Handbook of Texas
The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association. The original Handbook was the brainchild of TSHA President Walter Prescott Webb of The University of Texas history department, it was published as a two-volume set in 1952, with a supplemental volume published in 1976. In 1996, the New Handbook of Texas was published, expanding the encyclopedia to six volumes and over 23,000 articles. In 1999, the Handbook of Texas Online went live with the complete text of the print edition, all corrections incorporated into the handbook's second printing, about 400 articles not included in the print edition due to space limitations; the handbook continues to be updated online, contains over 25,000 articles. The online version includes entries on general topics, such as "Texas since World War II", biographies such as notable Texans Samuel Houston and W. D. Twichell, ranches such as the Matador, geographical entries such as "Waco, Texas".
Many Texas scholars and professors, such as Robert A. Calvert and Art Martinez de Vara, have contributed to the Handbook. Texas State Historical Association Handbook of Texas 1952 2 volume edition at HathiTrust
Luling is a city in Caldwell and Guadalupe counties, United States, along the San Marcos River. The population, as of the 2010 census, was 5,411, the population was estimated at 5,764 in 2015; the town was named after Charles Luling. He was a personal friend of Thomas Wentworth Pierce, provided the financing for the railroad as well the purchase of the land that became Luling; the Caldwell County portion of Luling is part of the Austin metropolitan area. Luling was founded in 1874 as a railroad town and became a rowdy center for the cattle drivers on the Chisholm Trail. Contempt of the law by the cowboys helped Luling become known as the "toughest town in Texas". After the great cattle drives ended in the late 1880s, Luling quieted down to a town of about 500 and cotton ruled the local economy. Due to arrival of immigrants, including a sizeable Jewish population, in the late-19th century, Luling began a long, period of growth, by 1925 the population reached 1,500. One of the most significant events in Luling's history was the discovery of oil by Edgar B.
Davis. Davis mortgaged everything. On August 9, 1922, the Rafael Rios No. 1 well struck oil at 2,161 feet, producing 150 barrels per day. To repay his loans, Davis contracted 2 million barrels each to Atlantic Oil and Magnolia Oil at $.50 a barrel, plus another 2 million barrels to Magnolia at $.75 per barrel. Davis' discovery opened up an oilfield 2 miles wide; the economy moved from the railroad and agriculture to oil. The population of the town increased to over 5,000. By 1924, the Luling Oil Field was producing over 15 million barrels of oil per year, oil formed much of Luling's economy for the next 60 years; as oil grew in importance in the 1930s and 1940s, the railroads that helped form the town declined and pulled out of Luling. Luling is located in southern Caldwell County, 47 miles south of Austin; the city limits extend south along Texas State Highway 80 across the San Marcos River into Guadalupe County, reaching as far as Interstate 10 Exit 628. Via I-10, San Antonio is 57 miles to the west and Houston is 141 miles to the east.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Luling has a total area of 5.50 square miles. 5.46 square miles of it is land, 0.04 square miles, or 0.67%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Luling has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 census, there were 5,411 people, 1,907 households, 1,315 families residing in Luling. The population density was 991.6 people per square mile. There were 2,115 housing units at an average density of 391.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 70.8% White, 8.5% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 16.7% some other race, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 52.6% of the population. There were 1,907 households, out of which 37.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were headed by married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families.
26.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.2% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75, the average family size was 3.36. In the city, 27.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.3% were from 20 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 16.7% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household in the city was $39,157, the median income for a family was $46,379; the per capita income for the city was $21,927. About 17.2% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.3% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over. The Luling Watermelon Thump is held each year during the last full weekend in June, it draws many people from out of town as well. A favorite activity associated with the'Thump' is the watermelon seed spitting contest.
Luling is home to Night In Old Luling, held in October. It features games, booths, a scarecrow contest; some of the oil jacks along the main streets of Luling are decorated with whimsical characters, such as a girl eating a watermelon. The Luling Dry Tri. is an annual event held in September. It is an athletic contest comprising three consecutive events: biking 12 miles, running 3.23 miles and paddling 6 miles. A no swim triathlon where anyone may participate either solo, as a two-person tag-team or three-person relay team; the event benefits several local groups, including the Luling Police and Fire Departments, the Luling High School Cross Country Team. Michael Dorn, actor Marshall W. Mason, Broadway director Bo Burris, NFL player Emory Bellard, American college football coach Tamron Hall, anchor for MSNBC Obert Logan, NFL football player for the Dallas Cowboys and New Orleans Saints Riley Odoms, NFL football player for the Denver Broncos Craig Mager, NFL football player for the San Diego Chargers Jennie Everton Clarke, founder of the Belle Haven Orphan home Luling, Texas travel guide from Wikivoyage City of Luling official website Luling Chamber of Commerce
Texas State University
Texas State University is a public research university located in San Marcos, United States. Established in 1899 as the Southwest Texas State Normal School, it opened in 1903 to 303 students. Since that time it has grown into the largest institution in the Texas State University System and the fifth-largest university in the state of Texas with an enrollment of over 38,000 students for the 2017 fall semester, it has ten colleges and about fifty departments. Texas State is classified as a doctoral university with high research activity by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and an emerging research university by the State of Texas; the university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. Faculty from the various colleges have been granted Fulbright Scholarships resulting in Texas State being recognized as one of the top producing universities of Fulbright Scholars; the 36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, graduated from the institution in 1930.
Texas State's main campus consists of 245 buildings on 492 acres of hilly land along the San Marcos River. Additionally, it has a satellite campus at the Texas State University Round Rock Campus in the greater north Austin area; the university operates the Science and Advanced Research Park, a technology commercialization and applied research facility. The Forensic Anthropology Center at Texas State is the largest forensics research facility in the world. Texas State University's intercollegiate sports teams known as the Bobcats, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Sun Belt Conference; the Southwest Texas State Normal School was proposed in a March 3, 1899, bill by State Representative Fred Cocke. Cocke represented the citizens of Hays and surrounding counties. While there was opposition to the bill, with the support of State Senator J. B. Dibrell, it was passed and signed into law on May 10, 1899, by Governor Joseph D. Sayers; the school's purpose was to teach domestic sciences and agriculture.
Any students earning a diploma and teaching certificate from the school would be authorized to teach in the state's public schools. In October 1899, the San Marcos City Council voted to donate 11 acres of land at what was known as Chautauqua Hill for the school to be built on, it was not until 1901 that the Texas legislature accepted this donation and approved $25,000 to be used for construction of buildings on the site. The building now known as Old Main was completed and the school opened its doors to its first enrollment of 303 students in September 1903. In 1912, the San Marcos School Board began a partnership with the school to allow Southwest Texas State Normal School students to instruct local school children as part of their training to become teachers; the San Marcos East End Ward School, comprising the first eight grades of the school district, was moved onto the Southwest Texas State campus in 1917. In 1935, a formal contract between Southwest Texas State Teachers College, as it was known and the San Marcos school district for the "Public Schools the laboratory school for said Teachers College."
The school would be under the control and supervision of the city of San Marcos but Southwest Texas State was responsible for providing and maintaining buildings and equipment for the city's elementary and junior high schools. The college enrolled its first African American students in 1963, following a federal lawsuit brought by Dana Smith, who became one of the first five African Americans at the institution when a district court judge ruled that they could not be denied admission based on race. On November 8, 1965, the school's most famous alumnus, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson, returned to his alma mater to sign the Higher Education Act of 1965, part of his Great Society. In a speech, held in Strahan Coliseum on the school's campus, prior to signing the bill, he recounted his own difficulties affording to go to college: having to shower and shave in the school's gymnasium, living above a faculty member's garage, working multiple jobs; the campus has grown from its original 11 acres in 1899.
During the first 40 years of the school's history, the campus was expanded to accommodate 18 buildings around the original Main Building. These buildings included academic buildings, a library, buildings to house the San Marcos school students, dormitories, a dining hall, men's and women's gymnasiums. In 1926, 90 acres of land adjacent to the San Marcos River was purchased by A. B. Rogers to build a hotel, glass-bottom boat rides and other water-based attractions to become the Aquarena Springs theme park; the university bought the property in 1994 intending to use the land as a research and education center. In 2002, this piece of land became known as the River System Institute and offered educational tours including a wetlands boardwalk and continued to offer glass-bottom boat rides. In 1996, the school began offering courses in Round Rock, Texas on the campus of Westwood High School, it offered night classes that allowed students to earn graduate degrees in Business Administration and Education.
As enrollment in these programs increased and with a gift of 101 acres, the Texas State University Round Rock Campus was constructed and opened in 2005. The school's name has changed several times over the course of its history; the first change occurred in 1918 when Southwest Texas State Normal School became Southwest Texas State Normal College, after the Board of Regents, two years earlier, had authorized the school to begin granting degrees as a senior college.. In 1921, a statewide effort was launched to
Palmetto State Park
Palmetto State Park is a state park located in Gonzales County, United States northwest of Gonzales and southeast of Luling. The land was acquired by deeds from private owners and the City of Gonzales in 1934 - 1936 and was opened in 1936; the park is named for the dwarf palmetto. The San Marcos River runs through the park; the 4-acre Oxbow Lake created by flood waters, is now independent of the river and is spring fed. There are many bogs throughout the park that are surrounded by dense vegetation, giving the park a jungle-like atmosphere; the park was constructed by Civilian Conservation Corps Companies 873 and 886 between 1934 and 1937. The CCC built Park Road 11, a low water crossing on the San Marcos River, a water tower/storage building and residence, barbeque pits, picnic seating, rock pool and retention dams, rock table, concrete picnic tables, two sets of entrance portals. In addition to the dwarf palmetto, red buckeye and rattan vine are prevalent in the park. White-tailed deer are common throughout the park, as are raccoons, nine-banded armadillos, fox squirrels.
Over 240 species of birds such as the pileated woodpecker, Kentucky warbler have been recorded within the park's boundaries. Some of the birds spotted include the prothonotary warbler, red-shouldered hawk. List of Texas state parks Texas Parks and Wildlife: Palmetto State Park
Meadows Center for Water and the Environment
The Meadows Center for Water and the Environment Aquarena Springs and the Aquarena Center, is an educational center in San Marcos, dedicated to the preservation of the unique archeological and biological resources of Spring Lake. Visitors can take glass-bottomed boat tours of Spring Lake and view live native animals and fish in the Discovery Center; the function of the Meadows Center for Water and the Environment is to develop and promote programs and techniques for ensuring sustainable water resources for human needs, ecosystem health, economic development. At Texas State University-San Marcos, the Meadows Center serves as an integrating mechanism for the university’s multidisciplinary departments that are involved with aquatic resources. Texas State is home to several departments and research centers engaged in critical scholarly work on water management issues; the Meadows Center at Spring Lake Hall houses the Texas Stream Team, a volunteer program that monitors the water quality of freshwater systems through the state.
Aquarena Center was established in 1994 when Southwest Texas State University purchased land used as an amusement park, including Spring Lake, an artificial freshwater reservoir which contains several of the San Marcos Springs. The San Marcos Springs are the headwaters of the San Marcos River; the site contains more than 200 springs with water from the Edwards Aquifer and that discharge an average of 123 million US gallons of water daily, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in North America. Artifacts discovered in digs conducted from 1979 to 1982 date back 12,000 years; the first Europeans to visit the springs were Spanish explorers in 1689. The springs were an important stop on the Chisholm Trail. In 1847, former Republic of Texas vice president Edward Burleson purchased the land surrounding the headwaters of the river and built a cabin on the hill overlooking the headwaters. Two years Burleson built a dam just below the springs to power a mill; this dam, which created Spring Lake, still exists today.
A. B. Rogers purchased the property in 1926 and his son, developed a hotel there in 1928 and introduced glass bottom boats to the lake. Spring Lake has been visited by notable individuals including Robert E. Lee, Jay Gould, Helen Miller Shepard. In the 1950s, construction of a submarine theater and large spillway at one end of the lake to produce a swimming pool led to the opening of Aquarena Springs, an amusement park, at the site in 1951. Other features of the park were the Alpine Swiss Sky Ride, an Intamin 220 foot Sky Spiral that moved vertically above the lake and rotated 360°, "Ralph, the Famous Swimming Pig" and "mermaid" performers that could be viewed from the submarine theater; the park included a coin-operated arcade in which human visitors would "compete" in games like Tic-tac-toe against chickens, whose "moves" in the game were determined by pecking lights which appeared only on the chicken's side of the machine. At its peak, Aquarena Springs attracted 250,000 visitors annually.
The center added a Wetlands Boardwalk in a shallow area of Spring Lake. The boardwalk, made of recycled plastic lumber, floats on the water and circles a marshy area that showcases the flora and fauna of a wetland ecosystem. Aquarena Center was designated as a "critical habitat," subject to the Endangered Species Act, because the springs are home to the fountain darter, the Texas Blind Salamander, the San Marcos Salamander, the San Marcos gambusia, Texas Wild Rice; the San Marcos gambusia may be extinct as none have been seen since 1983. The main aim of the center is research; the MCWE participates in underwater archaeology. It searches for Henry Morgan’s lost fleet while exploring caves in Mexico, Spring Lake, shipwrecks; the center uses unmanned aircraft to capture photos and gather information for projects related to fisheries and watershed management and restoration. The Meadows Center is dedicated to the sustainable management of the world’s freshwater resources, they oversee the Spring Lake Management Plan, designed to protect healthy ecosystems, provide research and educational opportunities, offer access for service activities.
As active partners in the Edwards Aquifer Habitat Conservation Plan, they help ensure minimum continuous spring flows of the Comal and San Marcos Springs. The Aquarena Springs Amusement Park was the actual location of the resort in the 1978 film Piranha, directed by Joe Dante. "What is Aquarena Center". Texas State University San Marcos Aquarena Center. Retrieved Jul. 28, 2005. Aquarena Center from the Handbook of Texas Online "Aquarena Springs". TexasEscapes.com. Retrieved Jul. 28, 2005. "San Marcos Springs". The Edwards Aquifer Homepage. Retrieved Jul. 28, 2005. Official website Dive America -- information on scuba diving at the Aquarena Center Diving into Spring Aquarena Springs Photo Gallery Aquarena Springs Documentary
San Marcos Regional Airport
San Marcos Regional Airport is a public use airport located in Caldwell County, United States. It is four nautical miles east of the central business district of San Marcos, a city, in Hays County; the airport is operated by Texas Aviation Partners. It is located east of the border of Hays County. Before it was operated as a civilian airport it was known as Gary Air Force Base. Although most U. S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, this airport is assigned HYI by the FAA but has no designation from the IATA. Gary Army Airfield Organized San Marcans fought to save the base, on November 20, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced in a speech at his alma mater, Southwest Texas State University, that the abandoned Camp Gary would be the site of a new federal vocational training facility called Job Corps. Today it's known as the largest in the nation. In 2014, the airport was selected to be the location for the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association's regional fly-in.
San Marcos Regional Airport covers an area of 1,393 acres at an elevation of 597 feet above mean sea level. It has three asphalt paved runways: 8/26 is 6,330 by 100 feet, 13/31 is 5,603 by 150 feet and 17/35 is 5,213 by 100 feet. For the 12-month period ending September 30, 2015, the airport had 46,422 aircraft operations, an average of 127 per day: 98% general aviation, 2% military and <1% air taxi. At that time there were 108 aircraft based at this airport: 76% single-engine, 20% multi-engine and 4% jet. List of airports in Texas FAA Terminal Procedures for HYI, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for HYI AirNav airport information for KHYI FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures