Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum. The woods are heavy and fine-grained, unlike many other aromatic woods, they retain their fragrance for decades. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for use. Sandalwood is the second-most expensive wood in the world. Both the wood and the oil produce a distinctive fragrance, valued for centuries. Species of these slow-growing trees have suffered overharvesting in past centuries. Sandalwoods are medium-sized hemiparasitic trees, part of the same botanical family as European mistletoe. Notable members of this group are Indian Australian sandalwood; these are found in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and other Pacific Islands. S. album is a threatened species indigenous to South India, grows in the Western Ghats and a few other mountain ranges such as the Kalrayan and Shevaroy Hills. Although sandalwood trees in India and Nepal are government-owned and their harvest is controlled, many trees are illegally cut down. Sandalwood oil prices have risen to $2,000 per kg recently.
Red sanders is endemic to Seshachalam, Veliganda and Palakonda hill ranges, distributed in districts of Kadapa and Kurnool in Rayalaseema region and parts of Nellore and Prakasam in Andhra Pradesh, Mysore region of Karnataka, marayoor forest in Kerala, southern India, is high in quality. New plantations were created with international aid in Tamil Nadu for economic exploitation. In Kununurra in Western Australia, Indian sandalwood is grown on a large scale; this species is the primary source of sandalwood used in commercial oil production and should not be confused with West Indian Sandalwood, Amyris balsamifera. S. ellipticum, S. freycinetianum, Santalum paniculatum, the Hawaiian sandalwood, were used and considered high quality. These three species were exploited between 1825 before the supply of trees ran out. Although S. freycinetianum and S. paniculatum are common today, they have not regained their former abundance or size, S. ellipticum remains rare. S. spicatum is used by perfumers. The oil concentration differs from other Santalum species.
In the 1840s, sandalwood was Western Australia’s biggest export earner. Oil was distilled for the first time in 1875, by the turn of the 20th century, production of Australian sandalwood oil was intermittent. However, in the late 1990s, Western Australian sandalwood oil enjoyed a revival and by 2009 had peaked at more than 20,000 kg per year – much of which went to the fragrance industries in Europe. Although overall production has decreased, by 2011, a significant percentage of its production was heading to the chewing tobacco industry in India alongside Indian sandalwood – the chewing tobacco market being the largest market for both oils in 2012. Other species: Commercially, various other species, not belonging to Santalum species, are used as sandalwood. Various unrelated plants with scented wood or oil include: Adenanthera pavonina - sandalwood tree, red or false red sandalwood Baphia nitida - camwood known as African sandalwood Eremophila mitchellii - sandalwood. Yield of oil tends to vary depending on the location of the tree.
Australia will be the largest producer of S. album by 2018, the majority grown around Kununurra, Western Australia. Western Australian sandalwood is grown in plantations in its traditional growing area in the wheatbelt east of Perth, where more than 15,000 ha are in plantations. Western Australian sandalwood is only wild harvested and can achieve upwards of AU$16,000 per tonne, which has sparked a growing illegal trade speculated to be worth AU$2.5 million in 2012. Sandalwood is expensive compared to other types of woods, so to maximize profit, sandalwood is harvested by removing the entire tree instead of sawing it down at the trunk close to ground level; this way wood from the stump and root, which possesses high levels of sandalwood oil, can be processed and sold. Sandalwood oil has a distinctive soft, smooth and milky precious-wood scent, it imparts a long-lasting, woody base to perfumes from the oriental, fougère, chypre families, as well as a fixative to floral and citrus fragrances. When used in smaller proportions in a perfume, it acts as a fixative, enhancing the longevity of other, more volatile, materials in the composite.
Sandalwood is a key ingredient in the "floriental" fragrance family – when combined with white florals such as jasmine, ylang ylang, plumeria, orange blossom, etc. Sandalwood oil in India is used in the cosmetic industry; the main source of true sandalwood, S. album, is a protected species, demand for it cannot be met. Many species of plants are traded as "sandalwood"; the genus Santalum has more than 19 species. Traders accept oil from related species, as well as from unr
David Lance Jarvis is an American college baseball coach serving as head coach of the Belmont Bruins baseball team. He was named to that position prior to the 1998 season. Jarvis played collegiately at Three Rivers Community College for two years before completing his eligibility at Arkansas State, he was a catcher, played a short semi-pro career before turning to coaching. In 1985, he earned a master's degree at Arkansas State. Three Rivers made Jarvis their head coach in 1985, he remained with the Raiders for nine seasons. The program was ranked under Jarvis, he was named a three time Midwest Community College Athletic Conference Coach of the Year. In 1994, Jarvis made the jump to Division I, serving as an assistant at Murray State, with responsibilities for hitters and catchers, helping in recruiting the junior college ranks. While at Belmont, he led the program into the NCAA and from the Atlantic Sun Conference to the Ohio Valley Conference; the Bruins claimed A-Sun conference titles in 2011 and 2012, appeared in the NCAA Regional Final against Vanderbilt in 2011.
Anthony Joseph "Joe" Genaro is an American musician and songwriter, best known as the guitarist and co-lead vocalist for the punk rock group The Dead Milkmen. Residing in Philadelphia, Genaro has performed with a number of punk and indie rock groups, most including The Low Budgets, is a solo artist; the Dead Milkmen properly formed 1983, evolving out of a home-recording project with a mythological back story that Genaro had begun in 1979. The members of the group employed pseudonyms, Genaro most called himself "Joe Jack Talcum" in the context of the group, although he used the pseudonyms "Butterfly Fairweather" and "Jasper Thread" on certain records; the band's debut LP, Big Lizard in My Backyard, was released in 1985, their initial twelve-year career saw some college radio and MTV success, notably surrounding singles "Bitchin' Camaro" and "Punk Rock Girl". Genaro acted as the group's guitarist, co-lead vocalist and co-songwriter, played keyboards and piano; the band disbanded in 1995, regrouping in 2008.
Genaro has recorded solo material since the early 1980s. Between 1984 and 1999, he self-released eight cassette tapes composed of home recorded songs; the four-piece group Butterfly Joe, named after one of Genaro's pseudonyms and featuring Dead Milkmen drummer Dean Sabatino, assembled to perform Genaro's solo material. They released a self-titled, full-length album on Razler Records in 1999, but went on indefinite hiatus shortly thereafter. In 2005, the Virginia-based Valiant Death label released a CD of material from Genaro's cassettes, Home Recordings 1984–1997. Under the name Joe Jack Talcum, he released Photographs from the Shoebox, a split LP/CD with Mischief Brew, in 2008 on Fistolo Records; the next year, his Live in the Studio album was released on CD and digital download formats. This record featured Genaro backed by a slide guitar/banjo player. Genaro frequently tours behind his solo material. Other groups with whom Genaro has played include Ornamental Wigwam, Touch Me Zoo, The Town Managers, The Fresh Breaths, The Low Budgets, Ukebox and No!
Go! Tell!. A guitarist, Genaro has played bass guitar and organ in these bands, he has formed a large number of home recording-based groups, including Jiffy Squid, We're Not From Idaho and The Cheesies. After the 2004 death of Schulthise, the three surviving members of The Dead Milkmen reunited for two concerts, joined by Low Budgets bassist Dan Stevens. In 2008, the band properly reformed with Stevens as a full-time member, began performing sporadic concerts and working on new material, resulting in the 2011 album The King in Yellow. Compact disc and vinyl albumsButterfly Joe – self-titled Joe Jack Talcum – Home Recordings 1984–1997 Joe Jack Talcum – Photographs from the Shoebox Joe Jack Talcum – Live in the Studio Joe Jack Talcum – Acoustic Fury Records Split Series Vol. 4 Vinyl EPsThe Town Managers – self-titled The Town Managers – We're The Ghettoest Solo home-recorded cassette tapesJoe Jack Talcum – I See Weasels Joe Jack Talcum – Raising PG Kids Jasper Thread – Blackness Butterfly Fairweather – Halvin' My Baby Butterfly Joe – Smile Butterfly Joe – Sweet'N Low Joe Jack Talcum – The Bland Years Jack Talcum Jr. – Turd of the Century Home-released cassette tapes with groupsTouch Me Zoo – Radio Songs Touch Me Zoo – self-titled Touch Me Zoo – Wonderwear Music Sock – Staring at People Staring at Trash Jiffy Squid – self-titled Touch Me Zoo – Moon Dog Will Die We're Not From Idaho – self-titled Touch Me Zoo – Lawn King Drink Draft / Rhino Chasers – self-titled Jiffy Squid – self-titled album Touch Me Zoo – Blow Up Your Stereo The Town Managers – Dummo Touch Me Zoo – Ultra-Rare TMZ Vol. 1 Touch Me Zoo – Ultra-Rare TMZ Vol. 2 Touch Me Zoo – Ultra-Rare TMZ Vol. 3 Sock – Demented Songs For Youngsters The Cheesies – Pull The Brie The Headaches – Christmas Album The Headaches – New Year's Eve with The Headaches The Headaches – Groundhogs Day The Headaches – Friday the 13th Album The Headaches – Mexican Independence Day Joe Genaro official site Dead Milkmen official site Low Budgets official site Podcast of live radio show in Fairbanks, Alaska Interview with Joe Jack Talcum on KRUI's The Lit Show