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San Luis Valley

The San Luis Valley is a region in south-central Colorado with a small portion overlapping into New Mexico. It is the headwaters of the Rio Grande, it contains 6 portions of 3 others. The San Luis Valley was ceded to the United States by Mexico following the Mexican–American War. Hispanic settlers began moving north and settling in the valley after the United States made a treaty with the Utes and established a fort. Prior to the Mexican war the Spanish and Mexican governments had reserved the valley to the Utes, their allies. During the 19th century Anglo settlers settled in the valley and engaged in mining and irrigated agriculture. Today the valley has a diverse Hispanic population, it is an extensive high-altitude depositional basin of 8,000 square miles with an average elevation of 7,664 feet above sea level. The valley is a section of the Rio Grande Rift and is drained to the south by the Rio Grande, which rises in the San Juan Mountains to the west of the valley and flows south into New Mexico.

The valley is 122 miles long and 74 miles wide, extending from the Continental Divide on the northwest rim into New Mexico on the south. The San Luis Valley has a cold desert climate but has substantial water resources from the Rio Grande and groundwater. Prior to 1868 the Capote band of Ute Indians lived in the valley; the Utes made a treaty of peace with the United States in 1849 shortly after the Mexican War. Shortly thereafter settlers from New Mexico established several small settlements in what is now Colorado and in 1868 the Utes were removed to a reservation in western Colorado, they continued to play a role in Saguache in the northwestern corner of the valley from the Los Pinos Agency to the west of Saguache until they lost their expansive reservation as the result of the Meeker Massacre in 1879. The area was administered as part of the Spanish Mexican, province of Nuevo Mexico until the area was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Extensive settlement began in the San Luis Valley by Hispanic farmers and ranchers from New Mexico, in the 1850s. Early settlers built a church in the village, now called San Luis and dedicated it on the Feast of Saint Louis, 21 June 1851. At present, the San Luis Valley has the largest native Hispanic population in Colorado; the surge of immigration followed the construction by the U. S. Army of Fort Massachusetts for protection against the Utes, who had barred settlers; the history of the established U. S. military presence in the valley is preserved at Fort Garland and other historic preserves in the valley. The San Luis Valley became part of the Territory of Colorado in 1861; the original Ute population was confined to the Southern Ute and Ute Mountain Indian reservations in the late 19th century. Unlike the rest of Colorado, the United States surveyed the lands in the San Luis Valley using the New Mexico Meridian and Baseline; the San Luis Valley was one of eight candidate sites to detonate the first atomic bomb with White Sands Proving Ground selected for the Trinity.

The outlaw Felipe Espinosa operated in the San Luis Valley. The San Luis Valley is the broad flat, valley at the headwaters of the Rio Grande in south central Colorado and far north central New Mexico; the northern portion of the San Luis Valley is an endorheic basin. Irrigated agriculture is possible in the area due to groundwater and streams fed by the average 100 inches of snow the surrounding mountain ranges receive; the southern portion is drained by the Rio Grande. There is no clear southern boundary but the term is used to include the San Luis Hills of southern Colorado and the Taos Plateau of northern New Mexico. About 50 miles from east to west and about 150 miles from north to south, the valley is bounded on the east by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and on the west by the San Juan Mountains. Within Colorado the San Luis Valley is considered to comprise six Colorado counties: Saguache, Rio Grande, Conejos and Mineral; the principal towns are: Alamosa, Monte Vista, Del Norte, South Fork, Saguache, Fort Garland, San Luis, Antonito, La Jara, Manassa, Crestone, Villa Grove, Mosca, San Acacio and a number of smaller locations.

A few other counties of Colorado have some land in the Rio Grande Basin including Archuleta County, Hinsdale County and San Juan County. Blanca Peak is prominent in the Sierra Blanca at the southern end of the northernmost section of the mountains, known as the Sangre de Cristo Range. There are several passes, with elevations between 9,000 and 10,000 feet, giving access to the valley. North La Veta Pass, through the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, is used by U. S. Highway 160 and by the San Luis and Rio Grande Railroad tracks. Other passes used were Medano and Sangre de Cristo Passes; the Great Sand Dunes are a famous feature of the valley. They lie directly to the west of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains; the dunes can reach 750 feet high. The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve is now in place to protect both the dunes and the numerous archeological sites found in the area; the natural valley aquifer is close to the surface in this part of the valley, helps with maintenance of water levels in the San Luis Lakes, just to the west of the sand dunes.

Elevation rises as you go north in the valley to Poncha Pass, used now by U. S. Highway 285 and by the narrow gauge tracks of the Denver and Rio Gr

My Father My King

"My Father My King" is a song by Scottish post-rock band Mogwai, released as a single in October 2001. Over 20 minutes long, billed as a companion piece to the album Rock Action, a sticker on the cover of the single describes it as "two parts serenity and one part death metal"; the song is used to end Mogwai concerts – most in 2015, it was the finale of all six of the band's 20th anniversary shows – and was extended in length. The song is based on the melody from Avinu Malkeinu, a Jewish prayer recited on Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, certain fast days, the melody of, taught to the band by producer Arthur Baker. Although the band's song is an instrumental, the hymn's translation is included in the liner notes to the record; the EP was billed as a "companion piece" to previous album Rock Action, although in a 2018 interview Barry Burns said "I don’t see it like that. It felt quite separate, it felt like we were moving onto something else.". The song was recorded over three days with Steve Albini at Mayfair Studios, London, in August 2001.

Burns recalled, "Arthur Baker heard it first, it was his idea to record it. We tried to record it twice with him, we just couldn’t get it together. So we decided to do it with Steve Albini and he nailed it". Recording was made using tape, with Albini splicing the final cut of the song from two takes using a razor blade; the song is based on two separate melodies from Avinu Malkeinu. It begins with a single guitar playing the first melodic phrase, shortly afterwards joined by a second playing a similar counter-melody. A drumbeat enters at 1:30, a third guitar at 2:15, which plays a counter-melody; the guitars get louder until at 4:00 a harsh distorted guitar starts up, followed by a second at 4:35. The loud guitars start to drown out the other instruments until at 5:45, the noise subsides with one of the distorted guitars picking up the melody; this guitar ceases at 6:18, leaving a single "quiet" guitar, the bass and drums too cease until there is only a faint trace of the melody on the single guitar.

At around the 8 minute mark, the guitar shifts to the second of the melodies. In a similar manner to the first part of the song, a second guitar joins the first, the distorted guitars join until the melody cannot be heard; the heavy guitars play a number of different riffs whilst the song becomes louder, until the drums drop out and the melodies cease at around the 17 minute mark. The rest of the song is composed of fragments of guitar noise and feedback which abruptly cuts out at the end. Mogwai had been playing the song well before it was released, the first known performance being in Brussels in May 1999. A typical live review from 2001 says "The encore'My Father My King' is a plethora of white noise. Simplified and textured guitar riffs turns into the bass following suit. Soon the control turns to absolute mayhem. Frequencies swirling around the venue hit each member of the audience full on in the chest", it was thus unsurprising. Mogwai brought the house down and blew anyone, within distance to hear, away each time they played the instrumental haunting track".

Giving the song a score of 10/10, his closing sentence was "20 minutes. No vocals. Sometimes words just can’t describe or do justice to music this good". Christopher F. Schiel, writing for Pitchfork commented on the band's assertion that the song should be considered alongside the Rock Action album, saying "this demonstration of might and dynamic is what that album lacked" and "unlike Rock Action, this recording doesn't just push the envelope. AllMusic commented that the song "retains the experimental, arty flair Mogwai is identified with" and noted the "nicely noisy production job from a man accustomed to such things, Steve Albini". There were dissenting voices, notably from PopMatters, who dismissed Albini's recording as sounding "like a glorified soundboard tape, it is utterly lacking in imagination and depth" and summarising the song as "a hackneyed and melodramatic concept piece". The album was released as a CD single, single-sided 12" vinyl, EP and enhanced CD; some international editions of the single included additional video, detailed below.

This was a CD single-sided 12" vinyl release. "My Father My King" – 20:12 This version, on CD and 12" EP, included two live songs recorded at Rothesay Pavilion, Isle of Bute on 14 April 2001. "My Father My King" – 20:12 – 20:00 "New Paths to Helicon, Pt. 1" – 7:54 "You Don't Know Jesus" – 6:14 This version, on enhanced CD, further included a video for the song "dial:revenge". "My Father My King" – 20:12 "You Don't Know Jesus" – 6:14 "New Paths to Helicon, Pt. 1" – 7:54 "dial:revenge" In addition to Mogwai's usual line-up, regular contributor Luke Sutherland played violin, Caroline Barber cello. Stuart Braithwaite – guitar Dominic Aitchison – bass guitar Martin Bulloch – drums John Cummings – guitar Barry Burns – guitar Caroline Barber – cello Luke Sutherland – violin Steve Albini – engineer, mixer Arthur Baker – arrangement

Patrick Walls

Patrick Walls was an Irish trade unionist. Walls was born to a Catholic family in the northern part of Ireland during the worst of the Great Famine, he emigrated to Tyneside to work as a labourer moved to Middlesbrough, where he worked at Bell's Foundry as a blastfurnaceman for seventeen years. While there, he became active in the Associated Union of Iron Workers, in 1878 supported the split which formed the Cleveland Blastfurnacemen's Association, serving as its president. In 1887, Walls was president of Middlesbrough Trades Council. In 1887, William Snow, secretary of the blastfurnacemen's union in Cumberland, was incapacitated through illness, Walls travelled to Workington in an attempt to resolve a dispute there. Following a fall in the price of iron, local employers had cut wages. Walls believed that the price of iron would recover, recommended that trade unionists accept a deal where they would receive a 5% reduction in pay if it did not recover, but no reduction if it did; as he hoped, the price rebounded within a week, wages were restored to their earlier level.

Following this success, the Cumberland blastfurnacemen joined with those of Cleveland to form a new National Union of Blastfurnacemen, Walls led negotiations which agreed an eight-hour working day in 1890. In 1892, he was elected as general secretary of the union. Walls relocated to Workington to take up his position. Long an opponent of the Liberal Party, he formed a Cumberland Labour Electoral Association in 1891, was a founder member of the Independent Labour Party in 1893, he was elected to Workington Town Council in 1893, to Cumberland County Council in 1901. At the January 1910 general election, he stood for the Labour Party in Middlesbrough, with the support of the ILP and the United Irish League, but was not elected, he served on the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party for a few years. Walls retired from his trade union posts in 1919, died in 1932

Hilbert's syzygy theorem

In mathematics, Hilbert's syzygy theorem is one of the three fundamental theorems about polynomial rings over fields, first proved by David Hilbert in 1890, which were introduced for solving important open questions in invariant theory, are at the basis of modern algebraic geometry. The two other theorems are Hilbert's basis theorem that asserts that all ideals of polynomial rings over a field are finitely generated, Hilbert's Nullstellensatz, which establishes a bijective correspondence between affine algebraic varieties and prime ideals of polynomial rings. Hilbert's syzygy theorem concern the relations, or syzygies in Hilbert's terminology, between the generators of an ideal, or, more a module; as the relations form a module, one may consider the relations between the relations. Hilbert's syzygy theorem is now considered to be an early result of homological algebra, it is the starting point of the use of homological methods in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. The syzygy theorem first appeared in Hilbert's seminal paper "Über die Theorie der algebraischen Formen".

The paper is split into five parts: part I proves Hilbert's basis theorem over a field, while part II proves it over the integers. Part III contains the syzygy theorem, used in part IV to discuss the Hilbert polynomial; the last part, part V, proves finite generation of certain rings of invariants. Incidentally part III contains a special case of the Hilbert–Burch theorem. Hilbert defined syzygies for ideals in polynomial rings, but the concept generalizes trivially to modules over any ring. Given a generating set g 1, …, g k of a module M over a ring R, a relation or first syzygy between the generators is a k-tuple of elements of R such that a 1 g 1 + ⋯ + a k g k = 0. Let L 0 be the free module with basis, the relation may be identified with the element a 1 G 1 + ⋯ + a k G k, the relations form the kernel R 1 of the linear map L 0 → M defined by G i ↦ g i. In other words, one has an exact sequence 0 → R 1 → L 0 → M → 0; this first syzygy module R 1 depends on the choice of a generating set, but, if S 1 is the module, obtained with another generating set, there exist two free modules F 1 and F 2 such that R 1 ⊕ F 1 ≅ S 1 ⊕ F 2 where ⊕ denote the direct sum of modules.

The second syzygy module is the module of the relations between generators of the first syzygy module. By continuing in this way, one may define the kth syzygy module for every positive integer k. If the kth syzygy module is free for some k by taking a basis as a generating set, the next syzygy module is the zero module. If one does not take a bases as generating sets all subsequent syzygy modules are free. Let n be the smallest integer, if any, such that the nth syzygy module of a module M is free or projective; the above property of invariance, up to the sum direct with free modules, implies that n does not depend on the choice of generating sets. The projective dimension of M is this integer, if it ∞ if not; this is equivalent with the existence of an exact sequence 0 ⟶ R n ⟶ L n − 1 ⟶ ⋯ ⟶ L 0 ⟶ M ⟶ 0, where the modules L i are free and R n is projective. It can be shown that one may always choose the generating sets for R n being free, for the above exact sequence to be a free resolution. Hilbert's syzygy theorem states that, if M is a finitely generated module over

Louis-Marie Michon

Louis-Marie Michon was a French surgeon. He studied medicine in Paris. From 1830 he served as aide d’anatomie to the medical faculty, attaining his agrégation in surgery in 1832 with the thesis De la carie et de la nécrose. During the same year he was appointed as surgeon to the "Bureau central", followed by chirurgien des hôpitaux in 1835; as a physician, he distinguished himself during the Revolution of 1848. In 1843 he was a founding member of the Société nationale de chirurgie, in 1863 was admitted to the Académie de Médecine. Posthumously, he was praised at the annual meeting of the Société nationale de chirurgie by Felix Guyon, he was the author of an early treatise on tumors of synovial tissue titled Des tumeurs synoviales de la partie inférieure de l'avant-bras, de la face palmaire du poignet et de la main- 1851. He was an officer of the Légion d'Honneur, the father of politician Joseph Michon, he is buried in Saône-et-Loire. Sociétés savantes

Royal Reynolds Jr.

Royal Reynolds Jr. was a decorated American brigadier general who served with an American-Filipino guerrilla force on the Japanese-occupied Philippines during World War II. His last assignment was as the Assistant Commander of the Infantry School at Georgia. Royal Reynolds Jr. was born on October 17, 1910 in California as a son of future Brigadier General Royal Reynolds and his wife Romietta Redman Reynolds. His uncle was Major General Charles R. Reynolds, who served as Surgeon General of the United States Army between 1935 and 1939. Royal Jr. attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and graduated in 1933. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the infantry. During World War II, Reynolds was assigned to the 57th Infantry Regiment, stationed at Philippines, where he was appointed commanding officer of the 1st Battalion. After the defeat by Japanese during the Battle of Philippines in May 1942, Reynolds refused to surrender and spent the remainder of the war as a guerrilla.

For his service during the war, Reynolds received the Bronze Star Medal and Combat Infantryman Badge. After the war, Reynolds remained on active duty in the Army and subsequently served with the 7th Infantry Division in the Korean War, he commanded a regiment during this conflict and was decorated with another Bronze Star Medal with "V" Device, Legion of Merit and Silver Star for gallantry in action. He attended the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth and the Army War College. In his late military career, Reynolds was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and served as Assistant Commander of the Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, he received another Legion of Merit for his service in this capacity and retired from the military service in 1963. Brigadier General Royal Reynolds Jr. died on November 24, 2003, at the age of 93 and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. Here is the ribbon bar of Brigadier General Reynolds Jr