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San Juan County, New Mexico

San Juan County is a county in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 130,044, making it the fifth-most populous county in New Mexico, its county seat is Aztec. The county was created in 1887. San Juan County is part of NM Metropolitan Statistical Area, it includes the New Mexico portion of the Four Corners. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,538 square miles, of which 5,513 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water. Indian reservations comprise 63.4 percent of the county's land area: The Navajo Nation takes up 60.45% and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation another 2.93%. The physical features include three rivers: the San Juan, La Plata rivers. Aztec Ruins National Monument Chaco Culture National Historical Park U. S. Route 64 U. S. Route 491 U. S. Route 550 New Mexico State Road 371 New Mexico State Road 516 New Mexico State Road 597 As of the census of 2000, there were 113,801 people, 37,711 households, 28,924 families living in the county.

The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 43,221 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 52.83% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 36.88% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.77% from other races, 2.78% from two or more races. 14.99 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 37,712 households, out of which 42.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 14.70% had a female head of household with no husband present, 23.30% were non-families. 19.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.43. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.60% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 20.20% from 45 to 64, 9.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.

For every 100 females there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,762, the median income for a family was $37,382. Males had a median income of $35,066 versus $21,299 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,282. About 18.00% of families and 21.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.60% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 130,044 people, 44,404 households, 32,457 families living in the county; the population density was 23.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 49,341 housing units at an average density of 8.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 51.6% white, 36.6% American Indian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 7.3% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 19.1% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 44,404 households, 40.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.9% were non-families, 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals.

The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.38. The median age was 33.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,189 and the median income for a family was $53,540. Males had a median income of $44,984 versus $30,245 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,725. About 15.9% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.0% of those under age 18 and 19.1% of those age 65 or over. Aztec Bloomfield Farmington Fruitland Riverside Bisti/De-Na-Zin Wilderness National Register of Historic Places listings in San Juan County, New Mexico

Arab Gas Pipeline

The Arab Gas Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in the Middle East. It originates near Arish in the Sinai Peninsula and was built to export Egyptian natural gas to Jordan and Lebanon, with branch underwater and overland pipelines to and from Israel, it has a total length of 1,200 kilometres, constructed at a cost of US$1.2 billion. The pipeline has been used intermittently since its inauguration. Egyptian gas exports were reduced in 2011 – due to sabotage, followed by natural gas shortages in Egypt which forced it to discontinue gas exports by the mid 2010s. Sections of the pipeline continued to operate in Jordan to facilitate domestic transport of gas; the pipeline was reversed to flow gas from Jordan to Egypt from 2015 to 2018. The recovery in Egyptian gas production has enabled gas to flow to Jordan through the link from 2018. In 2020 the pipeline began distributing gas from Israel inside Jordan, while the underwater branch to Israel was reversed to allow gas from Israel to flow to Egypt; the main section of the pipeline through Egypt and Jordan is 36 inches in diameter, with compressor stations located every 200 km – providing for a maximum annual gas discharge of 10.3 billion cubic meters.

The pipeline's capacity could be increased by 50% by doubling the number of compressor stations. The first section of pipeline runs from Arish in Egypt to Aqaba in Jordan, it has three segments. The first 250 kilometres long overland, it consists of a compressor station in Arish and a metering station in Taba. The second segment is a 15 kilometres long subsea segment from Taba to Aqaba; the third segment, which includes a metering station, is a 1 kilometre long onshore connection to the Aqaba Thermal Power Station. The $220 million Arish–Aqaba section was completed in July 2003; the diameter of the pipeline is 36 inches and has a capacity of 10.3 billion cubic metres of natural gas per year. The Egyptian consortium that developed this section included EGAS, ENPPI, PETROGET and the Egyptian Natural Gas Company; the second section extended the pipeline in Jordan from Aqaba through Amman to El Rehab. The length of this section is 390 kilometres and it cost $300 million; the second section was commissioned in 2005.

As of 2018, a 65 km, 36 inches pipeline is under construction from the Jordan River near kibbutz Neve Ur on the Israel-Jordan border that will connect to the Arab Gas Pipeline near Mafraq in northern Jordan. Inside Israel the pipeline extends 23 km from the border with Jordan to near kibbutz Dovrat in the Jezreel Valley where it connects to the existing Israeli domestic natural gas distribution network; the pipeline is expected to be completed in mid-2019 and will supply Jordan with 3 BCM of natural gas per year starting in 2020. A 12 inches gas pipeline from Israel supplies the Jordanian Arab Potash factories near the Dead Sea, however it is located far from the Arab Gas Pipeline and is not connected to it; the third section has a total length of 319 kilometres from Jordan to Syria. A 90 kilometres stretch runs from the Jordan–Syrian border to the Deir Ali power station. From there the pipeline runs through Damascus to the Al Rayan gas compressor station near Homs; this sections includes four launching/receiving stations, 12 valve stations and a fiscal metering station with a capacity of 1.1 billion cubic metres, it supplies Tishreen and Deir Ali power stations.

The section was completed in February 2008, it was built by the Syrian Petroleum Company and Stroytransgaz, a subsidiary of Gazprom. The Homs–Tripoli connection runs from the Al Rayan compressor station to Baniyas in Syria and via 32-kilometre long stretch to Tripoli, Lebanon; the agreement to start supplies was signed on 2 September 2009 and test run started on 8 September 2009. Regular gas supplies started on 19 October 2009 and gas is delivered to the Deir Ammar power station. There is a proposal to extend the branch from Banias to Cyprus. In 2006 Egypt, Jordan, Turkey and Romania reached an agreement to build the pipeline's extension through Syria to the Turkish border. From there, the pipeline would have been connected to the proposed Nabucco Pipeline for the delivery of gas to Europe. Turkey forecasted buying up to 4 billion cubic metres per annum of natural gas from the Arab Gas Pipeline. In 2008 Turkey and Syria signed an agreement to construct a 63 kilometres pipeline between Aleppo and Kilis as a first segment of the Syria-Turkey connection of the Arab Gas Pipeline and Stroytransgaz signed a US$71 million contract for the construction of this section.

However, this contract was annulled at the beginning of re-tendered. This section was awarded to PLYNOSTAV Pardubice Holding, a Czech Contracting Company, who finished the project on May 2011. From Kilis, a 15-kilometre long pipeline with a diameter of 12 inches would connect the pipeline with the Turkish grid thus allowing the Turkish grid to be supplied via the Syrian grid before completing the Homs–Aleppo segment. In September 2004, Jordan and Lebanon agreed to connect the Arab Gas Pipeline with Iraq's gas grid to allow Iraq to export gas to Europe; the Arish–Ashkelon pipeline is a 90-kilometre long submarine gas pipeline with a diameter of 26 inches, connecting the Arab Gas Pipeline with Israel. The physical capacity of the pipeline is 7 billion cubic metres (250 billion cubic fe

X-ray (chess)

In chess, the term X-ray or X-ray attack is sometimes used as a synonym for skewer. It can refer to a tactic where a piece either: indirectly attacks an enemy piece through another piece or pieces, or defends a friendly piece through an enemy piece; the second usage is seen in the position at left, which arises from the Black Knights' Tango opening after 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 Nc6 3. Nf3 e6 4.a3 d6 5. Nc3 g6!? 6.e4 Bg7 7. Be2 0-0 8.0-0 Re8 9. Be3 e5 10.d5 Nd4! Authors Richard Palliser and Georgi Orlov, in their respective books on that opening, both note that Black's rook on e8 "X-rays" White's e-pawn through Black's own pawn on e5. If 11. Nxd4 exd4 12. Bxd4 Nxe4 13. Nxe4 Rxe4; the identical position is reached, except that White has not played a2–a3, in the King's Indian Defense after 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5. Nf3 0-0 6. Be2 e5 7.0-0 Nc6 8. Be3 Re8 9.d5 Nd4! Of the position at right, arising from the Sveshnikov Variation of the Sicilian Defense, Atanas Kolev and Trajko Nedev observe, "On f1 the king is X-rayed by the f8-rook".

They analyze the possible continuation 22...f5 23.exf5 Bxf5 24. Nxf5 Rxf5 25. Qg4 Bg5 26. Kg2? Bxf4 27. Nxf4 Rg5 28. Nxg6+ Kg7 and White resigned in Delchev–Kotanjian, Kusadasi 2006; the position at left arose after 23... Qd8–h4! in Krasenkow–Seirawan, 34th Chess Olympiad, Istanbul 2000. Michael Rohde writes of Seirawan's 23rd move, "Holding things up through an x-ray on the pawn on d4." Black would respond to either 24.e5 or 24.exd5 with 24... Qxd4+. Gerald Abrahams alludes to the X-ray concept, without using that term, when he cites the aphorism, "Put your rook on the line of his queen, no matter how many other pieces intervene." He writes, "That doggerel jingle incorporates some experience". A future world champion played in that manner in Rauzer–Botvinnik, USSR Championship 1933. Two moves before the position at right arose, Botvinnik had played 13... Rfd8, X-raying the white queen through the pawn on d6. Now Bernard Cafferty and Mark Taimanov suggest "15. Qf2 to get away from the'X-ray' attack from the d8 rook".

Instead, the game continued 15. Rac1 e5! 16.b3 d5!!, exploiting the queen's position on the same file as the rook and leading to a win for Botvinnik 13 moves later. The position at left arose from the English Opening in the famous miniature Petrosian–Ree, Wijk aan Zee 1971 after 1.c4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. Nf3 Nc6 4.g3 Bb4 5. Nd5 Nxd5 6.cxd5 e4?? 7.dxc6 exf3 8. Qb3! Author Iakov Neishtadt cites the game as an example of an "X-ray". Black resigned because the white queen's X-ray of his pawn on b7, through Black's bishop on b4, wins a piece after, e.g. 8...a5 9.a3 Bc5 10.cxb7. The above examples all involve a latent attack along a rank. A latent attack along a diagonal has been called an X-ray; the position at right arose in Dorfman–Tseshkovsky, 46th USSR Championship Tbilisi 1978. Cafferty and Taimanov write, "Black can use the'X-ray' attack of his queen on the enemy king to break up the white bastions". Black exploited the X-ray along the b8–h2 diagonal and won after 48...g5! 49.hxg5 h4! with a decisive attack.

The game concluded 50.g6 Kxg6 51. Qa6+ Kg5 52.gxh4+ Kxf4 53. Qc4+ Ke3+ 54. Kh3 Kf2+ 55. Qxb3 Nxg5+! and White resigned in light of 56.hxg5 Qh8#. The third usage is given by the American master and writer Bruce Pandolfini, who states that one usage of "X-Ray" is "a skewer defense along a rank, file, or diagonal" that "protects a friendly man through an enemy man in the middle along the same line of power". Jeremy Silman uses the term in the same way, illustrating "X-ray" with the two diagrams at left and right. In the diagram at left, White wins with the X-ray 1. Qxd8+! Followed by 1... Rxd8 2. Rxd8+ Qxd8 3. Rxd8# or 1... Qxd8 2. Rxd5 Qf8 3. Rd8 and wins. In the diagram at right, White wins a pawn with 1. Nxb7!, when White's bishop on f3 defends the white knight on b7 through Black's bishop on d5. Silman states that the X-ray "takes advantage of pieces that appear to be adequately defended but aren't". Raymond Keene uses the term in this way in analyzing Fischer–Bisguier, New York 1957. Discussing a possible variation that could have arisen in that game, Keene writes that 28.

Qxg5 "defends the mate—an'X-ray motif', as Fischer once described it". In Euwe–Loman, Rotterdam 1923, White forced mate with 17. Qh8+! Bxh8 18. Rxh8#. Neishtadt writes of 17. Qh8+, "The X-ray! The bishop at b2 attacks the square h8'through' the enemy bishop." Chess tactics