Sanandaj

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Sanandaj

سنندج  (Persian)
سنە / Sine  (Kurdish)
City
Aerial Photo Of Sanandaj 13960613 01.jpg
Official seal of Sanandaj
Seal
Sanandaj is located in Iran
Sanandaj
Sanandaj
Coordinates: 35°18′52″N 46°59′32″E / 35.31444°N 46.99222°E / 35.31444; 46.99222Coordinates: 35°18′52″N 46°59′32″E / 35.31444°N 46.99222°E / 35.31444; 46.99222
Country Iran
ProvinceKurdistan
CountySanandaj
BakhshCentral
Government
 • MayorHeshmatollah Seydi
Area
 • City3,033 km2 (1,171 sq mi)
Elevation
1,538 m (5,046 ft)
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
412,767 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Area code(s)087
ClimateCsa
Websitee-sanandaj.ir

Sanandaj (Kurdish: سنە‎, romanized: Sine; Southern Kurdish pronunciation: [səna] (About this soundlisten); Persian: About this soundسنندج‎) is the capital of Kurdistan Province in Iran. With a population of 414,069,[2] Sanandaj is the twenty third largest city in Iran and the second largest Kurdish city. Sanandaj's founding is fairly recent, (about 250 years ago), yet under its short existence it has grown to become a center of Kurdish culture.[3][4]

The spoken language in the city is Kurdish, but the language which is used in schools and offices is Persian, as the official language in Iran in which almost everyone in the city is fluent.

Etymology[edit]

The city of Sanandaj was originally called Saneh, and because it was located near an important castle it was later called Sanehdaj, meaning castle at the foot of a mountain; this presumably turned into Sanandaj over time.[5]

People[edit]

The population of Sanandaj is mainly Kurdish; the city also had an Armenian minority who gradually emigrated from the city. Until the Iranian Revolution (1979), the city had a small Aramaic-speaking Jewish community of about 4,000 people;[3] the city boasted a sizable Assyrian community that spoke a unique dialect of Aramaic called Senaya. The economy of Sanandaj is based upon the production of carpets, processed hides and skins, milled rice, refined sugar, woodworking, cotton weaving, metalware and cutlery.[6][7]

Most of the people of Sanandaj follow the Shafi branch Sunni Islam.[8]

The Ardalani dialect of Kurdish is spoken in Sanandaj and its surroundings. Ardalani dialect is distinct to Kurdistan province and is spoken in Sanandaj and other cities of Kurdistan province; the other important dialect of Sorani Kurdish is Mokriani which is spoken in Mokrian region in Piranshahr & Mahabad in West Azerbaijan province.

During the Iranian revolution, PDKI and Komalah took control over the city under a brief period of time.[9]

Climate[edit]

Sanandaj has a humid continental climate (Dsa) according to the Köppen climate classification.

Climate data for Sanandaj
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
6.9
(44.4)
13.1
(55.6)
19.1
(66.4)
25.2
(77.4)
32.3
(90.1)
36.8
(98.2)
36.1
(97.0)
31.6
(88.9)
23.9
(75.0)
15.6
(60.1)
8.5
(47.3)
21.2
(70.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
1.1
(34.0)
6.6
(43.9)
11.8
(53.2)
16.7
(62.1)
22.3
(72.1)
27.0
(80.6)
26.3
(79.3)
21.0
(69.8)
14.9
(58.8)
8.4
(47.1)
2.8
(37.0)
13.2
(55.7)
Average low °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
0.1
(32.2)
4.5
(40.1)
8.2
(46.8)
12.2
(54.0)
17.1
(62.8)
16.4
(61.5)
10.4
(50.7)
5.8
(42.4)
1.1
(34.0)
−3
(27)
5.1
(41.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 71.8
(2.83)
67.7
(2.67)
86.9
(3.42)
73.1
(2.88)
42.5
(1.67)
1.8
(0.07)
0.4
(0.02)
0.7
(0.03)
0.8
(0.03)
29.2
(1.15)
57.3
(2.26)
58.4
(2.30)
490.6
(19.33)
Average precipitation days 12.4 12.0 13.3 12.0 9.0 1.0 0.3 1.0 0.8 5.8 8.2 10.9 86.7
Source: World Meteorological Organisation

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ "آمار جمعیتی شهرستان سنندج :: فرمانداری سنندج".
  3. ^ a b Geoffrey Khan, The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sanandaj, Piscataway NJ: Gorgias Press, p. 1.
  4. ^ Sanandaj Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 16 July 2014.
  5. ^ حدیدی، عبدالعلی. «سنندج». در دانشنامه جهان اسلام. 21/10/1387. بازبینی‌شده در 2012-07-20.
  6. ^ "کردستان از نظر نرخ بیکاری در جایگاه دوم کشور قرار گرفت". yjc.ir. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  7. ^ "سرمایه‌گذاری در صنعت و معدن کردستان، 4 برابر کمتر از متوسط کشوری است". sanayenews.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  8. ^ https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2017/11/intelligence-ministry-invites-rouhani-campaign-manager-to-stop-advocating-for-sunni-muslim-rights/
  9. ^ "Azad - Fan Lexikon". Fan-Lexikon.de (in German). Retrieved 27 October 2017.

External links[edit]