The rainbow trout is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is an anadromous form of the coastal rainbow trout or Columbia River redband trout that returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are called steelhead. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies based on subspecies and habitat. Adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most vivid in breeding males. Wild-caught and hatchery-reared forms of this species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries and every continent except Antarctica. Introductions to locations outside their native range in the United States, Southern Europe, New Zealand and South America have damaged native fish species.
Introduced populations may affect native species by preying on them, out-competing them, transmitting contagious diseases, or hybridizing with related species and subspecies, thus reducing genetic purity. The rainbow trout is included in the list of the top 100 globally invasive species. Nonetheless, other introductions into waters devoid of any fish species or with depleted stocks of native fish have created sport fisheries such as the Great Lakes and Wyoming's Firehole River; some local populations of specific subspecies, or in the case of steelhead, distinct population segments, are listed as either threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The steelhead is the official state fish of Washington; the scientific name of the rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. The species was named by German naturalist and taxonomist Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792 based on type specimens from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Walbaum's original species name, was derived from the local Kamchatkan name used for the fish, mykizha.
The name of the genus is from the Greek onkos and rynchos, in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season. Sir John Richardson, a Scottish naturalist, named a specimen of this species Salmo gairdneri in 1836 to honor Meredith Gairdner, a Hudson's Bay Company surgeon at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River who provided Richardson with specimens. In 1855, William P. Gibbons, the curator of Geology and Mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences, found a population and named it Salmo iridia corrected to Salmo irideus; these names faded once it was determined that Walbaum's description of type specimens was conspecific and therefore had precedence. In 1989, morphological and genetic studies indicated that trout of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos – brown trout or Atlantic salmon of the Atlantic basin. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow and other Pacific basin trout into the genus Oncorhynchus. Walbaum's name had precedence, so the species name Oncorhynchus mykiss became the scientific name of the rainbow trout.
The previous species names irideus and gairdneri were adopted as subspecies names for the coastal rainbow and Columbia River redband trout, respectively. Anadromous forms of the coastal rainbow trout or redband trout are known as steelhead. Subspecies of Oncorhynchus mykiss are listed below as described by fisheries biologist Robert J. Behnke. Resident freshwater rainbow trout adults average between 1 and 5 lb in riverine environments, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies between regions and subspecies. Adult freshwater forms are blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most pronounced in breeding males; the caudal fin is only mildly forked. Lake-dwelling and anadromous forms are more silvery in color with the reddish stripe completely gone. Juvenile rainbow trout display parr marks typical of most salmonid juveniles. In some redband and golden trout forms parr marks are retained into adulthood.
Some coastal rainbow trout and Columbia River redband trout populations and cutbow hybrids may display reddish or pink throat markings similar to cutthroat trout. In many regions, hatchery-bred trout can be distinguished from native trout via fin clips. Fin clipping the adipose fin is a management tool used to identify hatchery-reared fish. Rainbow trout, including steelhead forms spawn in early to late spring when water temperatures reach at least 42 to 44 °F; the maximum recorded lifespan for a rainbow trout is 11 years. Freshwater resident rainbow trout inhabit and spawn in small to moderately large, well oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms, they are native to the alluvial or freestone streams that are typical tributaries of the Pacific basin, but introduced rainbow trout have established wild, self-sustaining populations in other river types such as bedrock and spring creeks. Lake resident rainbow trout are found in moderately deep, cool lakes with
Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U. S. state of California. The bay is south of the major cities of San Jose; the county-seat city of Santa Cruz is located at the north end of the bay. The city of Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end; the Monterey Bay Area is a local colloquialism sometimes used to describe the whole of the Central Coast communities of Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. The first European to discover Monterey Bay was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo on November 16, 1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition, he named the bay Bahía de los Pinos because of the forest of pine trees first encountered while rounding the peninsula at the southern end of the bay. Cabrillo's name for the bay was lost, but the westernmost point of the peninsula is still known as Point Pinos. On December 10, 1595, Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeño crossed the bay and bestowed the name Bahía de San Pedro in honor of Saint Peter Martyr.
The present name for the bay was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, tasked by the Spanish government to complete a detailed chart of the coast. He anchored in what is now the Monterey harbor on December 16, named it Puerto de Monterrey, in honor of the Conde de Monterrey viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey is an alternate spelling of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain from which the viceroy and his father originated. All other place names in the vicinity containing Monterey were so named because of their proximity to the bay; this includes the Presidio of City of Monterey, County of Monterey and Monterey Canyon. The Monterey Canyon, one of the largest underwater canyons in the world, begins off the coast of Moss Landing, in the center of Monterey Bay, it is 249 miles long, although its shape changes because of currents and sediment being left in the area. The canyon is much like that of a continental slope. Monterey Bay is home to many species of marine mammals, including sea otters, harbor seals, bottlenose dolphins.
Killer whales are found along the coast when Gray whales migrate, as they hunt the whales during their migration north. Many species of fish, mollusks such as abalone and squid and sea turtles live in the bay. Several varieties of kelp grow in the bay, some becoming as tall as trees, forming what is known as a kelp forest. Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Area, Portuguese Ledge State Marine Conservation Area, Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area, Lovers Point State Marine Reserve, Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area and Asilomar State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas in Monterey Bay. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. Clockwise around the bay from north to south. Inland communities are indented: Santa Cruz Live Oak Capitola Soquel Aptos Rio del Mar La Selva Beach Corralitos Freedom Watsonville Pajaro Las Lomas Elkhorn Moss Landing Castroville Salinas Marina Seaside Fort Ord Sand City Del Rey Oaks Monterey New Monterey Pacific Grove Carmel Carmel Valley Carmel Highlands California State University, Monterey Bay Monterey Bay Aquarium Palumbi, Stephen R.
The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival. Island Press. ISBN 978-1610911900. Monterey Bay travel guide from Wikivoyage Live Monterey Bay Web Cam Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary website
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Felton is a census-designated place in Santa Cruz County, United States. The population was 4,057 as of 2010 census and according to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.6 square miles, all of it land. Named for John B. Felton, a former Oakland, California mayor, a judge and a San Francisco Bay Area investor in his day, the town is an historic logging community. Felton served as the lower terminus of the San Lorenzo Valley Logging Flume from Boulder Creek, which began construction in 1874 and when formally opened in October 1875 was augmented by a new rail line to transport logs to the wharf in Santa Cruz. Shortly after the Santa Cruz & Felton Railroad began operation, a second rail line began operation in 1880 from Alameda and San Jose, California. A new depot was constructed at "New Felton" using salvaged materials from a dismantled portion of the San Lorenzo Valley Logging Flume from Boulder Creek; the railroads and forest in this area provided a majority of the repair materials for the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
The standard gauge railroad line came into Felton by 1909. In 1927, the Felton community of Lompico, was established. In 1963, the steam-powered Roaring Camp Railroad began tourist operations on the Big Trees Ranch out of the Old Felton Depot; the company constructed a replica logging camp and another depot further down the property, in 1985, took over operations on the old SPC/Southern Pacific standard gauge line to Santa Cruz. Roaring Camp is a re-creation of an 1880s logging camp and home to the original South Pacific Coast Felton depot and freight shed, as well as two unique railroads — the Roaring Camp and Big Trees Narrow Gauge Railroad, a steam-powered line up Bear Mountain, the Santa Cruz, Big Trees and Pacific Railway. Felton is home to the Felton Covered Bridge, an 80-foot-long covered bridge over the San Lorenzo River built in 1892 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; the Trout Farm Inn was located in Felton. It burned down on June 5, 2016; the 2010 United States Census reported that Felton had a population of 4,057.
The population density was 891.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Felton was 3,691 White, 25 African American, 29 Native American, 69 Asian, 11 Pacific Islander, 60 from other races, 172 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 283 persons; the Census reported that 99.4% of the population lived in households and 0.6% lived in non-institutionalized group quarters. There were 1,700 households, out of which 450 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 795 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 124 had a female householder with no husband present, 69 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 154 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 27 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 474 households were made up of individuals and 130 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37. There were 988 families; the population was spread out with 738 people under the age of 18, 300 people aged 18 to 24, 1,048 people aged 25 to 44, 1,560 people aged 45 to 64, 411 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males. There were 1,895 housing units at an average density of 416.3 per square mile, of which 69.5% were owner-occupied and 30.5% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%. 72.8% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 26.6% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1051 people and 517 households in the CDP; the population density was 1,133.0 people per square mile. There were 173 housing units at an average density of 189.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.58% White, 0.67% African American, 0.57% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.33% from other races, 3.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.14% of the population. There were 393 households out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families.
25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.06. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $48,102, the median income for a family was $55,625. Males had a median income of $35,833 versus $26,346 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,488. About 8.3% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. In the California State Legislature, Felton is in the 17th Senate District, represented by Democrat Bill Monning, in the 29th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Mark Stone.
In the United States House of Representatives, Felton is in California's 18th congressional district, represented by Democrat Anna Esh
Castle Rock State Park (California)
Castle Rock State Park is a 5,242-acre state park of California, USA, located along the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains and entirely in Santa Cruz County, with parts extending into Santa Clara County and San Mateo County. It embraces coast redwood, Douglas fir, madrone forest, most of, left in its wild, natural state. Steep canyons are sprinkled with unusual rock formations; the forest here is mossy, crisscrossed by 32 miles of hiking trails. These trails are part of an more extensive trail system that links the Santa Clara and San Lorenzo valleys with Castle Rock State Park, Big Basin Redwoods State Park, the Pacific Coast. Due to its overnight parking lot, Castle Rock is a popular starting point for the Skyline-to-the-Sea Trail, a 30-mile trail that begins near by at Saratoga Gap and leads to Waddell Beach north of Santa Cruz. There are two walk-in campgrounds within the park for overnight backpacking; the entrance to Castle Rock State Park is located on California State Route 35 2.6 miles southeast of the junction with State Route 9.
The park is adjacent to the Los Altos Rod and Gun Club Range. Castle Rock State Park is suitable for many activities. There are two walk-in campgrounds for overnight hikers, many trails for day-hikes, rock climbing routes, picnic areas. Dogs are not allowed on the trails or in the campgrounds, horses allowed only on designated trails; the park was established in 1968. Under Governor Brown's current budget proposal this park was going to close; this would mean that visitors couldn't enter the park, rangers would no longer staff the park. California Assembly Bill 42 was signed into law on October 5, 2011; this bill allows state parks to enter into operating agreements with non-profit organizations. The Portola and Castle Rock Foundation has been formed to help support Portola and Castle Rock State Parks. On March 14, 2012 the park was removed from the state park closure list for a one-year reprieve based on a $250,000 donation by the Sempervirens Fund. List of California state parks Castle Rock State Park
Santa Cruz County, California
Santa Cruz County, California the County of Santa Cruz, is a county on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 262,382; the county seat is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz County comprises the Santa Cruz–Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; the county is on the California Central Coast, south of the San Francisco Bay Area region. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay, with Monterey County forming the southern coast. Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of "Branciforte" after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797. A major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, still bears this name. Less than two months on April 5, 1850, the name was changed to "Santa Cruz". Mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 607 square miles, of which 445 square miles is land and 162 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in California by land third-smallest by total area. Of California's counties, only San Francisco is physically smaller; the county is situated on a wide coastline with over 29 miles of beaches. It is a strip of about 10 miles wide between the coast and the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains at the northern end of the Monterey Bay, it can be divided into four regions: the rugged "north coast". Agriculture is concentrated in the coastal lowlands of the county's southern ends. Most of the coastline is flanked by cliffs. Santa Cruz County is home to the following threatened or endangered species: California clapper rail – endangered California red-legged frog – threatened California tiger salamander – Central California DPS, threatened Coho salmon – Central California Coast ESU is endangered Marbled murrelet – threatened Mount Hermon June beetle – endangered Ohlone tiger beetle – endangered San Francisco garter snake – endangered Santa Cruz long-toed salamander – endangered Santa Cruz tarweed – threatened Smith's blue butterfly – endangered Southern sea otter – threatened Steelhead – Central California Coast DPS is threatened Tidewater goby – endangered Western snowy plover – threatened Yellow-billed cuckoo – threatened Zayante band-winged grasshopper – endangered Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area, Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area and Natural Bridges State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas off the coast of Santa Cruz County.
Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. The county of Santa Cruz has experienced demographic fluctuations in recent history. Between 1990 and 2000, population increased 11.3%. This is not because of immigration or migration, but because of new births. In 1980, Santa Cruz county was 21% Latino, which rose to 28% in 1990 and 39% in 2000; the area between Watsonville in south Santa Cruz County and Salinas Valley of northern Monterey County is Latino. The 2010 United States Census reported Santa Cruz County had a population of 262,382; the racial makeup of Santa Cruz County was 190,208 White, 2,766 African American, 2,253 Native American, 11,112 Asian, 349 Pacific Islander, 43,376 from other races, 12,318 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 84,092 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 255,602 people, 91,139 households, 57,144 families residing in the county. The population density was 574 people per square mile.
There were 98,873 housing units at an average density of 222 per square mile. There were 91,139 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $53,998, the median income for a family was $61,941. Males had a median income of $46,291 versus $33,514 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,396.
About 6.7% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over. Santa Cruz county residents tend to be well-educated. 38.3% of residents age 25 and older hold a bachelor's degree at least higher than the national average of 27.2% and the state average of 29.5%. Santa Cruz County was a Republican stronghold for most of the 20th centuries.