Hayward is a city located in Alameda County, California in the East Bay subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area. With a 2014 population of 149,392, Hayward is the sixth largest city in the Bay Area and the third largest in Alameda County. Hayward was ranked as the 37th most populous municipality in California, it is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont Metropolitan Statistical Area by the US Census. It is located between Castro Valley and Union City, lies at the eastern terminus of the San Mateo–Hayward Bridge; the city was devastated early in its history by the 1868 Hayward earthquake. From the early 20th century until the beginning of the 1980s, Hayward's economy was dominated by its now defunct food canning and salt production industries. Human habitation of the greater East Bay, including Hayward, dates from at least 4000 BC; the most recent pre-European inhabitants of the Hayward area were the Native American Ohlone people. In the 19th century, the land, now Hayward became part of Rancho San Lorenzo, a Spanish land grant to Guillermo Castro, in 1841.
The site of his home was on the former El Camino Viejo, or Castro Street between C and D Streets, but the structure was damaged in the 1868 Hayward earthquake, with the Hayward Fault running directly under its location. Most of the city's structures were destroyed in the earthquake, the last major earthquake on the fault. In 1930, that site was chosen for the construction of the City Hall, which served the city until 1969. William Dutton Hayward arrived during the gold rush and "squatted" as he began to build a house next to the creek at the site of the old Polamares School. Guillermo Castro's Vaqueros told Hayward to get off of Castro's property. William did leave, but asked to buy a piece of his land. Castro sold him the area of what was east of Castro Street, now Mission Blvd and north side of A Street. William Hayward built a grand hotel on the property, he and his wife ran the hotel, which burned to the ground around 1916. Hayward was known as "Hayward's" as "Haywood" as "Haywards", as "Hayward".
There is some disagreement as to. Most historians believe it was named for William Dutton Hayward, who opened a hotel there in 1852; the U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System states the city was named after Alvinza Hayward, a millionaire from the California Gold Rush. Regardless of which Hayward the area was named for, the name was changed to "Haywood" when the post office was first established in 1860. Castro emigrated to Chile with most of his family in 1864, his name survives in the community of Castro Valley, located in the valley next to Hayward, which Castro used to pasture his cattle. The ranch was sold to various locals, William Hayward among them. William Hayward's fortunes took a turn for the grander when he constructed a resort hotel, which grew to a hundred rooms; the surrounding area came to be called "Hayward's" after the hotel. William Hayward became the road commissioner for Alameda County, he used his authority to influence the construction of roads in his own favor.
He was an Alameda County supervisor. In 1876, a town was chartered by the State of California under the name of "Haywards"; the name of the post office was able to change because of the loss of the apostrophe before the "s". This change occurred in 1880, it remained "Haywards" until 1910 when the "s" was dropped. William Hayward died in 1891. Hayward grew throughout the late 19th century, with an economy based on agriculture and tourism. Important crops were tomatoes, peaches and apricots. Hunt Brothers Cannery opened in 1895. Chicken and pigeon raising played important roles in the economy. A rail line between Oakland and San Jose, the South Pacific Coast Railroad, was established, but was destroyed in the 1868 earthquake; the Hayward shore of the Bay was developed into extensive salt evaporation ponds, was one of the most productive areas in the world, with Leslie Salt one of the largest companies. The first San Mateo–Hayward Bridge opened in 1929, connecting the city to the San Francisco Peninsula.
During the 1930s, the Harry Rowell Rodeo Ranch, now within the bounds of Castro Valley, drew rodeo cowboys from across the continent, western movie actors such as Slim Pickens and others from Hollywood. Prior to World War II, Hayward had a high concentration of Japanese Americans, who were subject to the Japanese-American internment during the war; the war brought an economic and population boom to the area, as factories opened to manufacture war material. Many of the workers stayed after the end of the war. Two suburban tract housing pioneers, Oliver Rousseau and David D. Bohannon, were prominent builders of postwar housing in the area; the Hayward Area Recreation and Park District was formed in 1944. California State University, Hayward opened in the Hayward Hills in 1957. Southland Mall was dedicated in 1964; the second San Mateo–Hayward Bridge opened in 1967. The City Center Building opened in 1969 and acted as the new city hall until 1989 when the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake damaged the building and forced the city government to move out.
The building was closed with the new Hayward City Hall opening the same year. BART began operating in the Bay Area with stations in downtown Hayward and south Hayward; the Hunt Brothers Cannery closed in 1981. The Russell City Energy Center began operating in 2013 at the Hayward shoreline; the city's downtown area was slated for redevelopment in 2012 and 2013, with landscaping, new businesses opening up, a
Alameda County, California
Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, making it the 7th-most populous county in the state; the county seat is Oakland. Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Spanish word alameda means either, "...a grove of poplars...or a tree lined street" a name used to describe the Arroyo de la Alameda. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early Spanish explorers of a road lined with trees. Although a strict translation to English might be "Poplar Grove Creek", the name of the principal stream that flows through the county is now "Alameda Creek." Alameda County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county was formed on March 25, 1853, from a large portion of Contra Costa County and a smaller portion of Santa Clara County; the county seat at the time of the county's formation was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City.
In 1856, it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault. The county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, the county seat since 1873. Much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the historical progression from Native American tribal lands to Spanish Mexican ranches to farms and orchards to multiple city centers and suburbs, is shared with the adjacent and associated Contra Costa County. The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton; the fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, live bands. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water.
The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west, the City and County of San Francisco, has a small land border with the city of Alameda due to land filling. The crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay. Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Amador Valley continues west to the Pleasanton Ridge; the Hayward Fault, a major branch of the San Andreas Fault to the west, runs through the most populated parts of Alameda County, while the Calaveras Fault runs through the southeastern part of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Alameda County to be the fourth most racially diverse county in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska, Queens County in New York—as well as the most diverse county in California; the 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271.
The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alameda County was 649,122 White, 190,451 African American, 9,799 Native American, 394,560 Asian, 12,802 Pacific Islander, 162,540 from other races, 90,997 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons: 16.4% Mexican, 0.8% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban, 5.1% Other Hispanic. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,443,741 people, 523,366 households, out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living within them, 47.0% married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $55,946, the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had a median income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,680. About 7.7% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational group was the Catholics; the largest religious bodies were Judaism. The Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Alameda. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments such as the Government of Alameda County, while municipalities such as the city of Oakland and the city of Berkeley provide additional non-essential services.
The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforceme
San Joaquin River
The San Joaquin River is the longest river of Central California in the United States. The 366-mile long river starts in the high Sierra Nevada, flows through the rich agricultural region of the northern San Joaquin Valley before reaching Suisun Bay, San Francisco Bay, the Pacific Ocean. An important source of irrigation water as well as a wildlife corridor, the San Joaquin is among the most dammed and diverted of California's rivers. People have inhabited the San Joaquin Valley for more than 8,000 years, it was long one of the major population centers of pre-Columbian California. Starting in the late 18th century, successive waves of explorers settlers Spanish and American, emigrated to the San Joaquin basin, first exploiting driving out the indigenous tribes; the newcomers appropriated the rich natural and hydrologic resources of the watershed for use in farms and cities, but found themselves plagued by flood and drought. Because of the uniform topography of the San Joaquin Valley, floods once transformed much of the lower river into a huge inland sea.
In the 20th century, many levees and dams were built on the San Joaquin and all of its major tributaries. These engineering works changed the fluctuating nature of the river forever, cut off the Tulare Basin from the rest of the San Joaquin watershed. Once habitat for hundreds of thousands of spawning salmon and millions of migratory birds, today the river is subject to tremendous water-supply and regulation works by various federal agencies, which have reduced the flow of the river since the 20th century; the river was called many different names. The present name of the river dates to 1805–1808, when Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga was surveying east from Mission San José in order to find possible sites for a mission. Moraga named a tributary of the river for Saint Joachim, husband of Saint Anne and father of Mary, the mother of Jesus; the name Moraga chose was applied to the entire river. In 1827, Jedediah Smith wrote in his journal that an unknown group of Native Americans called the river the Peticutry, a name, listed as an official variant in the U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System. In the Mono language, the river is called typici h huu', which means "important or great river."An earlier name for the lower section of the San Joaquin was Rio de San Francisco, the name Father Juan Crespí gave to the river he could see entering the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from the south. A member of the Pedro Fages party in 1772, Crespi's vantage point was the hilltops behind modern Antioch. Another early name was Rio San Juan Bautista, the origin of, unknown; the river's source is located in the Ansel Adams Wilderness, in the south-central Sierra Nevada at the confluence of two major affluents: the Middle Fork, which rises from Thousand Island Lake at 10,000 ft above sea level, the smaller North Fork, which starts 1.8 mi southeast of Mount Lyell. The Middle Fork is considered part of the main stem; the South Fork, which begins at Martha Lake in Kings Canyon National Park and flows through Florence Lake, joins a short distance downstream.
From the mountainous alpine headwaters, the San Joaquin flows south into the foothills of the Sierra, passing through four hydroelectric dams. It emerges from the foothills at what was once the town of Millerton, the location of Friant Dam since 1942, which forms Millerton Lake. Below Friant Dam, the San Joaquin flows west-southwest out into the San Joaquin Valley – the southern part of the Great Central Valley – passing north of Fresno. With most of its water diverted into aqueducts, the river runs dry in a 150-mile section; this lack of riverwater begins in the 60 mi between Friant Dam and Mendota, where it is only replenished by the Delta-Mendota Canal and the Fresno Slough, when the Kings River is flooding. From Mendota, the San Joaquin swings northwest, passing through many different channels, some natural and some man-made. Northeast of Dos Palos, it is only joined by the Fresno and Chowchilla Rivers when they reach flood stage. Fifty miles downstream, the Merced River empties into an otherwise dry San Joaquin.
The majority of the river flows through quiet agricultural bottom lands, as a result its meandering course manages to avoid most of the urban areas and cities in the San Joaquin Valley. About 11 mi west of Modesto, the San Joaquin meets the Tuolumne. Near Vernalis, it is joined by the Stanislaus River; the river passes between Manteca and Tracy, where a pair of distributaries – the Old River and Middle River – split off from the main stem just above the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, a huge inverted river delta formed by sediment deposits of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. About 40 mi from the mouth, the river draws abreast to the western flank of Stockton, one of the basin's largest cities. From here to the mouth, the river is dredged as part of a navigation project, the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel. Past the head of tide, amid the many islands of the delta, the San Joaquin is joined by two more tributaries: the Calaveras River and the larger Mokelumne; the river grows to 5,000 ft wide before ending at its confluence with the Sacramento River, in Antioch, forming the head of Suisun Bay.
The combined waters from the two rivers flow west through the Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay into the Pacific. The natural annual discharge of the San Joaquin before agricultural development is believed to ha
The Petaluma River is a river in the California counties of Sonoma and Marin that becomes a tidal slough for the majority of its length. The headwaters are in the area southwest of Cotati; the flow is southward through Petaluma's old town, where the waterway becomes navigable, flows another 10 mi through tidal marshes before emptying into the northwest corner of San Pablo Bay. The word Petaluma may derive from the Miwok words pe’ta, luma, back; the Miwok people lived in Sonoma County for more than 2500 years. Petaluma was the name of a village on a low hill east of Petaluma creek and north east of the present day town of Petaluma; the first recorded exploration of the Petaluma River was by Captain Fernando Quiros in October, 1776. While other members of his Spanish expedition collected adobe and timber for the new Presidio of San Francisco and for the Mission San Francisco de Asís, Quiros and his sailors tried unsuccessfully to sail from San Pablo Bay to Bodega Bay. Located in southern Sonoma County, a portion of northeastern Marin, the Petaluma River Watershed drains 146 square miles.
The watershed is 19 miles long and 13 miles wide with the City of Petaluma near its center. At 2,295 feet, Sonoma Mountain is the highest point in the watershed, its western slopes drain to the Petaluma River by way of tributaries such as Lichau Creek, Lynch Creek, Washington Creek, Adobe Creek; the lower 12 miles of the Petaluma River flow through the Petaluma Marsh, the largest remaining salt marsh in San Pablo Bay. The marsh covers 5,000 acres and is surrounded by 7,000 acres of reclaimed wetlands. In the marshes west of Lakeville, the river is joined by San Antonio Creek, at which point it becomes the boundary between Marin County and Sonoma County; the river flows under State Route 37 at Green Point and enters northwest San Pablo Bay just north of Petaluma Point. While the river's source lies over 300 ft above sea level, it descends to 50 ft within about 0.4 mi. The river is tidal 11 mi from its mouth, indicating its slight gradient through the marshes below Petaluma; the United States Army Corps of Engineers dredges this section to keep it navigable by gravel barges and pleasure craft.
The Petaluma River Watershed hosts several federally endangered animals including the salt marsh harvest mouse and California clapper rail. Endangered flora include soft bird’s-beak, Baker’s stickyseed, Burke’s goldfields, showy Indian clover, North American River Otter, Sebastopol meadowfoam. Steelhead that spawn and rear in the Petaluma River watershed are wild, not hatchery, stock. Chinook salmon are seen in the main stem of the Petaluma River and The United Anglers of Casa Grande High School have seen chinook at the turning basin, near the Lynch Creek confluence; the high school students constructed a salmonid hatchery in 1993 and in 2002 74 Chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Adobe Creek tributary. The marshes provide an important wildlife fish hatchery. However, since the onset of intensive immigration in the mid-1850s, the water quality has diminished due to overgrazing and other agricultural uses. Pollutants present in the river include nitrates, petroleum hydrocarbons and sediment.
Urban runoff from the City of Petaluma, adds heavy metals and hydrocarbons to the river. Starting about 1990, material steps were taken to mitigate the pollution; because the Petaluma River is well-protected, most of the pollution comes from nearby storm drains. It is up to the people of Petaluma to keep the river clean; because most of the length of the waterway is tidal and urban/suburban, there is a significant collection of tidally deposited debris along the banks. Despite the poor aesthetics including turbidity, the water quality is not poor, it has been alleged that the greatest threat to the Petaluma River is the planned Dutra asphalt plant. The reported concerns involve the "loud noises it will create" that will scare away the birds and "throw off the entire ecosystem"; the following bridges span the Petaluma River moving upstream from San Pablo Bay through Petaluma: Northwestern Pacific Railroad, California State Route 37, NWP, U. S. 101, D Street, Washington Street, Lakeville Street, NWP, Payran Street, NWP, Oak Drive, Corona Road, Petaluma Boulevard North, Rainsville Road.
The longest highway span, the 4-lane Route 37 bridge, is 2,183 ft long and was built in 1958. The oldest public bridge, built in 1925, is a 114 ft concrete triple span carrying two lanes of Petaluma Boulevard North; the Petaluma Blvd South Interchange project will construct a new interchange at Petaluma Blvd South, frontage roads and replace the Petaluma River bridge. The existing Petaluma River bridge is an 866 feet long, twin reinforced concrete box girder bridge, built in 1955; the existing bridge has two lanes of traffic in each direction and no shoulders The new bridge will be 907 feet long with three lanes of traffic in each direction and standard shoulders. This will be one of the longest precast, post-tensioned spliced concrete girder bridges in the U. S. Constructing the new bridge over the Petaluma River, a navigation channel, will be challenging; the bridge will be constructed in three stages and require erection of 99 girders up to 130 feet in length and weighing up to 60 tons each.
The project will replace the existi
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun