Paimio Sanatorium is a former tuberculosis sanatorium in Paimio, Southwest Finland, designed by Finnish architect Alvar Aalto. Aalto received the design commission having won the architectural competition for the project held in 1929; the building was completed in 1933, soon after received critical acclaim both in Finland and abroad. The building served as a tuberculosis sanatorium until the early 1960s, when it was converted into a general hospital. Today the building is not functioning as a hospital; the sanatorium has been nominated to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Aalto received the commission to design the building after winning an architectural competition for the project held in 1929. Though the building represents the'modernist' period of Aalto's career, followed many of the tenets of Le Corbusier's pioneering ideas for modernist architecture, it carried the seeds of Aalto's move towards a more synthetic approach. For instance, the main entrance is marked by a nebulous-shaped canopy unlike anything being designed at that time by the older generation of modernist architects.
The building is regarded as one of his most important early designs — designed at the same time as the Vyborg Library. Aalto and his wife Aino designed all of the sanatorium's furniture and interiors; some of the furniture, most notably the Paimio chair, is still in production by Artek. Aalto's starting point for the design of the sanatorium was to make the building itself a contributor to the healing process, he liked to call the building a "medical instrument". For instance, particular attention was paid to the design of the patient bedrooms: these held two patients, each with his or her own cupboard and washbasin. Aalto designed special silent basins. Aalto placed the lamps in the room out of the patients' line of vision and painted the ceiling a relaxing grayish green so as to avoid glare; each patient had their own specially designed cupboard, fixed to the wall and off the floor so as to aid in cleaning beneath it. In the early years the only known "cure" for tuberculosis was complete rest in an environment with clean air and sunshine.
Thus on each floor of the building, at the end of the patient bedroom wing, were sunning balconies, where weak patients could be pulled out in their beds. Healthier patients could go and lie on the sun deck on the top floor of the building; as the patients spent a long time — several years — in the sanatorium, there was a distinct community atmosphere among both staff and patients. In the 1950s the disease could be dealt with by surgery and thus a surgery wing designed by Aalto's architect studio, was added. Soon after, antibiotics saw the virtual end of the disease, the number of patients was reduced and the building was converted into a general hospital. Paimio Sanatorium is still owned by Turku University hospital, but it's not used as a hospital anymore. Since 2014 main building and some staff houses have been part of The Foundation for the Rehabilitation of Children and Young People established in 2000 by the Mannerheim League for Child Welfare. Margaretha Ehrström, Sirkkaliisa Jetsonen and Tommi Lindh, Nomination of Paimio Hospital for Inclusion in the World Heritage List.
Museovirasto, Helsinki, 2005. Marianna Heikinheimo: Functionalism and Technology, p.73-79 Göran Schildt, Alvar Aalto. The Early Years. Rizzoli, New York, 1984. International Style Paimio Sanatorium "Tuberculosis and Solar Architecture". Solarhousehistory.com
Mecca spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, is the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m above sea level, 340 kilometres south of Medina, its resident population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah. As the birthplace of Muḥammad, the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities, it was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925.
In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj; as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, closer to the Arabic pronunciation. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca"; the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah; this form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, meaning "Mother of All Settlements"/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca. Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah." Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar. Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region; the provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007. On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor; the early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra, located to the north of Mecca. Though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca; the first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz. Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". Claims have been made. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the form
R. G. Ferguson
Robert George Ferguson, O. B. E. B. A. M. D. LL. D. was a pioneer in North America's fight against tuberculosis and the introduction of free treatment. As Medical Director, as General Superintendent of the Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League Canada, he achieved many firsts for the province, including first province in Canada to provide free treatment of tuberculosis first province to initiate a vaccination program for its sanatorium personnel and the First Nations population first province to conduct tuberculosis surveys Furthermore, Dr. Ferguson was a pioneer in long-term BCG vaccine research, quite controversial at the time, he was born 12 September 1883 on a farm near Joliette, North Dakota, where his parents had moved from Ontario. In 1903 the family moved to a homestead near Saskatchewan. "George's" education was interrupted following public school by a spell of homesteading on his own before starting high school in Winnipeg at the age of 20. At first he planned a career in the Church, attended Wesley College, carrying out mission field work in Alberta in 1908 and 1912.
After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree, a Bronze Medal in Arts and being selected Senior Stick by classmates, his path changed and in 1916 he graduated in medicine, earning another Bronze Medal. In his final year of medical school he worked part-time in a laboratory making typhoid vaccine for the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Dr. Ferguson's post-graduate work included training at the London Hospital in England, at Harvard School of Medicine, Harvard University. Ferguson married the former Helen Ross of Wynyard, Saskatchewan in 1916. A detailed description of Ferguson's early year achievements and family can be found at http://fergusonfamilygenealogy.wordpress.com/r-george-ferguson-1883-1964/ Following his graduation Dr. Ferguson was appointed Assistant Medical Superintendent, Acute Infection Hospital, Winnipeg. From here he went to the Fort Qu'Appelle Sanatorium intending to stay for six months, he remained for 31 years. He was a skilled administrator with a knowledge of economics and the ability to analyze the dire challenge presented by rampant TB infection in the community.
Native populations were susceptible. In 1917 the Province of Saskatchewan had the nation's highest incidence of tuberculosis with a rate of 50 cases per 100,000 population. Dr. Ferguson saw that the only way to deal with this situation was to provide diagnosis and hospitalization at no cost to the patient; this was a huge political challenge. Dr. Ferguson persisted in his efforts, working patiently to gain support from TB sufferers, the public, members of the medical profession, last but not least, politicians; as one of three members appointed by the Provincial Government to form the Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis Commission in 1921 he wrote the entire report. Nineteen of its 22 recommendations were implemented. Chief among them was making the cost of treatment of TB a public responsibility. Upon Ferguson`s death in 1964 Saskatchewan Minister of Health Minister Allan Blakeney said, "The introduction of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis at public expense was one of the early and essential steps in developing a program of health services for all."In October 1928 Ferguson gave a landmark presentation entitled "Tuberculosis Among the Indians of the Great Canadian Plains" at the 14th Annual Conference of the National Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis at British Medical House, London.
It established him as an international authority on TB. On the same trip he attended the Council of the International Union Against TB where the double barred cross of Lorena was adopted as a symbol of the worldwide fight against TB. A further achievement in 1928 was integration of the native population into the sanitorium. Saskatchewan, under Ferguson's guidance, was the first province by eight years to integrate the native population into sanatoria, they were segregated. Ferguson found an ally in incoming Premier James G. Gardiner, on 1 January 1929 the Saskatchewan Sanatoria & Hospitals Act was passed. Saskatchewan became the first province in Canada to make tuberculosis treatment free to all who needed it. At the time Dr. Ferguson began his career at Fort Qu'Appelle, BCG vaccination was, controversial; this grew to a fever pitch in 1929 when 270 infants in Lubeck Germany were vaccinated with a vaccine, BCG but which turned out to be virulent tubercle bacillus. Seventy seven children died of tuberculosis.
The idea of introducing live tubercle into the human body was considered dubious from perspectives of both health and morality. However, the reality in 1926 was that natives were ten times more than non-natives to die from tuberculosis, and the risk of BCG vaccination was theoretical. Dr. Ferguson felt, he was so convinced of the value of BCG vaccination that to prove its safety he vaccinated his own children, before vaccinating anyone else. In 1932 Ferguson received approval to begin BCG vaccination of newborn infants in the Fort Qu'Appelle Health Unit, an increase in his annual National Research Council grant for BCG research which, was renewed for 21 consecutive years. In collaboration with Austin Simes, a former classmate now working with native populations nearby, Ferguson embarked on a long-term studies of families of equal status with respect to living and economic conditions to impact health outcomes. In spite of some questions concerning "randomization", the Panel on Tuberculosis of the NRC Associate Committee on Medical Research recognized Ferguson's and Simes's study as "the most scientific trial of BCG yet made".
Statistics alone provide evidence of Dr. R. G. Ferguson's lastin
Sunland Hospital refers to a chain of defunct mental health facilities located throughout the state of Florida. Named the W. T. Edwards Tuberculosis Hospitals, the facilities were remodeled into "Sunland Centers" with services for the mentally and physically disabled, specializing in children. A large majority of the centers were shut down by 1983 for various safety reasons. W. T. Edwards was the first chairman of the State Tuberculosis Board; when a new series of state-of-the-art tuberculosis hospitals opened in 1952, they were named in honor of him. The hospitals were located all over the state of Florida, including Tampa, Marianna, Tallahassee and several other cities in south Florida. All of the hospital buildings were constructed in the same basic way; the main buildings were all long and thin, consisting of 5 floors with a few smaller wings branching off from the main building. At the time, it was thought that fresh air was the best treatment for TB, so the buildings were riddled with multi-pane windows which could be opened by cranks.
The back side of each building was a wall of windows, while the front windows were more evenly spaced apart in sections that did not house patients. When antibiotics effective against TB were developed, there was no longer a need for tuberculosis hospitals and the W. T. Edwards Hospitals were all closed by the start of the 1960s; the facilities fell under the jurisdiction of the Florida Department of Health and it wouldn't take long for the hospitals to reopen as Sunlands across the state. In 1961 the Division of Sunland Training Centers was established on the Board of Commissioners for Institutions and replaced the Division of Farm Colonies in Florida. Many former W. T. Edwards Hospitals were reopened as Sunland Mental Hospitals; the main Sunland building, located in Orlando, was the only one not housed in a former Edwards hospital. At first the Centers did well, but soon they were plagued with problems due to understaffing and underfunding; the most infamous facility for patient neglect was the Sunland located in Tallahassee, which not only suffered from severe staff shortages, but significant deterioration of the physical plant itself.
Many Sunlands had various activities for the patients, who were children, to engage in. There were swimming pools with rails and plastic wheelchairs, hopscotch and frequent appearances by figures like Woodsy Owl and the state governor himself. Many of the patients were official Boy Scouts and held meetings on the hospital grounds with Scoutmasters. Pictures still exist in the Florida archives of children in full uniform posing in their wheelchairs and hospital beds; as the state of the hospitals declined, they fell under the Florida Department of Children and Families and underwent several name changes. Groups like the Association for Retarded Citizens stepped in and began speaking out against institutions like Sunland, which treated its patients as "sub-human", subjecting them to a variety of treatments that were considered cruel; as the 1970s came to an end, it soon became obvious. Most of the centers dispersed their patients to foster homes. 30.46022°N 84.24467°W / 30.46022. The Sunland Center at Tallahassee was considered a hospital because it cared for both mentally and physically disabled patients while all other centers cared for mentally disabled patients only.
Within a year of the Center opening, it started to suffer from a shortage of funds and overcrowding conditions. These forces caused a variety of problems to form within the hospital from poor and inadequately prepared food, overcrowding of the cottages, inactivity of the children, unsanitary conditions, inadequacy of dental services, to unacceptable and torturous hygienic practices. Conditions within the hospital continued to worsen causing various psychologists to call for the closing of the center. Over time, to help cover costs of various vocation and rehab programs within the state, funds were shifted away from the Sunland Centers to other programs. After various scandals, lack of funds, the move towards community care, the Sunland Center closed in 1983; the property was purchased in 2004 by a Winter Park businessman, but that deal fell through. Over a year the property was sold for use in a housing and commercial district project, which became the Victoria Grand Luxury Apartments. Demolition of the hospital building and all the surrounding buildings and wooded areas started in early 2006 and was completed in November of the same year.
Months construction began on the Victoria Grand Apartments. Today, there is no sign of Sunland at Tallahassee remaining on Phillips road. However, relics from the old hospital were said to be collected and used to create part of the Sunland Asylum wing at the Terror of Tallahassee. A. G. Holley State Hospital was opened in 1950 as the Southeast Florida Tuberculosis Hospital, it was built to serve 500 patients, with living accommodations for the physicians and administrative staff. It was the second of four state tuberculosis hospitals built in Florida between 1938 and 1952; the other hospitals have since closed. A. G. Holley was the last of the original American sanatoriums that continued to be dedicated to tuberculosis. With the discovery of drugs to treat tuberculosis patients outside of the hospital setting, the daily census at the hospital by 1971 dropped to less than half of the original 500. By 1976 the beds and staff at A. G. Holley were reduced to serve a maximum of 150
Artek is a Finnish furniture company. It was founded in December 1935 by architect Alvar Aalto and his wife Aino Aalto, visual arts promoter Maire Gullichsen and art historian Nils-Gustav Hahl; the founders chose a non-Finnish name, the neologism Artek was meant to manifest the desire to combine art and technology. This echoed a main idea of the International Style movement the Bauhaus, to emphasize the technical expertise in production and quality of materials, instead of historical-based, eclectic or frivolous ornamentation; the original aim of the venture was to promote the furniture and glassware of Alvar Aalto and Aino Aalto, to produce furnishings for their buildings. Before 1935 the Aaltos' designs were manufactured by Huonekalu-ja Rakennustyötehdas Oy in Turku; that company was renamed Huonekalutehdas Korhonen Oy and moved to Littoinen, but now Artek and both companies are all part of Vitra. Artek have their own in-house designers, such as renown Ben af Schulten; the studio was set up ostensibly to assist Aalto's architects' office with interior designs for his buildings.
Since Aalto's passing in 1976 the company has sold design objects by other Finnish designers, such as Juha Leiviskä and Eero Aarnio, as well as Vitra furniture. From the beginning of his career Alvar Aalto experimented with materials wood, applied for patents for the bending of wood as applied in his furniture designs and as acoustic screens in his buildings; the Aaltos designed several different types of furniture and lamps for the Paimio Sanatorium. The best known of the furniture pieces is his cantilevered birch wood Paimio Chair, designed for tuberculosis patients to sit in for long hours each day. Aalto argued that the angle of the back of the chair was the perfect angle for the patient to breathe most easily; the design of the chair may have been influenced by Marcel Breuer's metal Wassily Chair, though Aalto was negative towards metal furniture. The degree of bending of the wood tested the technical limits of that time; the chair is part of the permanent collections at the MoMA in New York City and the Finnish Design Museum.
The Model No. 60 stool, designed circa 1932-1933, demonstrated Alvar Aalto's interest in basic functional, utilitarian forms. It was constructed of bent laminated birch, came in all natural or curled birch, or with a black, red, or blue seat with natural legs; the X600 evolved from the 60. The handmade legs have the portions attached to the seat opening up into a fan, showing the bent wood characteristic of Artek furniture and the fan motif that runs through Aalto's architecture. In 2007, Japanese architect Shigeru Ban designed an exhibition pavilion for Artek, built from reconstituted waste material provided by the Finnish paper manufacturer UPM; the pavilion was first used at the Milan Triennale in 2007, after which it was temporally in use outside the Design Museum, Helsinki. Company home page
George Bodington was a British general practitioner and pulmonary specialist. Born in Buckinghamshire and educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, he served a surgical apprenticeship studied at St Bartholomew's Hospital. In 1825 he was licensed by the Society of Apothecaries, became a physician and GP in Erdington, his great professional interest was pulmonary disease and in 1836 he acquired the asylum and sanitorium at Driffold House, Sutton Coldfield. In 1840 he published his essay, On the Treatment and Cure of Pulmonary Consumption, condemning contemporary treatments and advocating instead dry frosty air, gentle exercise, a healthy diet; this was attacked by reviewers in the Lancet and he became disenheartened with his work. He turned to the treatment of insanity. In 1851 the local census recorded eleven "lunatics" and six staff, including the doctor and his family, at Driffold House. At some point the asylum was moved to the White House, demolished in 1935 to provide a site for an Odeon cinema.
In 1881 the Doctor was living at Manor Hill. The census of that year shows nine pupils, he was a local politician and served on the Sutton Corporation for forty years. He was the paternal grandfather of barrister Oliver Bodington and the great-grandfather of Nicholas Bodington. An Essay on the Treatment and Cure of Pulmonary Consumption. Longman, Brown and Longmans. 1840. Jane Davage, The life and times of George Bodington, Richard J.. "George Bodington: The pioneer of the sanatorium treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis". British Journal of Tuberculosis. 19: 1–16. Doi:10.1016/S0366-085080009-7. Cyriax, Richard J.. "George Bodington1799-1882". British Journal of Tuberculosis. British Medical Journal George Bodington's Obituary 11 March 1882 BMJ 7 June 1902 Obituary of George Fowler Bodington Sutton Coldfield News 20.4.1956 reporting Birmingham Civic Society plaque unveiled at 165 Gravelly Hill, Erdington. Margaret Campbell, What Tuberculosis did for Modernism: the influence of a curative environment on modernist design and architecture, Medical History, October 1 2005, Vol 49, pp.463–488, footnote 7 RY Keers, Two forgotten pioneers.
James Carson and George Bodington, Thorax: an international journal of respiratory medicine, 1980, Vol 35, pp.483-489 Warwickshire Asylums from the Rossbret Institutions website Biography by Andrew MacFarlane
Asheville, North Carolina
Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. It is the largest city in Western North Carolina, the 12th-most populous city in the U. S. state of North Carolina. The city's population was 89,121 according to 2016 estimates, it is the principal city in the four-county Asheville metropolitan area, with a population of 424,858 in 2010. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the land where Asheville now exists lay within the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation. In 1540, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto came to the area known as Guaxule, bringing the first European visitors along with European diseases, which depleted the native population; the area was used as an open hunting ground until the middle of the 19th century. The history of Asheville, as a town, began in 1784. In that year, Colonel Samuel Davidson and his family settled in the Swannanoa Valley, redeeming a soldier's land grant from the state of North Carolina. Soon after building a log cabin at the bank of Christian Creek, Davidson was lured into the woods by a band of Cherokee hunters and killed.
Davidson's wife and female slave fled on foot overnight to Davidson's Fort 16 miles away. In response to the killing, Davidson's twin brother Major William Davidson and brother-in-law Colonel Daniel Smith formed an expedition to retrieve Samuel Davidson's body and avenge his murder. Months after the expedition, Major Davidson and other members of his extended family returned to the area and settled at the mouth of Bee Tree Creek; the United States Census of 1790 counted 1,000 residents of the area, excluding the Cherokee Native Americans. Buncombe County was formed in 1792; the county seat, named "Morristown" in 1793, was established on a plateau where two old Indian trails crossed. In 1797, Morristown was incorporated and renamed "Asheville" after North Carolina Governor Samuel Ashe. Asheville, with a population of 2,500 by 1861, remained untouched by the Civil War, but contributed a number of companies to the Confederate States Army, as well as a number for the United States Army. For a time, an Enfield rifle manufacturing facility was located in the town.
The war came to Asheville as an afterthought, when the "Battle of Asheville" was fought in early April 1865 at the present-day site of the University of North Carolina at Asheville, with Union forces withdrawing to Tennessee after encountering resistance from a small group of Confederate senior and junior reserves and recuperating Confederate soldiers in prepared trench lines across the Buncombe Turnpike. An engagement was fought that month at Swannanoa Gap as part of the larger Stoneman's Raid, with Union forces retreating in the face of resistance from Brig. Gen. Martin, commander of Confederate troops in western North Carolina, but returning to the area via Howard's Gap and Henderson County. In late April 1865, North Carolina Union troops from the 3rd North Carolina Mounted Infantry, under the overall command of Union Gen. Stoneman, captured Asheville. After a negotiated departure, the troops subsequently returned and plundered and burned a number of Confederate supporters' homes in Asheville.
On October 2, 1880, the Western North Carolina Railroad completed its line from Salisbury to Asheville, the first rail line to reach the city. It was sold and resold to the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company, becoming part of the Southern Railway in 1894. With the completion of the first railway, Asheville experienced a slow but steady growth as industrial plants increased in number and size, new residents built homes. Textile mills were established and plants were set up for the manufacture of wood and mica products and other commodities; the 21-mile distance between Hendersonville and Asheville of the former Asheville and Spartanburg Railroad was completed in 1886. By that point, the line was operated as part of the Richmond and Danville Railroad until 1894 and controlled by the Southern Railway afterward. Asheville had the first electric street railway lines in the state of North Carolina, the first of which opened in 1889; these would be replaced by buses in 1934. In 1900, Asheville was the third largest city in the state, behind Charlotte.
Asheville prospered in the decades of the 1920s. During these years, Rutherford P. Hayes, son of President Rutherford B. Hayes, bought land, worked with Edward W. Pearson, Sr. to create the African-American Burton Street Community, worked to establish a sanitary district in West Asheville, which became an incorporated town in 1913, merging with Asheville in 1917. The Great Depression, the period of Asheville's history made world-famous by the novel Look Homeward, hit Asheville quite hard. On November 20, 1930, eight local banks failed. Only Wachovia remained open with infusions of cash from Winston-Salem; because of the explosive growth of the previous decades, the per capita debt owed by the city was the highest in the nation. By 1929, both the city and Buncombe County had incurred over $56 million in bonded debt to pay for a wide range of municipal and infrastructure improvements, including City Hall, the water system, Beaucatcher Tunnel, Asheville High School. Rather than default, the city paid those debts over a period of fifty years.
From the start of the depression through the 1980s, economic growth in Asheville was slow. During this time of financial stagnation, most of the buildings in the downtown district remained un