They occupied three of the Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel, the smaller island of Anacapa was likely inhabited seasonally due to the lack of a consistent water source. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Nipomo, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Lake Castaic, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area, the Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources, the tribe lived in an area of three environments, the interior, the coast, and the Northern Channel Islands. These provided an array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the plains, rivers. The coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory.
All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the ocean winds. The mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy, during the cold months, what villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land covered by trees and animals. Abundant resources and a winter rarely harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory, such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources, due to advanced canoe designs and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a source of nutrition, relatively easy to find.
Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones, shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring, their proximity to shore made collection easier. Some of the species included mussels, and a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested this species along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era, the Chumash and other California Indians used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads and other artifacts. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish and this feat, difficult even for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoe
San Luis Obispo County, California
San Luis Obispo County, officially the County of San Luis Obispo, is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 269,637, the county seat is San Luis Obispo. San Luis Obispo County comprises the San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, the county is located along the Pacific Ocean in Central California, between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area. Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa in 1772, the mainstays of the economy are California Polytechnic State University with its almost 20,000 students and agriculture. San Luis Obispo County is the third largest producer of wine in California, surpassed only by Sonoma, wine grapes are the second largest agricultural crop in the county, and the wine production they support creates a direct economic impact and a growing wine country vacation industry. The town of San Simeon is located at the foot of the ridge where newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst built the famed Hearst Castle, other coastal towns include Cambria, Morro Bay, and Los Osos -Baywood Park.
These cities and villages are located northwest of San Luis Obispo city, and Avila Beach, just south of the Five Cities, borders northern Santa Barbara County. Inland, the cities of Paso Robles and Atascadero lie along the Salinas River, San Luis Obispo lies south of Atascadero and north of the Five Cities region. Important settlements existed, for example, in coastal areas such as Morro Bay. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was founded on September 1,1772 in the area that is now the city of San Luis Obispo, the namesake of the mission and county is Saint Louis of Toulouse, the young bishop of Toulouse in 1297. San Luis Obispo County was one of the counties of California. The Salinas River Valley, a region that figures strongly in several Steinbeck novels, the remote California Valley near Soda Lake is the region most untouched by modernity. Travels through this area and the hills east of highway 101 during wildflower season are very beautiful and can be incorporated with wine tasting at local vineyards.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,616 square miles. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 55,973 persons,17. 7% of San Luis Obispo County is Mexican,0. 3% Puerto Rican, and 0. 2% Salvadoran. As of the census of 2000, there were 246,681 residents,92,739 households, the population density was 75 people per square mile. There were 102,275 housing units at a density of 31 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84. 6% White,2. 0% Black or African American,1. 0% Native American,2. 7% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,6. 2% from other races, and 3. 4% from two or more races
Rancho Piedra Blanca
Rancho Piedra Blanca was a large,48, 806-acre Mexican land grant in present-day San Luis Obispo County, California given in 1840 by Governor Juan Alvarado to José de Jesús Pico. The name means white rock and refers to rocks painted white by its bird population, the grant extended south along the Pacific Coast below Big Sur from Ragged Point to Pico Creek, where it adjoins Rancho San Simeon. The land grant includes the original townsite and post office for San Simeon, the Hearst Ranch headquarters, José de Jesús Pico, son of Jose Dolores Pico and Isabel Cota, was born in Monterey. His brother, Antonio Maria Pico, was the grantee of Rancho Pescadero, another brother was the bandit Salomon Pico. José de Jesús Pico was a soldier, and married Francisca Zaviera Trinidad Antonia Gabriela Villavicencio in 1832, originally part of the Mission San Miguel coastal grazing land, the eleven square league Rancho Piedra Blanca was granted to Pico in 1840. In 1841 Pico was appointed administrator of Mission San Miguel, with the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored.
As required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho Piedra Blanca was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, Pico sold parts of the rancho to Mariano Pacheco, Juan Castro, Peter Gillis and others. In 1865, George Hearst, a miner during the California Gold Rush era and a US Senator. By 1865,17,000 acres of the rancho had already been sold, Hearst continued to buy lots whenever they became available. He bought most of Rancho San Simeon, and part of Rancho Santa Rosa, Piedras Blancas Light Station Sebastian Store, San Simeon, established 1852. Hearst Castle Ranchos of California List of Ranchos of California Piedras Blancas Motel, now closed
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost.
To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans.
As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horses
A rookery is a colony of breeding animals, generally birds. A rook is a Northern European and Central Asian member of the crow family, the term is applied to the nesting place of birds, such as crows and rooks, the source of the term. The breeding grounds of colony-forming seabirds and marine mammals and even some turtles are referred to as rookeries, the term rookery was borrowed as a name for dense slum housing in nineteenth-century cities, and especially London. Paleological evidence points to the existence of a pterodaustro rookery, auca Mahuevo, for a titanosaurid sauropod dinosaur rookery Bird colony
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Hearst Communications, often referred to as simply Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate. The Hearst company is based in the Hearst Tower in Midtown Manhattan and it was founded by William Randolph Hearst as an owner of newspapers, and the Hearst family remains involved in its ownership and management. Under William Randolph Hearsts will, a board of thirteen trustees administers the Hearst Foundation, the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. The foundations shared ownership until tax law changed to prevent this, Frank A. Bennack Jr. former chief executive officer and executive vice chairman of the corporation John G. Conomikes, former executive of the corporation Gilbert C. In 1880, George Hearst, mining entrepreneur, American publisher, on March 4,1887, he turned the Examiner over to his son, 23-year-old William Randolph Hearst. He pushed his staff to write exciting stories, and wrote editorials worded with force. Within a few years, the new Examiner was a success, in 1895, Hearst purchased the New York Journal, laying the foundation for one of the major newspaper dynasties in American history.
He established Hearsts Chicago American in 1900, renamed the morning edition of the New York Journal as the New York American in 1901, the Los Angeles Examiner was launched in 1903 followed by the Boston American one year later. Hearst experimented with every aspect of publishing, from page layouts to editorial crusades. His newspapers introduced innovations such as presses, halftone photographs on newsprint, comic sections printed in color. Stories by Hearst correspondents from around the world were sold to newspapers, giving rise to the Hearst International News Service. In 1903, Hearst Magazines was begun with the publication of Motor magazine, within the next 10 years Hearst acquired several popular titles, starting in 1905 with Cosmopolitan and Good Housekeeping in 1911. Also in 1911, Hearst bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day, in June 1914, its title was shortened to Hearsts, and it was ultimately retitled Hearsts International in May 1922. In 1953 Hearst Magazines bought Sports Afield magazine which it kept until 1999 when it was sold to Robert E.
Petersen, Hearst began producing film feature in the mid-1910s, creating one of the earliest animation studios, the International Film Service. Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created Metro Goldwyn Mayer, in 1929, Hearst and MGM created the Hearst Metrotone newsreels. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged Hearsts International magazine with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, Hearst died in 1951, and the Hearsts International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952. In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world, in 1924 he merged his Milwaukee operations with the Pfister family, owners of The Milwaukee Sentinel. Hearst owned the evening Wisconsin News while the Pfisters kept the Sentinel adding Hearsts features from the now-folded Telegram, in 1925, Hearst sold the Syracuse Telegram to the owners of the Syracuse Journal, while selling the New York Mirror in 1928
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Cambria /ˈkeɪmbriə/ is a seaside village in San Luis Obispo County, United States midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles along California State Route 1. The name Cambria, chosen in 1869, is the Latin name for Wales, Cambria is situated amidst Monterey pines in one of only three such native forests. Previously, the town had gone by the names of Slabtown, San Simeon, the corresponding census designated place had a population of 6,032 at the 2010 census, slightly down from 6,232 at the 2000 census. It is estimated that as many as 30,000 people inhabited the area in the time before the Spanish arrived, experts believe these tribes to have been migratory and used Cambria as a seasonal settlement, other scientists are convinced that they lived there permanently. Most agree that they fed themselves with shellfish and seafood, as well as obtaining food from travels inland to hunt and these early inhabitants were skilled basket and net makers and fashioned jewelry from crab claws, abalone shells, and the teeth of sharks and whales.
The presence of soapstone provides evidence that they traded with the Catalina Island tribes, whereas the lack of metals, according to scientists there is ample evidence to conclude that Cambria tribes were gentle and peaceful people and that they lived simply. Their family bonds were strong, and they showed great love, the members of the Cambria tribes were noted for their extreme cleanliness in handling and preparing food and possessed a marked knowledge of medicinal herbs. For entertainment, they played music and had a passion for gambling, the first recorded visit by Europeans took place in 1769 when the Portola expedition, coming overland from the south, visited the area. The Spanish soldiers named the site El Osito, because the local Chumash people offered them a pet bear. Gifts of food were particularly welcome on their journey, because food supplies were running short. Cambria is located on the Rancho Santa Rosa Mexican land grant given in 1841 to Julian Estrada, settlers were drawn to the area because of the fertile lands and lumber.
Additionally, miners were attracted to the area by the 1862 discovery of cinnabar, for a while, Cambria was a boom town, with $280,000 worth of quicksilver shipped out of San Simeon between 1867 and 1870. During several years Cambria was a mine town, and prospectors flooded the area. More than 150 claims were filed in the early 1870s, the most successful of these claims, the Oceanic Quicksilver Mining Company, at one time employed 300 and was the largest mine in the area and the sixth largest in the world. Three furnaces were built, seven tunnels completed, and their stock price jumped to $30.00 a share, hopes were high, and Cambria residents dreamed of imminent wealth. Unfortunately, by 1878, mercury prices started to fall and Cambrias first economic boom ended, as mercury prices fluctuated, Cambrias mining thrived and dwindled. During the boom of 1876, $282,832 worth of quicksilver was produced, four years later, a devastating fire in 1889 virtually ended the mercury business and Cambria settled into a quiet dairy community.
Originally an American settlement called Slab Town, the known as Cambria was centered at the Leffingwell cove of todays northern Moonstone Beach