During the early 1850s, many surveying parties passed through the vicinity of present-day Beaumont in search of a pass that would connect the east to the Pacific Ocean. The San Gorgonio Pass was discovered in 1853 by an expedition under Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, who was sent by the United States government and its discovery enthralled many who now saw that connecting to the ocean was a feasible measure and led to plans for connecting a railway from the Missouri River to the Pacific. By the early 1860s, the Southern Pacific Railroad had laid tracks through the location of Beaumont. At the summit of the pass, a site was founded and named Edgar Station after a physician from one of the original expedition parties, Edgar Station served as a rest stop for railway travelers from the Mojave Desert on their way to the Los Angeles vicinity. Soon Edgar Station changed its name to San Gorgonio, named by a real estate development company, the sleepy town of San Gorgonio became an incorporated Californian city on November 18,1912, and adopted its current name of Beaumont.
The city, one of Riverside Countys largest apple growers, was dubbed the land of the big red apple by local residents in its early years, apple orchards in and around the town expanded to a $200,000 industry by 1930. During the Cold War, a Lockheed rocket test site operated by Simi Valley-based Rocketdyne was established south of the town in Potrero Canyon, in late 2003, the majority of the Potrero Canyon site was sold to the state of California. Toxic chemicals used in fuel and site test activities have been found in the soil and groundwater at the site. Plans are being developed by the California Department of Fish and Game to allow public access, with the housing boom in the early decade, the urban sprawl reached the last remaining valleys of the Inland Empire. 5% a year to 310,000 by 2015. Beaumont is host to many new master-planned communities, the following communities are currently under construction or have been built, Oak Valley Greens, Three Rings Ranch, Solera by Del Webb sold to Pulte Homes Inc.
Sundance and Tournament Hills by Pardee Homes, and Fairway Canyon, excepting Oak Valley Greens, these communities operate under HOAs and are similar to developments in Redlands, Rancho Cucamonga, and even Orange County suburbs. New big box stores have opened up in town, including a Wal-Mart Supercenter, a Home Depot Home Improvement Center. Beaumont boasts a new Walgreens, Rite-Aid, and a Stater Bros. grocery store, for 90 years, Beaumont has hosted the Annual Cherry Festival. The next Cherry Festival takes place from June 4 through 7,2015, local recreational possibilities include two golf courses including the Tukwet Canyon and Oak Valley Golf Clubs. In May 2016, prosecutors announced that they were charging almost all of Beaumont’s former government leadership with corruption they said had been going on for three decades, seven former officials were arrested and charged with stealing nearly $43 million from city coffers. Bail for Kapanicas, Aklufi, Dillon and Egger was set at $5 million each, the criminal probe began in April 2015 when investigators with the Riverside County district attorney’s office and the FBI raided City Hall and seized records and other items.
Beaumonts neighboring city to the east is Banning and Calimesa to the west, if driving east to Banning or west to Calimesa, drivers can feel a gradual downward slope
Juan Bautista Alvarado
Juan Bautista Valentín Alvarado y Vallejo was a Californio and Governor of Alta California from 1836 to 1842. He was governor during the Revolution of 1836, when the territorial Diputación declared free and sovereign independence from Mexico and forced the Mexican commander, Alvarado oversaw Californias brief rejoining with Mexico as a state. Alvarado was born in Monterey, Alta California, to Jose Francisco Alvarado and his grandfather Juan Bautista Alvarado accompanied Gaspar de Portolà as an enlisted man in the Spanish Army in 1769. His father died a few months after his birth and his mother remarried three years later, leaving Juan Bautista in the care of his grandparents, the Vallejo family and he and Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo grew up together in the Vallejo household. They were both taught by William Edward Petty Hartnell, an English merchant living in Monterey, in 1827 the eighteen-year-old Alvarado was hired as secretary to the territorial legislature. In 1829 he was arrested along with Vallejo and another friend, José Castro.
In 1831 he built a house in Monterey for his mistress, Juliana Francisca Ramona y Castillo, over the years, the pair had a total of at least two illegitimate daughters whom he recognized and perhaps several more he did not recognize, but he never married their mother. During this period Alvarado began drinking heavily, one of his daughters claimed that Raymunda had refused to marry Alvarado because of his excessive drinking. Alvarado supported secularization of the Spanish missions in California and he was appointed by José María de Echeandía to oversee the turn over of Mission San Miguel, even though Echeandía was no longer governor. The new governor Manuel Victoria rescinded the order and sought to have Alvarado, the pair fled and were hidden by their old friend Vallejo, who had become adjutant at the Presidio of San Francisco. However, Victoria was unpopular and Echeandía overthrew his rule and replaced him with Pío de Jesús Pico} near the end of 1831, secularization of the missions resumed in 1833.
In 1834 Alvarado was elected to the legislature as a delegate, Governor José Figueroa granted Rancho El Sur, the vast wilderness south of Monterey, to Alvarado on October 30,1834. After Figueroas death in September 1835, Nicolás Gutiérrez was appointed as governor in January 1836. He was replaced by Mariano Chico in April, but Chico was very unpopular, thinking a revolt was coming, Chico went to Mexico to gather troops, but was reprimanded for leaving his post. Gutierrez, the commandant, re-assumed the governorship, but he too was unpopular. The Americans wanted California independence, but Alvarado instead preferred staying a part of Mexico, Alvarados rebellion adopted a new flag - a single red star on a white background. The flag never became a flag of Alta California, and was not used after Alvarado made peace with the central government. Alvarado, at age 27, was appointed governor
San Bernardino de Sena Estancia
The San Bernardino de Sena Estancia was a ranch outpost of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in what is now in Redlands, United States. It was built to graze cattle, and for Indian Reductions of the Serrano people, over time, it fell into disrepair, until the early 20th century, when a new, larger structure was built as a museum. The new structure shares the same style, but is not otherwise similar to the original buildings. The estancia was established in 1819, a second estancia was established and built around 1830 at Politana rancheria, approximately 1 mile from the original 1819 site. The Politana site of the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia is a California Historical Landmark, the California missions lands were secularized in 1833-34. Alvarado of Alta California issued a Mexican land grant for Rancho San Bernardino to José del Carmen Lugo, José Maria Lugo, Vincente Lugo, included were all of the original asistencia buildings, the chapel, a tile kiln, a lime kiln, and a grist mill. In 1851 the property was sold to Charles C.
Barton practiced medicine and resided on the property until 1867, over time, materials were removed from the abandoned adobe structure, which fell into a state of ruin. In 1925, the County of San Bernardino acquired the property from the Barton family, all remaining historic materials were salvaged, and construction of a new, six-room structure commenced in 1926 with funding from the Works Progress Administration relief project. Additionally, a freestanding campanario was constructed even though none had existed previously, the restoration was completed in 1937, and the rebuilt structures were unveiled to the general public as The Asistencia. Today the facility is known as the Asistencia, operated as a branch of the San Bernardino County Museum and it is located at 26930 Barton Road, in Redlands. The reconstructed asistencia and rancho buildings are open for tours Tuesday through Saturday, group tours are available by appointment, and the chapel and courtyard are available as a site for weddings.
San Bernardino County Museum, San Bernardino de Sena Estancia
Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific Transportation Company, earlier Southern Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Company, and usually called the Southern Pacific or Espee, was an American Class I railroad. It was absorbed in 1988 by the company controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. The railroad was founded as a holding company in 1865. By 1900 the Southern Pacific Company was a railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgans Louisiana. It extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco, Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. By the 1980s route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles, in 1988 the Southern Pacific was taken over by D&RGW parent Rio Grande Industries. The combined railroad kept the Southern Pacific name due to its recognition in the railroad industry.
Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, by 1996 years of financial problems had dropped SPs mileage to 13,715 miles, and it was taken over by the Union Pacific Railroad. Southern Pacific founded important hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson, in the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This evolved into Sprint, a company name that came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony. The original aim was to construct a railroad from Galveston Bay to a point on the Red River near a trading post known as Coffees Station, the GRR built 2 miles of track in Houston in 1855. Track laying began in earnest in 1856 and on 1 September 1856 GRR was renamed the Houston and Texas Central Railway. SP acquired H&TC in 1883 but it continued to operate as a subsidiary under its own management until 1927, when it was leased to another SP-owned railroad, the Texas and New Orleans Railroad.
The Buffalo Bayou and Colorado Railway, was chartered in Texas on 11 February 1850 by a group that included General Sidney Sherman, bBB&C was the first railroad to commence operation in Texas and the first component of SP to commence operation. Surveying of the route alignment commenced at Harrisburg, Texas in 1851, the first 20 miles of track opened in August 1853. SP was founded in San Francisco, California in 1865 by a group of businessmen led by Timothy Phelps with the aim of building a connection between San Francisco and San Diego, California. The company was purchased in September 1868 by a group of known as the Big Four, Charles Crocker, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins. The Big Four had, in 1861, created the Central Pacific Railroad, CPRR was merged into SP in 1870
The ʔívil̃uqaletem are Native Americans of the inland areas of southern California. Their original territory included an area of about 2,400 square miles, the traditional Cahuilla territory was near the geographic center of Southern California. The Cahuilla language is in the Uto-Aztecan family, a 1990 census revealed 35 speakers in an ethnic population of 800. It is critically endangered, since most speakers are middle-aged or older, in their own language, their autonym is ʔívil̃uqaletem, and the name of their language is ʔívil̃uʔat, however they call themselves táxliswet meaning person. Cahuilla is an exonym applied to the group after mission secularization in the Ranchos of California, the word Cahuilla is probably from the Ivilyuat word kawia, meaning master. Oral legends suggest that when the Cahuilla first moved into the Coachella Valley, fed by the Colorado River, it dried up sometime before 1700, following one of the repeated shifts in the rivers course. In 1905 a break in a created the much smaller Salton Sea in the same location.
The Cahuilla lived from the land by using native plants, a notable tree whose fruits they harvested is the California fan palm. The Cahuilla used palm leaves for basketry of many shapes and purposes, the Cahuilla lived in smaller groups than some other tribes. The first encounter with Europeans was in 1774, when Juan Bautista de Anza was looking for a route between Sonora and Monterey in Alta California. Living far inland, the Cahuilla had little contact with Spanish soldiers, many of the Europeans viewed the desert as having little or no value, but rather a place to avoid. The Cahuilla learned of Spanish missions and their culture from Indians living close to missions in San Gabriel and San Diego. The Cahuilla provided the vaqueros that worked for the owners of the Rancho San Bernardino, the Cahuilla did not encounter Anglo-Americans until the 1840s. Chief Juan Antonio, leader of the Cahuilla Mountain Band, gave traveler Daniel Sexton access to areas near the San Gorgonio Pass in 1842. The Mountain Band lent support to a U. S.
Army expedition led by Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale, defending the party against attacks by Wakara and his band of Ute warriors. During the Mexican-American War, Chief Juan Antonio led his warriors to join Californios led by José del Carmen Lugo in attacking their traditional enemy, Lugo led this action in retaliation for the Pauma Massacre, in which the Luiseno had killed 11 Californios. The combined forces staged an ambush and killed 33–40 of the Luiseno warriors, in the treaty ending the war with Mexico, the US promised to honor Mexican land grants and policies. These included recognition of Native American rights to certain lands
Spanish explorers arrived on Californias coasts as early as the mid-16th century. In 1769 the first Spanish Franciscan mission was built in San Diego, local tribes were relocated and conscripted into forced labor on the mission, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. Disease, over work, and torture decimated these tribes, many were baptized as Roman Catholics by the Franciscan missionaries at the missions. Mission Indians were from many regional Native American tribes, their members were often relocated together in new mixed groups, for instance, the Payomkowishum were renamed Luiseños after the Mission San Luis Rey, and the Acjachemem were renamed the Juaneños after the Mission San Juan Capistrano. The Catholic priests forbade the Indians from practicing their native culture, resulting in the disruption of many linguistic, spiritual. When Mexico gained its independence in 1834, it assumed control of the Californian missions from the Franciscans, Mexico secularized the missions and transferred or sold the lands to other non-Native administrators or owners.
Many of the Mission Indians worked on the newly established ranchos with little improvement in their living conditions, around 1906 Alfred L. Kroeber and Constance G. On January 12,1891 the U. S, in 1927, Sacramento Bureau of Indian Affairs Superintendent Lafayette A. Dorrington was instructed by Assistant Commissioner E. B. Merritt in Washington D. C. to list tribes in California that Congress had not yet purchased land to be used as reservations. As part of the 1928 California Indian Jurisdictional Act enrollment, Native Americans were asked to identify their “Tribe or Band. ”The majority of applicants supplied the name of the mission that they knew their ancestors were associated with. The enrollment was part of a plan to provide reservation lands promised, some bands occupy trust lands—Indian Reservations—identified under the Mission Indian Agency. The Mission Indian Act of 1891 formed the administrative Bureau of Indian Affairs unit which governs San Diego County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County, there is one Chumash reservation in the last county, and more than thirty reservations in the others.
Los Angeles, San Luis Obispo, and Orange counties do not contain any tribal trust lands. But, resident tribes, including the Tongva in the first and these and the tribal governments of fifteen other reservations operate casinos today. The total acreage of the Mission group of reservations constitutes approximately 250,000 acres, los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians Manzanita Band of Mission Indians Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians Mission Creek Band of Mission Indians - Mission Creek Reservation of Cahuilla. Morongo Band of Mission Indians Pala Band of Mission Indians Pauma Band of Mission Indians Pechanga Band of Mission Indians Ramona Band or Village of Mission Indians San Cayetano Band of Cahuilla. San Manuel Band of Mission Indians San Miguel Arcangel, descandants of Mission San Miguel Indians in San Miguel, Mythology of the Mission Indians, The Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. XVII, No. Two Myths of the Mission Indians of California, Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol.
XIX, a Native American Encyclopedia, History and Peoples
The Inland Empire is a metropolitan area and region in Southern California. The term may be used to refer to the cities of western Riverside County, most of the areas population is located in southwestern San Bernardino County and northwestern Riverside County. At the end of the century, the Inland Empire was a major center of agriculture, including citrus, dairy. The term Inland Empire is documented to have used by the Riverside Enterprise newspaper as early as April 1914. Developers in the area likely introduced the term to promote the region, the Inland part of the name is derived from the regions location, about 60 miles inland from Los Angeles and the Pacific Ocean. Originally, this area was called the Orange Empire due to the acres of citrus groves that once extended from Pasadena to Redlands during the first half of the twentieth century. The Inland Empire is a region, but is defined as the cities of western Riverside County. A generally broader definition will include the community of Palm Springs and its surrounding area.
What is now known as the Inland Empire was inhabited for thousands of years, prior to the eighteenth century, by the Tongva, Serrano. With Spanish colonization and the subsequent Mexican era the area was populated at the land grant Ranchos. The first American settlers, a group of Mormon pioneers, arrived over the Cajon Pass in 1851, although the Mormons left a scant six years later, recalled to Salt Lake City by Brigham Young during the churchs Utah War with the US government, other settlers soon followed. Base Line road, a thoroughfare, today runs from Highland to San Dimas. San Bernardino County was first formed out of parts of Los Angeles County on April 26,1853, while the partition once included what is today most of Riverside County, the region is not as monolithic as it may sound. On August 14,1893, the state Senate allowed Riverside County to form out of previously in San Bernardino and San Diego counties. County and become the seat of what would have been called San Antonio County, the arrival of rail and the importation of navel and Valencia orange trees in the 1870s touched off explosive growth, with the area quickly becoming a major center for citrus production.
In 1926, Route 66 came through the parts of the area. The region experienced significant economic and population growth through most of the half of the twentieth century. In the early 1990s, the loss of the military bases
Smilodon is an extinct genus of machairodont felid. It is perhaps one of the most famous prehistoric mammals, although commonly known as the saber-toothed tiger, it was not closely related to the tiger or other modern cats. Smilodon lived in the Americas during the Pleistocene epoch, the genus was named in 1842, based on fossils from Brazil. Three species are recognized today, S. gracilis, S. fatalis, the two latter species were probably descended from S. gracilis, which itself probably evolved from Megantereon. The largest collection of Smilodon fossils has been obtained from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, Smilodon was more robustly built than any extant cat, with particularly well-developed forelimbs and exceptionally long upper canine teeth. Its jaw had a bigger gape than that of modern cats, S. gracilis was the smallest species at 55 to 100 kg in weight. S. fatalis had a weight of 160 to 280 kg, both of these species are mainly known from North America, but remains from South America have been attributed to them. S.
populator from South America is perhaps the largest known felid at 220 to 400 kg in weight and 120 cm in height, the coat pattern of Smilodon is unknown, but it has been artistically restored with plain or spotted patterns. In North America, Smilodon hunted large herbivores such as bison and camels, Smilodon is thought to have killed its prey by holding it still with its forelimbs and biting it, but it is unclear in what manner the bite itself was delivered. Scientists debate whether Smilodon had a social or a solitary lifestyle, Smilodon probably lived in closed habitats such as forests and bush, which would have provided cover for ambushing prey. Smilodon died out at the time that most North and South American megafauna disappeared. Its reliance on large animals has been proposed as the cause of its extinction, along with change and competition with other species. During the 1830s, Danish naturalist Peter Wilhelm Lund and his assistants collected fossils in the caves near the small town of Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais.
Among the thousands of fossils found, he recognized a few isolated cheek teeth as belonging to a hyena, after more material was found, Lund concluded the fossils instead belonged to a distinct genus of felid, though transitional to the hyenas. He stated it would have matched the largest modern predators in size, Lund originally wanted to name the new genus Hyaenodon, but realizing this had recently become preoccupied by another prehistoric predator, he instead named it Smilodon populator in 1842. He explained the Ancient Greek meaning of Smilodon as σμίλη, a scalpel or two-edged knife and this has been translated as tooth shaped like double-edged knife. He explained the species name populator as the destroyer, which has translated as he who brings devastation. By 1846, Lund had acquired nearly every part of the skeleton, fossils of Smilodon were discovered in North America from the second half of the 19th century onwards
A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. A canyon may refer to a rift between two peaks, such as those in ranges including the Rocky Mountains, the Alps. Usually a river or stream and erosion carve out such splits between mountains, examples of mountain-type canyons are Provo Canyon in Utah or Yosemite National Park in Californias Sierra Nevada. Canyons within mountains, or gorges that have an opening on one side are called box canyons. Slot canyons are very narrow canyons, often with smooth walls, steep-sided valleys in the seabed of the continental slope underwater are referred to as submarine canyons. Unlike canyons on land, submarine canyons are thought to be formed by turbidity currents, the word canyon is Spanish in origin, with the same meaning. The word canyon is used in North America while the words gorge and ravine are used in Europe and Oceania, though gorge. In the United States, place names generally use canyon in the southwest and gorge in the northeast, in Canada, a gorge is usually narrow while a ravine is more open and often wooded.
The military-derived word defile is occasionally used in the United Kingdom, most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from a plateau or table-land level. The cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion, Canyons are much more common in arid than in wet areas because physical weathering has a more localized effect in arid zones. The wind and water from the combine to erode and cut away less resistant materials such as shales. The freezing and expansion of water serves to help form canyons, water seeps into cracks between the rocks and freezes, pushing the rocks apart and eventually causing large chunks to break off the canyon walls, in a process known as frost wedging. Canyon walls are formed of resistant sandstones or granite. Sometimes large rivers run through canyons as the result of geological uplift. These are called entrenched rivers, because they are unable to alter their course. In the United States, the Colorado River in the Southwest, Canyons often form in areas of limestone rock.
As limestone is soluble to an extent, cave systems form in the rock. When these collapse, a canyon is left, as in the Mendip Hills in Somerset and Yorkshire Dales in Yorkshire, England
San Timoteo Canyon
San Timoteo Canyon is a river valley canyon northeast of The Badlands, in the far northwestern foothills of the San Jacinto Mountains in the Inland Empire region of Southern California. San Timoteo Creek formed the canyon, and flows northwest through it to its confluence with the Santa Ana River, the creek drains the Banning Valley west of the San Gorgonio Pass water divide, and the watersheds of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains that feed into it. The canyon was part of the homeland of the Serrano people for thousands of years. There were hot springs in the area, the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia was established in 1819 as a ranch outpost Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, for the grazing of cattle by the Mission Indians. The original buildings grew to include a chapel, tile kiln, lime kiln, the canyon was part of Rancho San Bernardino, the 1842 Mexican land grant by Alta California Governor Juan B. Alvarado to José del Carmen Lugo, José María Lugo, Vicente Lugo, with this 1851 order, they were still authorized to carry out requested local vigilante law enforcement actions, now within the year old U. S. state.
However some newly arrived American settlers to Southern California and the area resented the killing of men by indians. A company of militia from the Presidio of San Diego was sent against the Cahuilla, at the time, present day San Bernardino and Riverside Counties were within San Diego County, and served by troops based at the presidio. Juan Antonios Cahuilla band fled Politana, going to their homelands in the San Jacinto Mountains, in November 1851, the Garra Revolt occurred, a conflict of the Yuma War. The Cupeño leader Antonio Garra attempted to bring Juan Antonio and the Mountain Cahuilla band into the Serrano, Juan Antonio, a new ally of the Americans, captured Antonio Garra, and turned him over to American officials ending the Garra Revolt. One of San Timoteo Canyon’s more famous residents was the teenaged Wyatt Earp, the canyon was used in 1877 by the Southern Pacific Railroad for its new southern transcontinental routes tracks into/out of the Los Angeles Basin and Southern California, to/from the eastern U. S.
San Timoteo Canyon State Park is in development for public access and recreation facilities, when the regional park opens, it will add some much-needed public open space for the fast-growing Inland Empire. The parks features include, trails for hiking and horseback riding, the native flora and fauna of the canyons varied habitats. The San Timoteo Schoolhouse, completed in the canyon in 1883, is on the National Register of Historic Places in Riverside County and it was acquired by the Riverside County Parks Department in 1993, has been restored, and is open as a museum. In 2010, a construction found a deposit of Quaternary Period prehistoric animal fossils dating back 1.4 million years before present in San Timoteo Canyon. The well-preserved natural cache contained nearly 1,500 bone fragments, other finds include new species of deer and possibly llama. San Timoteo Creek Indigenous peoples of California Christian, Historic San Timoteo Canyon, Sagebrush Press, Morongo Valley, California,2002. Google Books, University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, Volume 144, Issue Date, November,1999 – includes a chapter on the biostratigraphy and biochronology of San Timoteo Canyon
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways is a network of controlled-access highways that forms a part of the National Highway System of the United States. The system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who championed its formation, construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, and the original portion was completed 35 years later, although some urban routes were cancelled and never built. The network has since been extended and, as of 2013, as of 2013, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion, the nations revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50, 000-mile system, the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits.
As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 and this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. A boom in construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s. As automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such a national system to supplement the existing, largely non-freeway. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways, in 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. He recognized that the system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, who was still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29,1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate, three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2,1956, the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13,1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding, kansas claims that it was the first to start paving after the act was signed. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways, on October 1,1940,162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes, October 12,1979, The final section of the Canada to Mexico freeway Interstate 5 is dedicated near Stockton, California