SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sanctuary

A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine. By the use of such places as a haven, by extension the term has come to be used for any place of safety; this secondary use can be categorized into human sanctuary, a safe place for humans, such as a political sanctuary. Sanctuary is a word derived from the Latin sanctuarium, which is, like most words ending in -arium, a container for keeping something in—in this case holy things or cherished people; the meaning was extended to places of holiness or safety, in particular the whole demarcated area many acres, surrounding a Greek or Roman temple. Similar usage may be sometimes found describing sacred areas in other religions. In Christian churches "sanctuary" has a specific meaning, covering part of the interior, covered below. In many Western Christian traditions including Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican churches, the area around the altar is called the sanctuary. In many churches the architectural term chancel covers the same area as the sanctuary, either term may be used.

In some Protestant churches, the term sanctuary denotes the entire worship area while the term chancel is used to refer to the area around the altar-table. In many Western traditions altar rails sometimes mark the edge of the chancel. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches of Syro-Malabar Church, Byzantine rite and Coptic Orthodox Churches, the sanctuary is separated from the nave by an iconostasis a wall of icons, with three doors in it. In other Oriental Orthodox traditions, a sanctuary curtain is used; the terminology that applies the word "sanctuary" to the area around the altar does not apply to Christian churches alone: King Solomon's temple, built in about 950 BC, had a sanctuary where the Ark of the Covenant was, the term applies to the corresponding part of any house of worship. In most modern synagogues, the main room for prayer is known as the sanctuary, to contrast it with smaller rooms dedicated to various other services and functions. In Europe, Christian churches were sometimes built on land considered to be a holy spot where a miracle or martyrdom was believed to have taken place or where a holy person was buried.

Examples are St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and St. Albans Cathedral in England, which commemorate the martyrdom of Saint Peter and Saint Alban, respectively; the place, therefore the church built there, was considered to have been sanctified by what happened there. In modern times, the Catholic Church has continued this practice by placing in the altar of each church, when it is consecrated for use, a box containing relics of a saint; the relics box is removed. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the antimension on the altar serves a similar function, it is a cloth icon of Christ's body taken down from the cross, has the relics of a saint sewn into it. In addition, it is signed by the parish's bishop, represents his authorization and blessing for the Eucharist to be celebrated on that altar. In the classical world, some temples offered sanctuary to runaway slaves; when referring to prosecution of crimes, sanctuary can mean one of the following: Church sanctuary A sacred place, such as a church, in which fugitives were immune to arrest.

While the practice of churches offering sanctuary is still observed in the modern era, it no longer has any legal effect and is respected for the sake of tradition. Political sanctuary Immunity to arrest afforded by a sovereign authority; the United Nations has expanded the definition of "political" to include race, religion, political opinions and membership or participation in any particular social group or social activities. People seeking political sanctuary do so by asking a sovereign authority for asylum. Many ancient peoples recognised a religious right of asylum, protecting criminals from legal action and from exile to some extent; this principle was adopted by the early Christian church, various rules developed for what the person had to do to qualify for protection and just how much protection it was. In England, King Æthelberht made the first laws regulating sanctuary in about AD 600, though Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae says that the legendary pre-Saxon king Dunvallo Molmutius enacted sanctuary laws in the Molmutine Laws as recorded by Gildas.

By Norman times, there had come to be two kinds of sanctuary: All churches had the lower-level kind, but only the churches the king licensed had the broader version. The medieval system of asylum was abolished in England by James I in 1623. During the Wars of the Roses of the 15th century when the Lancastrians or Yorkists would gain the upper hand by winning a battle, some adherents of the losing side might find themselves surrounded by adherents of the winning side and unable to return to their own side, so they would rush to sanctuary at the nearest c

Peter Trevers

Peter Trevers, or Travers was an Irish barrister and judge of the fifteenth century. He belonged to a family which had settled in County Meath in the thirteenth century. John de Tryvers, judge of the Court of Common Pleas c.1283-5, was a member of the same family. He may have been a relative of Peter Treveris, a well-known printer, working in London in the 1520s; the family is thought to have been Cornish in origin: the most usual spelling of the family name is Treffry. Peter is first heard of in London, where he was studying law at the Inns of Court, in 1456. Ireland had no law school and thus young Irishmen who wished to become lawyers and in due course judges in their home country were obliged to seek permission from the Crown to study law in London, he was appointed King's Serjeant in 1460. He was a man of considerable wealth, who owned the impressive Baldongan Castle in Skerries, County Dublin, a nearby estate at Courtlough. Baldongan Castle. During the Wars of the Roses, the dynastic struggle between the rival York and Lancaster branches of the English royal family, like most of the Anglo-Irish gentry, supported the Yorkist cause.

In 1460 he accompanied Richard, Duke of York to England when York unsuccessfully claimed the English Crown. In 1461, following the Yorkist triumph, Trevers was appointed Master of the Rolls in Ireland by Richard's son, King Edward IV: the office was granted first to Patrick Cogley, but Cogley exchanged it for the more lucrative office of Clerk of the Crown and Hanaper. In 1465 Trevers was entrusted with raising men for the defence of Dublin, he died in 1468. He married Elizabeth Holywood, or Holywode, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Robert Holywood of Artane Castle. Elizabeth had been twice widowed, she and Peter had three children: Nicholas Anne, who married Patrick Netterville Catherine, who married into the Cusack family. Ball, F. Elrington The Judges in Ireland 1221-1921 John Murray London 1926 Kenny, Colum King's Inns and the Kingdom of Ireland Irish Academic Press 1992 Lodge and Archdall, Mervyn Peerage of Ireland Dublin 1839

Mitrephora polypyrena

Mitrephora polypyrena is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is native to Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Myanmar, it is a tree reaching 20 meters in height. Its leathery leaves are come to a point at their tips; the leaves are smooth and shiny on their upper surfaces, while their undersides are hairy. Its petioles are 4.5-11 millimeters long. Its flowers are arranged in groups of 3 or fewer on a rachis; each flower is on a fleshy hairy pedicel 20-40 millimeters long. Its flowers have oval-shaped sepals that are 5-7.5 by 5.5-7.5 millimeters. The outside of the sepals are densely hairy, its 6 petals are arranged in two rows of 3. The yellow, oval-shaped outer petals are 24-36 by 18-28 millimeters and come to a point at their tip; the outside surface of the outer petals are densely hairy, while their inner surface is hairy. The inner petals are white with 17-22 by 9.5-16 millimeters. The outside surface of the inner petals is densely hairy while the tip of the inner surface has long hairs.

The pollen of M. polypyrena is shed as permanent tetrads