Strait of Georgia
The Strait of Georgia or the Georgia Strait is an arm of the Pacific Ocean between Vancouver Island and the extreme southwestern mainland coast of British Columbia and the extreme northwestern mainland coast of Washington, United States. It is 240 kilometres long and varies in width from 20 to 58 kilometres. Along with the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, it is a constituent part of the Salish Sea. Archipelagos and narrow channels mark each end of the Strait of Georgia, the Gulf Islands and San Juan Islands in the south, the Discovery Islands in the north; the main channels to the south are Boundary Pass, Haro Strait and Rosario Strait, which connect the Strait of Georgia to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. In the north, Discovery Passage is the main channel connecting the Strait of Georgia to Johnstone Strait; the strait is a major navigation channel on the west coast of North America, owing to the presence of the port of Vancouver, due to its role as the southern entrance to the intracoastal route known as the Inside Passage.
The United States Geological Survey defines the southern boundary of the Strait of Georgia as a line running from East Point on Saturna Island to Patos Island, Sucia Island, Matia Island to Point Migley on Lummi Island. This line touches the northern edges of Rosario Strait, which leads south to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Boundary Pass, which leads south to Haro Strait and the Strait of Juan de Fuca; the mean depth of the Strait of Georgia is 157 metres, with a maximum depth of 448 metres. Its surface area is 6,800 square kilometres; the Fraser River accounts for 80 percent of the fresh water entering the strait. Water circulates in the strait in a general counterclockwise direction; the term "Gulf of Georgia" includes waters other than the Georgia Strait proper, such as the inter-insular straits and channels of the Gulf Islands, may refer to communities on the shore of southern Vancouver Island. As defined by George Vancouver in 1792, the Gulf of Georgia included all the inland waters beyond the eastern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, including Puget Sound, Bellingham Bay, the waters around the San Juan Islands, as well as the Strait of Georgia.
Several major islands are in the largest being Quadra Island and Texada Island. First Nations communities have surrounded the Strait of Georgia for thousands of years; the first European exploration of the area was undertaken by Captain Jose Maria Narvaez and Pilot Juan Carrasco of Spain in 1791. At this time Francisco de Eliza gave the strait the name "Gran Canal de Nuestra Señora del Rosario la Marinera." In 1792, it was renamed for King George III as the "Gulf of Georgia" by George Vancouver of Great Britain, during his extensive expedition along the west coast of North America. Vancouver designated the mainland in this region as New Georgia, areas farther north as New Hanover and New Bremen; the June 23, 1946 Vancouver Island earthquake shocked the Strait of Georgia region, causing the bottom of Deep Bay to sink between 3 and 26 m. The two busiest routes of the BC Ferries system cross the strait, between Tsawwassen and Swartz Bay and between Horseshoe Bay and Nanaimo; the Strait of Georgia is known as a premier scuba whale watching location.
In 1967, the Georgia Strait inspired the name of Vancouver's alternative newspaper, The Georgia Straight, which has published continuously since. Towns and cities on the strait include Campbell River, Comox, Qualicum Beach, Parksville and Nanaimo on the western shore, as well as Powell River, Sechelt and Greater Vancouver on the east. Across the border in the United States, Bellingham and other communities lie on the eastern shore. Other settlements on Vancouver Island and the mainland are separated from Georgia Strait itself by islands and lesser straits but are spoken of as being in the Strait of Georgia region. A controversial idea has existed since 1872 of a bridge connecting Vancouver Island to the British Columbia mainland; the first idea was to cross Seymour Narrows at Menzies Bay with a rail bridge for the then-proposed Canadian Pacific Railway to link Victoria, via Bute Inlet and the Yellowhead Pass, with the rest of Canada. Proposals have focussed on bridging the Strait of Georgia itself, much wider than Seymour Narrows.
A proposed modern road bridge connecting Greater Vancouver to Vancouver Island in the manner of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel, has been discussed for decades since the commencement of service by BC Ferries. Some crossing design suggestions include a floating submerged tunnel to allow ship traffic to move freely; the hurricane-force windstorms of Typhoon Freda in 1962 and of December 2006 call into question the safety of such a project. Proponents of the bridge argue that a reliable link to Vancouver Island from mainland British Columbia will increase tourism and growth on Vancouver Island. Opponents argue that construction of a bridge will result in further urbanization of the island and that the area's environment will be negatively affected by construction and the increase in tourism. Other potential problems are the width and depth of the strait and the soft consistency of the strait floor, as well as high seismic activity in the Vancouver Island region, the fact that the strait is used as a navigation channel.
The strait is far deeper than any bridged body of water in the world. Former B. C. cabinet minister Dr. Patrick McGeer, a research neuroscientist and a science advocate, has advanced the proposal in recent decades
Rosario Strait is a strait in northern Washington state, separating San Juan County and Skagit and Whatcom Counties. It extends from the Strait of Juan de Fuca about 23 kilometres north to the Strait of Georgia; the USGS defines its southern boundary as a line extending from Point Colville on Lopez Island to Rosario Head on Fidalgo Island, its northern boundary as a line from Point Migley on Lummi Island to the east tip of Puffin Island and to Point Thompson on Orcas Island. Rosario Strait runs north-south between Lopez, Decatur and Orcas Islands on the west, Fidalgo, Cypress and Lummi Islands on the east. Rosario Strait is a major shipping channel. More than 500 oil tankers pass through the strait each year, to and from the Cherry Point Refinery and refineries near Anacortes; the strait is in constant use by vessels bound for Cherry Point, Bellingham and the San Juan Islands. Vessels bound for British Columbia or Alaska frequently use it in preference to the passages farther west, when greater advantage can be taken of the tidal currents.
In 1790 the Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper and Juan Carrasco, sailing aboard the Princesa Real, gave the name Boca de Fidalgo, in honor of Salvador Fidalgo, to Rosario Strait, thought to be a bay. In 1791 José María Narváez renamed it Canal de Fidalgo after determining it was a strait. In 1791 Francisco de Eliza gave the name Gran Canal de Nuestra Señora del Rosario la Marinera to what it now the Strait of Georgia. In 1792, George Vancouver explored the region and gave the Strait of Georgia its present name after King George III, he did not provide a name for Rosario Strait. In 1847 Charles Wilkes, during the Wilkes Expedition, gave Rosario Strait the name Ringgold Channel after one of his officers. In 1847 the British Captain Henry Kellett reorganized the British Admiralty charts, in the process removing the "pro-American" names given by Wilkes and affirming pro-British names and Spanish names, he affirmed the name Gulf of Georgia given by George Vancouver and used a shortened version of Eliza's name for the Strait of Georgia to replace both Wilkes' and Eliza's original names for Rosario Strait.
Following the Oregon Treaty it was assumed by the British to be the route of the deepest channel to the open sea from the 49th Parallel boundary's terminus in the middle of the Georgia Strait, is in fact the shortest shipping route. Haro Strait, west of the San Juan Islands, wider though somewhat longer, was the American preference for the boundary and its eventual location following the arbitration of the dispute over the San Juan Islands, known as the Pig War
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Island County, Washington
Island County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 78,506, its county seat is Coupeville. The county's name reflects the fact that it is composed of islands, it contains two large islands and Camano, seven smaller islands. Island County was created out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory, is the eighth-oldest county in Washington, it encompassed what are now Snohomish, Skagit and San Juan Counties. Island County comprises the Oak Harbor, WA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 517 square miles, of which 208 square miles is land and 309 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in Washington by area. Puget Sound Strait of Juan de Fuca Whidbey Island Camano Island Saratoga Passage Snohomish County – east Kitsap County – southwest Jefferson County – west San Juan County – northwest Skagit County – north Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve As of the census of 2000, there were 71,558 people, 27,784 households, 20,254 families residing in the county.
The population density was 343 people per square mile. There were 32,378 housing units at an average density of 155 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.17% White, 2.36% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 4.19% Asian, 0.44% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races, 3.44% from two or more races. 3.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.2% were of German, 11.2% English, 9.9% Irish, 7.2% United States or American and 6.0% Norwegian ancestry. 92.5 % spoke 2.5 % Spanish and 2.2 % Tagalog as their first language. There were 27,784 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 21.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,513, the median income for a family was $51,363. Males had a median income of $35,331 versus $25,612 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,472. About 5.10% of families and 7.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.80% of those under age 18 and 4.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 78,506 people, 32,746 households, 22,156 families residing in the county; the population density was 376.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 40,234 housing units at an average density of 193.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.1% white, 4.4% Asian, 2.2% black or African American, 0.8% American Indian, 0.5% Pacific islander, 1.5% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.5% of the population.
The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 32,746 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families, 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age was 43.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $57,190 and the median income for a family was $68,106. Males had a median income of $46,801 versus $35,189 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,079. About 5.7% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.1% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. The primary islands of Island County, Whidbey Island and Camano Island are served by a total of 3 Washington State Routes, those being SR 20 and SR 525, on Whidbey Island, SR 532 on Camano Island. SR 20 enters Island County via the Port Townsend-Coupeville ferry route from the West, departs via the Deception Pass Bridge in the North.
SR 525 enters Island County from the East/South via the Mukilteo-Clinton ferry and terminates at an intersection with SR 20, South of Coupeville. SR 532 begins on Camano Island, just a few hundred yards inside Island County at an intersection with Sunrise Boulevard and departs Island County to the East via the Mark Clark Bridge; these islands are served by a fare-free/pre-paid bus service called Island Transit. Island County is divided in many ways between its south. While the north is conservative – George W. Bush received 65 percent of the 2004 vote and carried all precincts – all southern and central precincts voted for John Kerry; the south-central area voted over 60 percent for Kerry. Camano Island has a Republican lean and went for Bush with 52 percent of the vote in 2004, but is much less polarized than the rest of the county. Langley Oak Harbor Coupeville Camano Clinton Freeland Whidbey Island Station listed as Ault Field Juniper Beach, a wedding ceremony locale in past years, has given its name to the Juniper Beach Water Di
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com