In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the volume of incoming water in unit time. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but often, one inflow may predominate, however, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be, strictly speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge. The dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Salmon /ˈsæmən/ is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the family include trout, grayling. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in parts of the world. Typically, salmon are anadromous, they are born in water, migrate to the ocean. However, populations of species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Various species of salmon display anadromous life strategies while others display freshwater resident life strategies, folklore has it that the fish return to the exact spot where they were born to spawn, tracking studies have shown this to be mostly true. A portion of a salmon run may stray and spawn in different freshwater systems. The percent of straying depends on the species of salmon, homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory.
The term salmon comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn may have originated from salire, the nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera. The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, the genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur naturally only in the North Pacific. As a group, these are known as Pacific salmon, Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Zealand and Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, and Atlantic salmon have established in Patagonia. † Both the Salmo and Oncorhynchus genera contain a number of species referred to as trout, within Salmo, additional minor taxa have been called salmon in English, i. e. the Adriatic salmon and Black Sea salmon. The steelhead anadromous form of the rainbow trout migrates to sea, a number of other species have common names which refer to them as being salmon. The British Columbia salmon fossil provides evidence that the divergence between Pacific and Atlantic salmon had not yet occurred 40 million years ago, Both the fossil record and analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggest the divergence occurred by 10 to 20 million years ago.
This independent evidence from DNA analysis and the fossil record rejects the theory of salmon divergence. Atlantic salmon reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, landlocked salmon live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, and Winnipesaukee
California State Water Project
However, as it is the largest single consumer of power in the state itself, it has a net usage of 5100 GWh. The SWP collects water from rivers in Northern California and redistributes it to the water-scarce but populous south through a network of aqueducts, pumping stations and power plants. About 70% of the water provided by the project is used for areas and industry in Southern California and the San Francisco Bay Area. To reach Southern California, the water must be pumped 2,882 feet over the Tehachapi Mountains, with 1,926 feet at the Edmonston Pumping Plant alone, the SWP shares many facilities with the federal Central Valley Project, which primarily serves agricultural users. Water can be interchanged between SWP and CVP canals as needed to meet requirements for project constituents. The SWP provides estimated annual benefits of $400 billion to Californias economy, as a result, the project has only delivered an average of 2.4 million acre feet annually, as compared to total entitlements of 4.23 million acre feet.
Environmental concerns caused by the removal of water from the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. Work continues today to expand the SWPs water delivery capacity while finding solutions for the impacts of water diversion. The original purpose of the project was to provide water for arid Southern California, whose local water resources, the SWP was rooted in two proposals. The United Western Investigation of 1951, a study by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, assessed the feasibility of interbasin water transfers in the Western United States. In the same year, State Engineer A. D. Edmonston proposed the Feather River Project, which proposed the damming of the Feather River, the Feather River was much more accessible than the North Coast rivers, but did not have nearly as much water. Calls for a statewide water management system led to the creation of the California Department of Water Resources in 1956. The following year, the studies were compiled into the extensive California Water Plan. California governor Pat Brown would say it was to correct an accident of people, the diversion of the North Coast rivers was abandoned in the plans early stages after strong opposition from locals and concerns about the potential impact on the salmon in North Coast rivers.
The California Water Plan would have to go ahead with the development of the Feather River alone, the Burns-Porter Act of 1959 provided $1.75 billion of initial funding through a bond measure. Construction on Stage I of the project, which would deliver the first 2.23 million acre feet of water, Northern Californians opposed the measure as a boondoggle and an attempt to steal their water resources. Historians largely attribute the success of the Burns-Porter Act and the State Water Project to major agribusiness lobbying, the bond was passed on an extremely narrow margin of 174,000 out of 5.8 million ballots cast. In 1961, ground was broken on Oroville Dam, and in 1963, work began on the California Aqueduct, the first deliveries to the Bay Area were made in 1962, and water reached the San Joaquin Valley by 1968
California State Route 152
State Route 152 is a state highway that runs near the latitudinal middle of the U. S. state of California from Watsonville to Route 99 southeast of Merced. Its western portion provides the best access to and from Interstate 5 toward southern California for motorists in or near San Jose and this route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. Route 152 begins near Route 1 as a series of streets that run through downtown Watsonville. This point marks the start of a winding two-lane highway that crosses the Santa Cruz Mountains through Hecker Pass to reach Gilroy, after exiting the large commercial developments near U. S. Headlights are required at all times along this portion and this segment is a significant bottleneck for traffic traveling along Route 152 between the San Francisco Bay area and the Central Valley. Route 152 continues as a divided expressway, descending along the northern and eastern shore of the massive San Luis Reservoir.
The route passes in between the San Luis Dam and the ONeill Forebay, the route continues east and passes a large Path 15 substation and meets Interstate 5 as an expressway. It becomes a city street, Pacheco Blvd. while passing through Los Banos. It returns to an expressway until its terminus at Route 99. Here, eastbound 152 traffic merges on to southbound 99 a few miles northwest of the city of Madera, motorists wishing to travel north on Route 99 are advised to take Route 233 north through Chowchilla to connect to northbound 99. Another possible northbound route exists by exiting Route 152 at State Route 59, and proceeding north to the city of Merced. The landmarks located on Route 152 include the Pacheco Pass, the Gilroy Gardens, the San Luis Reservoir, the Casa de Fruta, the road became popular as a route east during the California Gold Rush. The Butterfield Overland Mail ran along this route from 1858 to 1861, a portion of Route 152 from Bell Station to Pacheco Pass was a toll road from 1857 until 1878.
In 1915, the became part of the state highway system, and in 1923. Historic references say the portion of the route west of SR33 was named Legislative Route 32 before being designated State Route 152, the 1923 state route between Bell Station and Pacheco Pass had numerous curves and steep grades. In 1939, a realignment of 2.6 miles of highway was completed eastward from the Pacheco Reservoir area, in 1950, the first four-lane expressway segment was constructed from the 1939 alignment to near the Merced County line, a distance of 3.26 miles. The 1939 and 1950 alignments continue to be in use today, in 1963-65, a new 12-mile four-lane expressway, with climbing lanes for trucks, was built from the Merced County line eastward, to bypass the San Luis Reservoir which was under construction. A three-mile stretch of the road continues to be in use as Dinosaur Point Road
The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. One volt is defined as the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. It is equal to the difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, for the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the conventional value KJ-90 is used, K J-90 =0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is typically realized using an array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. in the water-flow analogy sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure.
Current is proportional to the diameter of the pipe or the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping, the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohms Law. Ohms Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems, the voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, mechanical generators can usually be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. High-voltage electric power lines,110 kV and up Lightning, Varies greatly. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of metals to produce electricity was zinc. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name volt for the unit of resistance, by 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission and they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage, the cgs system at the time being the customary system of units in science.
At that time, the volt was defined as the difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. The international volt was defined in 1893 as 1/1.434 of the emf of a Clark cell and this definition was abandoned in 1908 in favor of a definition based on the international ohm and international ampere until the entire set of reproducible units was abandoned in 1948. Prior to the development of the Josephson junction voltage standard, the volt was maintained in laboratories using specially constructed batteries called standard cells
Merced County, California
Merced County, is a county located in the northern San Joaquin Valley section of the Central Valley, in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 255,793, the county is named after the Merced River. Merced County comprises the Merced, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Modesto-Merced and it is located north of Fresno County and Fresno, and southeast of Santa Clara County and San Jose. Parts of its territory were given to Fresno County in 1856, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,979 square miles, of which 1,935 square miles is land and 44 square miles is water. Merced National Wildlife Refuge San Luis National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that Merced County had a population of 255,793. The racial makeup of Merced County was 148,381 White,9,926 African American,3,473 Native American,18,836 Asian,583 Pacific Islander,62,665 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 140,485 persons.
As of the census of 2000, there were 210,554 people,63,815 households, the population density was 109 people per square mile. There were 68,373 housing units at a density of 36 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 56. 2% White,3. 8% Black or African American,1. 2% Native American,6. 8% Asian,0. 2% Pacific Islander,26. 1% from other races, and 5. 7% from two or more races. 45. 3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,6. 6% were of Portuguese and 6. 0% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 55. 1% spoke English,35. 3% Spanish,3. 2% Hmong,2. 9% Portuguese and 1. 0% Punjabi as their first language. 17. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.25 and the average family size was 3.69. In the county, the population was out with 34. 5% under the age of 18,10. 3% from 18 to 24,27. 9% from 25 to 44,17. 8% from 45 to 64. The median age was 29 years, for every 100 females there were 99.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males, the median income for a household in the county was $35,532, and the median income for a family was $38,009. Males had an income of $31,721 versus $23,911 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,257, about 16. 9% of families and 21. 7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28. 4% of those under age 18 and 10. 7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2008, according to the Lao Family Community, a nonprofit organization, Merced County is a general law county, governed by a Board of Supervisors
The largemouth bass is a freshwater gamefish in the sunfish family, a species of black bass native to North America. The largemouth bass is the fish of Georgia and Indiana, the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama. The upper jaw of a largemouth bass extends beyond the margin of the orbit. In comparison to age, a bass is larger than a male. The largemouth is the largest of the basses, reaching a maximum recorded overall length of 29.5 in. The fish lives 16 years on average, the juvenile largemouth bass consumes mostly small bait fish, small shrimp, and insects. Adults consume smaller fish, snails, frogs, salamanders and even small birds, mammals. It consumes younger members of larger species, such as pike, trout, white bass, striped bass. Prey items can be as large as 50% of the body length or larger. Studies of prey utilization by largemouths show that in weedy waters, less weed cover allows bass to more easily find and catch prey, but this consists of more open-water baitfish. With little or no cover, bass can devastate the prey population, fisheries managers must consider these factors when designing regulations for specific bodies of water.
Adult largemouth are generally apex predators within their habitat, but they are preyed upon by animals while young. Notably in the Great Lakes Region, Micropterus salmoides along with other species of native fish have been known to prey upon the invasive round goby. Remains of said fish have been found inside the stomachs of largemouth bass consistently and this feeding habit may impact the ecosystem positively, but more research must be conducted to verify this. Note that it is illegal to use Neogobius melanostomus as bait in the Great Lakes Region, largemouth bass are keenly sought after by anglers and are noted for the excitement of their fight. The fish will become airborne in their effort to throw the hook, but many say that their cousin species. Anglers most often fish for bass with lures such as plastic worms, jigs. A recent trend is the use of large swimbaits to target trophy bass that often forage on juvenile rainbow trout in California, fly fishing for largemouth bass may be done using both topwater and worm imitations tied with natural or synthetic materials
It has been widely introduced into inland recreational fisheries across the United States. Striped bass found in the Gulf of Mexico are a separate strain referred to as Gulf Coast striped bass. The striped bass is the fish of Maryland, Rhode Island, and South Carolina, and the state saltwater fish of New York, New Jersey, Virginia. The history of the striped bass fishery in North America dates back to the Colonial period, many written accounts by some of the first European settlers describe the immense abundance of striped bass, along with alewives and spawning up most rivers in the coastal Northeast. The striped bass is a member of the Moronidae family in shape, having a streamlined. Common mature size is 8 to 40 pounds, the largest specimen recorded was 124 pounds, netted in 1896. Striped bass are believed to live for up to 30 years, the maximum length is 1.8 m. The average size is about 67–100 cm and 4. 5–14.5 kg, striped bass are native to the Atlantic coastline of North America from the St.
Lawrence River into the Gulf of Mexico to approximately Louisiana. They are anadromous fish migrate between fresh and salt water. Spawning takes place in fresh water, striped bass have been introduced into waters in Ecuador, Latvia, Russia, South Africa, and Turkey, primarily for sport fishing and aquaculture. The spawning success of striped bass has been studied in the San Francisco Bay-Delta water system, at levels as low as 200 mg/l TDS, an observable diminution of spawning productivity occurs. They can be found in lakes, ponds and this pressure on their food source was putting their own population at risk due to the population of prey naturally not coming back to the same spawning areas. In Canada, the province of Quebec designated the striped bass population of the Saint Lawrence as extirpated in 1996, analysis of available data implicated overfishing and dredging in the disappearance. In 2002, a program was successful. Striped bass spawn in water, and although they have been successfully adapted to freshwater habitat.
Four important bodies of water with breeding stocks of striped bass are, Chesapeake Bay, Massachusetts Bay/Cape Cod, Hudson River, many of the rivers and tributaries that emptied into the Atlantic, had at one time, bred stock of striped bass. One of the largest breeding areas is the Chesapeake Bay, where populations from Chesapeake, stocking of striped bass was discontinued at Lake Mead in 1973 once natural reproduction was verified. Striped bass have been hybridized with white bass to produce hybrid striped bass known as wiper, whiterock bass, sunshine bass, palmetto bass and these hybrids have been stocked in many freshwater areas across the US
The crappies are a genus, Pomoxis, of North American freshwater fish in the sunfish family Centrarchidae. Both species in this genus are popular pan fish, the genus name Pomoxis derives from the Greek πώμα and οξύς. The common name, derives from the Canadian French crapet, which refers to many different fishes of the sunfish family, other names for crappie are papermouths, strawberry bass, speckled bass or specks, speckled perch, crappie bass, calico bass, sac-a-lait and Oswego bass. They have diverse diets, including zooplankton, insects, by day, crappie tend to be less active and will concentrate around weed beds or submerged objects, such as logs and boulders. They feed during dawn and dusk, by moving into open water or approaching the shore, the Pomoxis species are highly regarded pan fish and are often considered to be among the best-tasting freshwater fish. Because of their diets, crappie may be caught in many ways, including casting light jigs, trolling with minnows or artificial lures, using small spinnerbaits.
Crappies are popular with ice-fishers, as they are active in winter, the current all-tackle fishing world record for a black crappie is 2.25 kg and for a white crappie is 2.35 kg. Angling for crappie is popular throughout much of North America, anglers who employ the Spider Rigging method may choose from among many popular baits. Some of the most popular are plastic jigs with lead jig heads, many anglers chum or dump live bait into the water to attract the fish to bite their bait. Crappies are targeted and caught during the spawning period by fly fishermen. A commercial fishery for crappies existed at Reelfoot Lake in Tennessee until 2003 and it was one of the few commercial fisheries for crappies. By information from International Game Fish Association IGFA the most outstanding records, Black crappie is a 5-pound fish caught April 21,2005, by John R. Horstman from a private lake in Missouri. USA on April 21,2006 that weighed 2.26 kg White crappie is a 5-pound fish caught July 31,1957, USA on July 31,1957 that weighed 2.35 kg Pomoxis.
The Sunfishes-A Fly Fishing Journey of Discovery, americas Favorite Fishing, A Complete Guide to Angling for Panfish
Santa Clara Valley
The Santa Clara Valley runs south-southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. The northern, urbanized end of the valley is part of a locally known as the South Bay and part of the electronics, research. Most of the Santa Clara Valley is in Santa Clara County, including its county seat, the valley, named after the Spanish Mission Santa Clara, was for a time known as the Valley of Hearts Delight for its high concentration of orchards, flowering trees, and plants. Until the 1960s it was the largest fruit production and packing region in the world with 39 canneries, once primarily agricultural because of its highly fertile soil, Santa Clara Valley is now largely urbanized, although its far southern reaches south of Gilroy remain agrarian. The most northern areas are considered part of Silicon Valley. As Silicon Valley is not a valley, parts of the San Francisco Peninsula farther north are included in the Silicon Valley region as well. Locally, the areas of Santa Clara Valley are referred to as part of the South Bay.
Few traces of its agricultural past can still be found, and it was one of the first commercial wine-producing regions in California, utilizing high-quality French varietal vines imported from France. The northern end of the Santa Clara Valley is at the tip of the San Francisco Bay. The valley is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest, which separate Santa Clara Valley from the Pacific Ocean, the valley is approximately 30 miles long by 15 miles wide. Its largest city, by an 86. 7% margin, is San Jose, the population of the valley is 1.81 million people along with approximately 865,700 wage and salary jobs. Santa Clara Valley has a Mediterranean semi-arid climate, Mission Santa Clara de Asís with control over a vast tract of land stretching from Palo Alto to Gilroy was founded by Franciscans in 1777. San Jose was founded in 1777 by Spain as an agricultural pueblo and it is the oldest town in California. In Spanish and Mexican times the land was devoted to cattle, following the Mexican–American War San Jose was briefly the Capital of California.
In 1860, as an American town, the population of San Jose was 4,579, for a time wheat became the main crop, but in the 1870s fruit gradually became the main crop and processing of fruit by drying or canning the predominant industry. The railroad reached San Jose in 1860, the valley with its scenic beauty, mild climate, and thousands of acres of blooming fruit trees was known as The Valley of Hearts Delight. Prunes were the crop and were shipped internationally. Water was supplied from an artesian aquifer, when the water table dropped wells were pumped
The Diablo Range is a mountain range in the California Coast Ranges subdivision of the Pacific Coast Ranges. It is located in the eastern San Francisco Bay area south to the Salinas Valley area of northern California, the United States. The Diablo Range extends from the Carquinez Strait in the north to Orchard Peak in the south, near the point where State Route 46 crosses over the Coast Ranges at Cholame, as described by the USGS. It is bordered on the northeast by the San Joaquin River, on the southeast by the San Joaquin Valley, on the southwest by the Salinas River, the range corresponds to the California Coast Ranges east of the Calaveras Fault in this northern section. Though the average elevation is about 3,000 feet, a summit at over 2,300 feet is considered high, mainly because the range is mostly rolling grasslands and plateaus, the plateaus are usually at about 2, 000–3,000 feet. The hills rising out of valleys rise to about 1,000 feet at most, such as the which are found near the Santa Clara Valley, Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley, are lowest, from 400–1,000 feet.
Canyons usually are 300–400 feet deep and valleys are deeper but gentler, the peaks often have high topographic prominence because they are typically surrounded by hills, valleys, or lower plateaus. Streams draining the slopes of the Diablo Range include Hospital Creek. Stream draining the western slopes include Alameda Creek and Coyote Creek, the Diablo Ranges following peaks and ridges are between 2, 517–5,241 feet and are distinct landmarks. Mount Diablo, San Benito Mountain, Mount Hamilton Ridge, the Diablo Range is paralleled for much of its distance by U. S. Route 101 to the west and by I-5 to the east. The Diablo Range is largely unpopulated outside of the San Francisco Bay Area, major nearby communities include Antioch, Walnut Creek, San Ramon, Livermore and the Central Valley city of Tracy. In the South Bay, communities near the range are Milpitas, eastern San Jose, Morgan Hill, South of Pacheco Pass, the only major nearby communities are Los Baños, and Hollister. The small town of Coalinga may be notable for its location on State Route 198, most of the range consists of private ranchland, limiting recreational use.
In addition, some land is held in conservation easements by the California Rangeland Trust. In addition, the elevation of 3,000 feet is not high enough to catch most of the incoming moisture at higher altitudes. Winters are mild with rainfall, but summers are very dry. Areas above 2,500 feet get light to moderate snow in the winter, especially at the highest point, though sites at the lower end get annual snowfall, it is typically light and melts too fast to be noticed. Once or twice a decade there is deep and long lasting snowfall