010 United States Census, San Benito County was the only county in the greater San Francisco Bay Area with a Hispanic majority and where a minority race formed the largest race composition. There were 15,885 households out of which 46.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.8% were non-families. 14.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.32 and the average family size was 3.64. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.2% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 102.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,469, the median income for a family was $60,665.
Males had a median income of $44,158 versus $29,524 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,932. About 6.7% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. County government is overseen by a five-member elected Board of Supervisors, who serve four-year terms of office. Other elected county leaders include: Assessor Clerk-Auditor-Recorder District Attorney Sheriff-Coroner Treasurer-Tax Collector-Public AdministratorSan Benito County has the last elected Marshal in California. Shasta and Trinity Counties still have appointed Marshals. In the United States House of Representatives, San Benito County is part of California's 20th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jimmy Panetta. In the California State Legislature, San Benito County is in the 12th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anna Caballero, in the 30th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Robert Rivas. San Benito is a Democratic-leaning county in congressional elections.
The last Republican to win a majority in the county was George H. W. Bush in 1988. San Benito is considered a bellwether county for California in presidential elections.
Fermín de Francisco Lasuén de Arasqueta was a Basque Franciscan missionary to Alta California president of the Franciscan missions there, founder of nine of the twenty-one Spanish missions in California. Although he is sometimes called the "forgotten friar," Fermín Lasuén governed the California Mission system three years longer than his more famous predecessor, Junípero Serra. Lasuén was born at Vitoria in Álava, Spain on July 7, 1736 and joined the Franciscan order as a teenager, entering the Friary of San Francisco shortly before his fifteenth birthday on March 19, 1751. On March 19, 1751, Lasuén was ceremoniously invested with his Franciscan habit. In 1759, Lasuén left the Franciscan Sanctuary of Arantzazu, he set sail from Cádiz with seventeen other friars while still a deacon to volunteer for ministry in the Americas. He arrived in New Spain in 1761 and was sent west to Las Californias in 1768. Following the establishment of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in 1769, he moved north to Alta California in 1773.
He based himself in San Diego and remained there until 1775. Kumeyaay Indian unrest caused his return to San Diego. In late 1776 he went to San Luis Obispo before again returning to San Diego in 1777 when he was made minister there, he was appointed the second Presidente of the missions in California in 1785, following the death of Junípero Serra, transferred to the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo. Lasuén continued the work begun by Serra, establishing 9 more missions, bringing the total to 18, he died at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on July 26, 1803. On his death he was succeeded by Esteban Tápis. Although of a more introspective and brooding temperament than his predecessor Junipero Serra, Lasuén was single-minded and a capable administrator, founding the remaining California missions. Captain Alessandro Malaspina described Lasuén as such: "...a man who in Christian lore and conduct was apostolic, his manner and learning unusual." It is clear from his diaries that Lasuén struggled with loneliness and some depression brought about by the extreme conditions he encountered in San Diego when he was asked to return to restore order after the murder of Fray Jayme.
Lasuén described the ardors of missionary life as such: "A missionary priest has to engage in many duties, many of which only concern him as a means to something else. He is responsible for the temporal welfare of people who are many and varied, he has individuals who are more dependent on him than small children, for there are many needs that arise...and many different things to be done for the different groups that make up the community. He is surrounded by pagans, placed in charge of neophytes who can be trusted but a little..." At age 47, writing to his friend Fray Joseph de Jesus Maria Velez in 1783, Lasuén stated: "I am old and gray and although this is caused by my age, yet the difficult exercise of my position here has brought this about during the five years I am about to celebrate as minister of San Diego. This land is for apostles only and its people call for apostolic men greater than I happen to be, his Christian zeal and sense of "civilizing" purpose led him to great lengths in order to acculturate Native Americans using their language in his pursuit, despite the Spanish king's prohibition in that respect.
News of the mistreatment of Native Americans in the Mission of San Francisco reached governor of California Diego de Borica a Basque, who warned of a lawsuit against Lasuén should he not give up on his practices. Mission Santa Barbara Mission La Purísima Concepción Mission Santa Cruz Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Mission San José Mission San Juan Bautista Mission San Miguel Arcángel Mission San Fernando Rey de España Mission San Luis Rey de Francia He oversaw the expansion of many of the California mission sites and helped many other missions like Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
Mission San Juan Bautista
Mission San Juan Bautista is a Spanish mission in San Juan Bautista, San Benito County, California. Founded on June 24, 1797 by Fermín Lasuén of the Franciscan order, the mission was the fifteenth of the Spanish missions established in present-day California. Named for Saint John the Baptist, the mission is the namesake of the city of San Juan Bautista. Barracks for the soldiers, a nunnery, the Jose Castro House, other buildings were constructed around a large grassy plaza in front of the church and can be seen today in their original form; the Ohlone, the original residents of the valley, were brought to live at the mission and baptized, followed by Yokuts from the Central Valley. Mission San Juan Bautista has served mass daily since 1797, today functions as a parish church of the Diocese of Monterey. Following its creation in 1797, San Juan's population grew quickly. By 1803, there were 1,036 Native Americans living at the mission. Ranching and farming activity had moved apace, with 1,036 cattle, 4,600 sheep, 22 swine, 540 horses and 8 mules counted that year.
At the same time, the harvest of wheat and corn was estimated at 2,018 fanegas, each of about 220 pounds. Father Pedro Estévan Tápis joined Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta, at Mission San Juan Bautista in 1815 to teach singing to the Indians, he employed a system of notation developed in Spain that uses varied colors or textures for polyphonic music solid black, solid red, black outline and red outline. His choir of Native American boys performed for many visitors, earning the San Juan Bautista Mission the nickname "the Mission of Music." Two of his handwritten choir books are preserved at the San Juan Bautista Museum. When Father Tapis died in 1825 he was buried on the mission grounds; the town of San Juan Bautista, which grew up around the mission, expanded during the California Gold Rush and continues to be a thriving community today. The mission is situated adjacent to the San Andreas Fault, has suffered damage from numerous earthquakes, such as those of 1800 and 1906. However, the mission was never destroyed at once.
It was restored in 1884, again in 1949 with funding from the Hearst Foundation. The three-bell campanario, or "bell wall," located by the church entrance, was restored in 2010. An unpaved stretch of the original El Camino Real, just east of the mission, lies on a fault scarp. Although secularized in 1835, the church was reconsecrated by the Roman Catholic Church in 1859, continues to serve as a parish of the Diocese of Monterey; the mission includes a cemetery, with the remains of over 4,000 Native American converts and Europeans buried there. The mission and its grounds were featured prominently in the 1958 Alfred Hitchcock film Vertigo. Associate producer Herbert Coleman's daughter Judy Lanini suggested the mission to Hitchcock as a filming location. A steeple, added sometime after the mission's original construction and secularization, had been demolished following a fire, so Hitchcock added a bell tower using scale models, matte paintings, trick photography at the Paramount studio in Los Angeles.
The tower does not resemble the original steeple. The tower's staircase was assembled inside a studio. Spanish missions in California Rancho San Justo Teatro Campesino USNS Mission San Juan – a Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II. Mission San Juan Bautista – official site Early photographs, land surveys of Mission San Juan Bautista, via Calisphere, California Digital Library Vertigo on IMDb Listing and photographs of church at the Historic American Buildings Survey Listing and photographs of mission at the Historic American Buildings Survey Another view of the Mission Facade, circa 1980s Howser, Huell. "California Missions". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mission San Juan Bautista Mission San Juan Bautista Cemetery at Find a Grave
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Mexican Army is the combined land and air branch and is the largest of the Mexican Armed Forces. It was the first army to use a self-loading rifle, the Mondragón rifle; the Mexican Army has an active duty force of 183,562 with 76,000 men and women of military service age. Mexico has no major foreign nation-state adversaries, it repudiates the use of force to settle disputes and rejects interference by one nation in the affairs of another. Although it has not suffered a major international terrorist incident in recent decades, the Mexican government considers the country a potential target for international terrorism. In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico; the most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan, which comprised populations of the same ethnic origin and were politically linked by an alliance known as the Triple Alliance. They had a center for higher education called the Calmecac in Nahuatl, this was where the children of the Aztec priesthood and nobility receive rigorous religious and military training and conveyed the highest knowledge such as: doctrines, divine songs, the science of interpreting codices, calendar skills, memorization of texts, etc.
In Aztec society, it was compulsory for all young males, nobles as well as commoners, to join part of the armed forces at the age of 15. Recruited by regional and clan groups the conscripts were organized in units of about 8,000 men; these were broken down into 400 strong sub-units. Aztec nobility led their own serfs on campaign. Itzcoatl "Obsidian Serpent", fourth king of Tenochtitlán, organized the army that defeated the Tepanec of Atzcapotzalco, freeing his people from their dominion, his reign began with the rise of. Moctezuma Ilhuicamina "The arrow to the sky" came to extend the domain and the influence of the monarchy of Tenochtitlán, he began to organize trade to the outside regions of the Valley of Mexico. This was the Mexica ruler who organized the alliance with the lordships of Texcoco and Tlacopan to form the Triple Alliance; the Aztec established the Flower Wars as a form of worship. Combat orders were given by kings using drums or blowing into a sea snail shell that gave off a sound like a horn.
Giving out signals using coats of arms was common. For combat outside of cities, they would organize several groups, only one of which would be involved in action, while the others remained on the alert; when attacking enemy cities, they divided their forces into three equal-sized wings, which assaulted different parts of the defences – this enabled the leaders to determine which division of warriors had distinguished themselves the most in combat. During the 18th century the Spanish colonial forces in the greater Mexico region consisted of regular "Peninsular" regiments sent from Spain itself, augmented by locally recruited provincial and urban militia units of infantry and artillery. A few regular infantry and dragoon regiments were recruited within Mexico and permanently stationed there. Mounted units of soldados de cuera patrolled frontier and desert regions. In the early morning of 16 September 1810, the Army of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the independence movement. Hidalgo was followed by his loyal companions, among them Mariano Abasolo, a small army equipped with swords, spears and sticks.
Captain General Ignacio Allende was the military brains of the insurgent army in the first phase of the War of Independence and secured several victories over the Spanish Royal Army. Their troops were about 5,000 strong and were joined by squadrons of the Queen's Regiment where its members in turn contributed infantry battalions and cavalry squadrons to the insurrection cause; the Spaniards saw that it was important to defend the Alhóndiga de Granaditas public granary in Guanajuato, which maintained the flow of water, weapons and ammunition to the Spanish Royal Army. The insurgents proceeded to lay siege to the Alhóndiga; the insurgents suffered heavy casualties until Juan Jose de los Reyes, the Pípila, fitted a slab of rock on his back to protect himself from enemy fire and crawled to the large wooden door of the Alhóndiga with a torch in hand to set it on fire. With this stunt, the insurgents managed to bring down the door and enter the building and overrun it. Hidalgo headed to Valladolid, captured with little opposition.
While the Insurgent Army was, by over 60,000 strong, it was formed of poorly armed men with arrows and tillage tools – it had a few guns, taken from Spanish stocks. In Aculco, the Royal Spanish forces under the command of Felix Maria Calleja, Count of Calderón, Don Manuel de Flon defeated the insurgents, who lost many men as well as the artillery they had obtained at Battle of Monte de las Cruces. On 29 November 1810, Hidalgo entered Guadalajara, the capital of Nueva Galicia, where he organized his government and the Insurgent Army. At Calderon Bridge near the city of Guadalajara Jalisco, insurgents held a hard-fought battle with the roya