The Bitterroot Range is a mountain range and a subrange of the Rocky Mountains that runs along the border of Montana and Idaho in the northwestern United States. The range spans an area of 24,223 square miles and is named after the bitterroot, a small pink flower, the state flower of Montana. In 1805, the Corps of Discovery, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and aided by Sacajawea of the Shoshone Native American tribe, crossed the Bitterroot Range several times. Lewis first crossed the mountains at Lemhi Pass on August 12 returned across the pass to meet Clark; the entire expedition crossed the pass to the Salmon River valley, the next month entered the Bitterroot Valley from the south via either Lost Trail Pass or Chief Joseph Pass. It crossed Lolo Pass to the west; the mountains were crossed by Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad. According to the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, the Bitterroot Range runs from Pend Oreille Lake to Monida Pass, it is sometimes considered to extend east of the Monida Pass to include the Centennial Mountains.
The range comprises the following subranges: The Coeur d'Alène Mountains are the northwestern-most portion of the Bitterroot Range and encompass an area of 2,590 square miles. The mountain range's two highest peaks are the 7,352 foot Cherry Peak and the 6,837 foot Patricks Knob; the Saint Joe Mountains, the smallest named portion of the Bitterroot Range, encompass an area of 698 square miles. They lie between the St. Joe River on the south, the Coeur d'Alene River on the north, the Slate Creek saddle on the east and the plateau of the Moscow, Idaho/Pullman, Washington area on the Idaho/Washington border; the Bitterroot Mountains, comprising the Northern and Central Bitterroot Ranges, are the largest portion of the Bitterroot Range and encompass an area of 4,862 square miles. The mountains are bordered on the north by Lolo Creek, on the south by the Salmon River, on the east by the Bitterroot River and Valley, on the west by the Selway and Lochsa Rivers, its highest summit is Trapper Peak, at 10,157 feet.
The Beaverhead Mountains encompass an area of 4,532 square miles. They lie to the east of the Bitterroot Mountains and lie to the west of the Big Hole Basin and the Pioneer Mountains. Passes in the mountains include Lemhi Pass, Bannock Pass, Big Hole Pass, Big Hole Pass II, Junction Pass and Monida Pass; the Beaverheads are further subdivided into the West Big Hole Mountains, the Big Hole Divide, the Tendoy Mountains, the Italian Peaks, the Garfield Peaks. The Centennial Mountains encompass an area of 2,064 square miles; the Centennials are home to Brower's Spring, discovered in 1888 by Jacob V. Brower, believed to be the furthest point on the Missouri River. Brower published his finding in 1896 in "The Missouri: Its Utmost Source." The site of Brower's Spring is at about 8,800 feet in elevation in the Centennials. The site is now commemorated by a rock cairn at the source of Hellroaring Creek, which flows into Red Rock River and into Clark canyon reservoir, where it joins the Beaverhead River and the Big Hole River, before joining with the Jefferson River.
The Bitterroot Mountains presented an unexpected, formidable obstacle to Lewis and Clark during their expedition westward, ended their expectation of finding a "Northwest Passage" giving an easy connection from the Atlantic watershed to that of the Pacific. The Bitterroot Range is featured in the 2004 alternate history novel, Dies the Fire, by S. M. Stirling. Perspective aerial image of the Bitterroot Range and the Bitterroot Valley
Bonner County, Idaho
Bonner County is a county in the northern part of the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,877; the county seat and largest city is Sandpoint. Partitioned from Kootenai County and established in 1907, it was named for Edwin L. Bonner, a ferry operator. Bonner County comprises ID Micropolitan Statistical Area. Bonner County was formed on February 21, 1907, it was named for a ferry operator. In 1864, the Idaho Legislature created the counties of Kootenai. Kootenai County covered all of present-day Bonner and Boundary counties and a portion of present-day Kootenai County, it overlapped part of the existing boundary of Shoshone County. Sin-na-ac-qua-teen, a trading post in present-day Bonner County on the south shore of the Pend Oreille River near Laclede, was named county seat; the government of Kootenai failed to organize due to lack of settlement within the county boundary. In 1867, the legislature repealed the act that created the two counties and consolidated them into a county that retained the Kootenai name.
Rathdrum became the county seat when Kootenai County organized in 1881. The tiny portion of Bonner County south of the 48th parallel and east of Shoshone County was not in any of Idaho's counties from 1863 to 1907, the longest time frame any non-county area existed in the State of Idaho; the Idaho panhandle north of the Clearwater River's basin was in Spokane County, Washington prior to Idaho's creation as a territory in 1863. When Idaho defined its original counties by February, 1864, it attached the former Spokane County area to Nez Perce County for judicial purposes. Legislators creating Kootenai County in December 1864 lacked knowledge of the geography of the area and failed to include the non-county area within the county boundaries of Kootenai or Lah-Toh; the non-county area was included within Bonner County when it was formed in 1907. Boundary County was formed from Bonner County in 1915. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,919 square miles, of which 1,735 square miles is land and 185 square miles is water.
Boundary County – north Lincoln County, Montana – east/Mountain Time Border Sanders County, Montana – southeast/Mountain Time Border Shoshone County – southeast Kootenai County – south Spokane County, Washington – southwest Pend Oreille, Washington– northwest Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Coeur d'Alene National Forest Kaniksu National Forest Kootenai National Forest US 2 US 95 SH-41 SH-57 SH-200 As of the census of 2000, there were 36,835 people, 14,693 households, 10,270 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 19,646 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.58% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.87% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races. 1.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.9% were of German, 11.7% English, 11.7% American, 9.6% Irish and 5.3% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 14,693 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 29.30% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,803, the median income for a family was $37,930. Males had a median income of $32,504 versus $21,086 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,263. About 11.90% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.20% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 40,877 people, 17,100 households, 11,591 families residing in the county. The population density was 23.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 24,669 housing units at an average density of 14.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.0% white, 0.8% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.1% black or African American, 0.4% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.4% were German, 15.3% were Irish, 15.2% were English, 6.2% were Norwegian, 5.0% were American. Of the 17,100 households, 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age was 45.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,943 and the median income for a family was $51,377.
Males had a median income of $40,076 versus $30,829 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,745. About 10.1% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.3% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Blanchard Schweitzer Mountain Resort National Register of Historic Places listings in Bonner County, Id
Vaccinium corymbosum, the northern highbush blueberry, is a North American species of blueberry which has become a food crop of significant economic importance. It is native to eastern Canada and the eastern and southern United States, from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south as far as Florida and eastern Texas, it is naturalized in other places: Europe, New Zealand, the Pacific Northwest of North America, etc. Other common names include blue huckleberry, tall huckleberry, swamp huckleberry, high blueberry, swamp blueberry. Vaccinium corymbosum is a deciduous shrub growing to 6 -- 12 feet wide, it is found in dense thickets. The dark glossy green leaves are up to 2 inches long. In autumn, the leaves turn to a brilliant red, yellow, and/or purple; the flowers are long bell- or urn-shaped white to light pink, 1⁄3 of an inch long. The fruit is a 1⁄4-to-1⁄2-inch diameter blue-black berry; this plant is found in open areas with moist acidic soils. The species does not self-pollinate. Most cultivars have a chilling requirement greater than 800 hours.
Many wild species of Vaccinium are thought to have been cultivated by Native Americans for thousands of years, with intentional crop burnings in northeastern areas being apparent from archeological evidence. V. corymbosum, being one of the species used by these peoples, was studied and domesticated in 1908 by Frederick Vernon Coville. In natural habitats it is a food source for native and migrating birds and small mammals; the berries were collected and used in Native American cuisine in areas where Vaccinium corymbosum grew as a native plant. Vaccinium corymbosum is the most common commercially grown blueberry in present-day North America, it is cultivated as an ornamental plant for home and wildlife gardens and natural landscaping projects. The pH must be acidic; some common cultivar varieties are listed here, grouped by approximate start of the harvest season: The cultivars Duke and Spartan have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Some named Southern highbush blueberry are hybridized forms derived from crosses between V. corymbosum and Vaccinium darrowii, a native of the Southeastern U.
S. These hybrids and other cultivars of V. darrowii have been developed for cultivation in warm southern and western regions of North America. Vaccinium Huckleberry United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile for Vaccinium corymbosum Species account and photographs from Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
Larix occidentalis, the western larch, is a species of larch native to the mountains of western North America. It is a large deciduous coniferous tree reaching 30 to 60 metres tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 metres diameter. The largest known western larch is 153 feet tall and 22 feet in circumference with a 34 feet crown, located at Seeley Lake, Montana; the crown is narrow conic. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots and bearing several buds, short shoots only 1 to 2 millimetres long with only a single bud; the leaves are needle-like, light green, 2 to 5 centimetres long, slender. The seed cones are ovoid-cylindric, 2 to 5 centimetres long, with 40 to 80 seed scales; the cones are red when immature, turning brown and the scales opening flat or reflexed to release the seeds when mature, four to six months after pollination. The old cones remain on the tree for many years, turning dull gray-black, it grows at 500 to 2,400 metres altitude, is cold tolerant, able to survive winter temperatures down to about −50 °C.
It only grows on well-drained soils. The seeds are an important food for some birds, notably pine siskin and Two-barred crossbill; some Plateau Indian tribes drank an infusion from the young shoots to treat tuberculosis and laryngitis. The wood is tough and durable, but flexible in thin strips, is valued for yacht building. Small larch poles are used for rustic fencing. Western larch is used for the production of Venice turpentine; the wood is prized as firewood in the Pacific Northwest where it is called "tamarack," although it is a different species than the tamarack larch. The wood burns with a distinctive popping noise. Indigenous peoples used to chew gum produced from the tree as well as sap. Media related to Larix occidentalis at Wikimedia Commons Gymnosperm Database: Larix occidentalis
The Cabinet Mountains are part of the Rocky Mountains, located in northwest Montana and the Idaho panhandle, in the United States. The mountains cover an area of 2,134 square miles; the Cabinet Mountains lie south of the Purcell Mountains, between the Kootenai River and Clark Fork River and Idaho's Lake Pend Oreille. The Cabinet Mountains lie to the east of the Purcell Trench; the Cabinet Mountains form the north side of the Clark Fork River valley in Montana. The Cabinet Mountains Wilderness is located east of the Bull River near Noxon, Montana in the center of the range; the highest peaks are Snowshoe Peak, A Peak, Bockman Peak, Elephant Peak. Although of lower altitude than many Rocky Mountain peaks to the east in Montana, the Cabinet Mountains offer a stark contrast as the surrounding river valleys are at such relative low altitude; the Cabinets are noted, along with the nearby Selkirk Mountains to the west, as being some of the most "wild" mountains left in the contiguous United States. They are home to mule deer, moose, bighorn sheep, black bear, grizzly bear, wolverine and many smaller species.
The Cabinet Mountain geology is believed to be rich in minerals. List of mountain ranges in Montana
Bitterroot is a small perennial herb in the Montiaceae family. Its specific epithet rediviva refers to its ability to regenerate from dry and dead roots; the genus Lewisia was moved in 2009 from the purslane family with adoption of the APG III system, which established the Montiaceae family. The plant is native to western North America from low to moderate elevations on grassland, open bushland, forest, its range extends from southern British Columbia, through Washington and Oregon east of the Cascade Range to southern California, east to western Montana, northern Colorado and northern Arizona. A small species of dry rocky or gravelly soils, it bears a single pink to lavender to white flower. Lewisia rediviva is a low-growing perennial plant with a fleshy taproot and a simple or branched base; the flower stems are leafless, 1–3 centimetres tall, bearing at the tip a whorl of 5–6 linear bracts which are 5–10 mm long. A single flower appears on each stem with 5–9 oval-shaped sepals, they range in color from whitish to deep lavender.
Flowering occurs from April through July. The petals are 18 -- 35 millimetres long. At maturity, the bitterroot produces egg-shaped capsules with 6–20 nearly round seeds. French trappers knew the plant as racine amère. Native American names included spetlum/sp̓eƛ̓m̓ or spetlem, mo'ôtáa-heséeo'ôtse The roots were consumed by tribes such as the Shoshone and the Flathead Indians as an infrequent delicacy. Traditionally, the Ktunaxa cooked bitterroot with grouse. For the Ktunaxa, bitterroot is eaten with sugar; the Lemhi Shoshone believed the small red core found in the upper taproot had special powers, notably being able to stop a bear attack. Meriwether Lewis ate bitterroot in 1806 during the Lewis and Clark Expedition; the specimens he brought back were identified and given their scientific name, Lewisia rediviva, by a German-American botanist, Frederick Pursh. Based on Lewis and Clark's manuscript, Pursh labeled it "spatlum"; the bitterroot was selected as the Montana state flower in 1895. Three major geographic features – the Bitterroot Mountains, the Bitterroot Valley, the Bitterroot River – owe the origins of their names to this flower.
Johnny Arlee. The Gift of the Bitterroot. Salish Kootenai College, Npustin Press. ISBN 9780981683416. Retrieved 2018-01-24. Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9 Media related to Lewisia rediviva at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Lewisia rediviva at Wikispecies Calflora Database: Lewisia rediviva Central Washington Native Plant Society Plants of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Bitterroot and Clark National Historic Trail, U. S. Forest Service WSDOT - Ethnobotany - Herbs. Lewisia rediviva - Bitter-root, Sand Rose, Portulacaceae