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Argon Pedion

Argon Pedion is the geological name of a "closed karst basin" in the Arcadian highlands in the Peloponnese peninsula of southern Greece. The first known appearance of this name was in a publication by the ancient geographer Pausanias, he called it untilled plain, because the grassland and acres may be flooded beyond the time when annual vegetation starts. When the winter rains were heavy, floods can turn the plain into a temporary lake. Intensive karst formation prevents the formation of a permanent lake. In rare cases today, modern technologies can not prevent flooding; the prefecture Arcadia is entirely rural and mountainous. The villages are scattered all over the land. Steep mountains and forests are scarcely populated. Extensive forests dominate in the central north and the central-south, following the prefectures southern border which marks the mountain chain of the Parnon, way down to the coast of the Argolic Gulf. Valleys divide the mountain chains, but they are important draining paths only from November to April, while many brooks dry up totally.

The size of the valleys indicate, there were larger water quantities in earlier time periods. On steeply inclined slopes the topsoil is drastically eroded, only degenerated shrubland prevails. Alluvial sediment deposits are scarce. Accumulated soil structures are found only in basins or flat coastal sections; the climate of the Peloponnese is similar in all parts, the temperature varies only in relation to the height. The influence of the Mediterranean Sea is omnipresent, as no point of the land is at a larger distance than 50 miles; the climate is best classified as mediterranean with mild wet winters. As the dry season may last for months, the thin rests of soil on mountain slopes are covered by Maquis shrubland of a degraded character. Forests, when healthy and dense, are only mildly more humid and cooler. Dominant is the intensive karstification, present throughout; this dries out the humidity of soil. But during the short springtime, the rain of the last winter and mild temperatures may result in a beautiful, blossoming season, where biodiversity of Arcadian landscapes will show.

As intensive dry summer periods may cause severe lack of freshwater, retaining it in reservoirs would be an important contribution to public health by supplying sufficient water at all times. At the same time publicly supplied water for irrigation and for electricity from power stations, could help to develop the country; the land, suitable for herding or agriculture, is locally cultivated in traditional forms only. There is no industrial production in Arcadia. There was migration in all of Greece, in the Peloponnese and in Arcadia's Argon Pedion after 1945 to North America and Australia; the infrastructure of transportation is miserable. While one frequented highway connects Athens with Patras along the Corinthian Gulf, there is only one other modern highway, connecting Corinth with Tripoli and the south; the tolled motorways are the only constructions, where the mountainous, difficult topography of the Peloponnese does not dictate the route. The only railway line serving Arcadia and the south, a narrow-gauge railway, was refitted and – before the new operation – liquidated, including goods traffic in 2011.

The closed basin Argon Pedion is a stand-alone part of the Tripoli Basin in the northeast. In a publication the Greek geologist I. Mariolakos describes the Tripoli Basin, the basin of Argon Pedion and other similar neighboring basins of Arcadia and compares them with the classical myths, which are broadly present among Greeks. Two mountains, opposite to each other form a 250 m wide flat bottom at the south end of Argon Pedion, but as this bottom gap between the mountains is higher than the basin's bottom, it functions like a dam. Only floods with a water level of more than 5 m can be drained aboveground; this turns the plain into a closed basin. The rain down the mountains fills the draining ditches floods the untilled plain, making the soil sucked with water. Exceptionally large rain waters may swell up to a temporary lake, whose upper border may not or may reach the acres in the higher upper basin section, cultivated by the village Saga; the subsurface drainage through the katavothra may be so slow that it will extend into the vegetation timezone.

The grassland is ideal for herding sheep and goats, as a ground sucked with water makes wanton grass vegetation, that dries up in the dry period. With “cows of the poor” many people of the two villages at the borders of the basin make their living; when the grassland is dried up, the goats, which are well known for their abilities to undemanding feed and easy digesting, weatherproof in hot and cold and climbing well on bare rock may move to the mountain slopes around, where they can feed on sparse vegetation of shrubs. Yet this bares the danger of overgrazing, as plants are kept down by these animal's preferred feeding of all kinds of buds; the village Saga at the upper end of the basin remains focused on its cultivating the fertile soils of the upper

Hundred of Blackheath, Surrey

Blackheath Hundred or the Hundred of Blackheath was a hundred in the county of Surrey, England. It corresponds to parts of the districts of Guildford. Though used for secular purposes, it consisted of eleven parishes which in the polity of England from the Norman Conquest until the late 19th century had dual secular and religious functions, its economic unity was shattered like most hundreds given the rise of smaller manors and newer manors which came to form the main, manageable agricultural asset throughout the country. It occupied the south to south-west twelfth of the county, its parishes were Albury Alfold Bramley Cranleigh Dunsfold Ewhurst Hascombe St Martha Shalford Shere Wonersh The hundred court meeting place was on the River Wey at a place called Perry Bridge, or La Perie at the western edge of Shalford. The jurisdiction of the sheriff's court was much curtailed by private rights. In 1086 Odo, Earl of Kent held its central area; the Victoria County History attributes its conflation with Bramley to its stated size of 6½ hides of land, versus 97 stated to exist before the Norman Conquest in the same'Domesday Book' survey document.

The manorial lords of Bramley, Shalford and Gomshall, the rectors of Shalford and Cranleigh had courts leet, the lord of Albury view of frankpledge, but the latter gave those profits to the Crown. The lord of Shere claimed view of frankpledge up to 1238, the lord of Albury claimed the same, it was granted to Bramley by charter of Henry III; these townships paid an annual fine to the sheriff. In 1671 Shere paid the most, at 20s; the royal rights, such as they were, were granted by James VI and I in 1620 to Sir Edward Zouche of Woking Palace, to the heirs male of Sir Alan his uncle, together with the large manor of Woking, Woking Hundred and other lands, to be held by the service of bringing in the first dish to the king's table on St. James's Day and paying annually £100. All feudal system incidents were expressly abrogated at that time; the hundred rent ceased to be reclaimable from any tenants in the area. Charles II granted the £100 rent and the reversion for 1,000 years to Viscount Grandison, Henry Howard, Edward Villiers, in reality in trust for the first's daughter, his most favoured mistress, who he created Duchess of Cleveland.

In 1708 James Zouche, younger son of Sir Edward, the last of the male heirs, died. The Duchess of Cleveland succeeded, but died on 9 October 1709, her trustees in 1715 sold the rights, as well as in Woking, to John Walter of Busbridge House, whose son sold them to Lord Onslow in 1752. The dwindling value hundreds came to possess was lost outright by a process of population expansion and industrialisation, with rights and land ownership becoming bound up with the smaller estates within them in the 19th century

Black Suits Comin' (Nod Ya Head)

"Black Suits Comin'" is a song by American actor and hip hop musician Will Smith. The song was a part of the film Men in Black II's soundtrack and the first single on Smith's album Born to Reign; the song was written for the 2002 Columbia Pictures action-comedy film Men in Black II, in which Smith portrays Agent J. The song was released as a single from the Men in Black II soundtrack on June 11, 2002; the single reached number 77 on the US Billboard Hot 100, but was more successful in the UK, peaking at number three on the UK Singles Chart. The song features vocals from Trā-Knox. In 2017 Limp Bizkit guitarist Wes Borland revealed that he had been approached by Smith to help compose the theme for Men In Black II, but he turned down the offer; the music video for "Black Suits Comin'" features footage of Smith performing onstage in a Men in Black II environment, featuring characters and footage from the movie. It is notable that a scene, deleted from the final cut of the film appears in a montage sequence in the video.

Smith's oldest son and actress Meagan Good make cameos. The video was directed by Francis Lawrence, produced by Joseph Sassone and first aired on the June 3, 2002 episode of MTV show Making the Video. UK CD single #1"Black Suits Comin'" – 3:50 "Black Suits Comin'" – 3:45 "Black Suits Comin'" – 3:45UK CD single #2"Black Suits Comin'" – 4:20 "Men in Black" – 3:47 "Miami" – 3:18UK Cassette single"Black Suits Comin'" – 4:20 "Men in Black" – 3:47European Maxi single"Black Suits Comin'" – 3:50 "Black Suits Comin'" – 3:45 "Black Suits Comin'" – 3:45 "Black Suits Comin'" – 4:18 Will Smith – vocals, mixing Mark Sparks – production Rob Chiarelli – production, engineering Neff-U – additional production Lance Bennett - Writing

Angelo Neumann

Josef Angelo Neumann was a German operatic baritone and theater director. First a baritone at major opera houses in Europe, including the Vienna Imperial Opera, he was the managing director of the Leipzig Opera and the Estates Theatre in Prague, he is known as an early promoter of the stage works by Richard Wagner, namely the Ring cycle, which he presented with the sets and costumes of the world premiere at the Bayreuth Festival, first in Leipzig and on a European tour. Neumann was born in Stampfen, he received training as an opera singer. After engagements as a baritone in Berlin, Krakow, Ödenburg and Gdansk, he came to the Vienna Imperial Opera in 1862, where he remained active until 1876. During these years he made his first acquaintance with his work. With his first wife Pauline Aurelie, née von Mihalovits, he had a son, Karl Eugen Neumann, born in 1865. In 1876 he became managing director of the Leipzig Opera, his direction began with a production of Lohengrin. In April 1878 the first external performance of the entire stage consecration festival Der Ring des Nibelungen took place in Leipzig after its premiere in 1876 at the Bayreuth Festival.

In 1881 he organized further performances of the Ring in Berlin. After acquiring the original stage sets and costumes of the Bayreuth premiere, Neumann undertook a kind of European tour with complete performances of The Ring of the Nibelung by a travelling ensemble. In May 1882 a guest performance took place in London, with the Julius Laubeschen Kapelle from Hamburg under the direction of the Leipzig Kapellmeister Anton Seidl. Between September 1882 and June 1883 a total of 135 Ring performances and more than 50 Wagner concerts took place, among others in April 1883 at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice. In 1885 Neumann became artistic director of the Estates Theatre in Prague, whose new building he organized as Státní opera Praha. In his second marriage he married the actress Johanna Török in 1887. In 1894 he encouraged Emil Nikolaus von Reznicek to write the opera Donna Diana. Neumann died in Prague at the age of 72. A hall in today's Prague State Opera is named after him. Various letters from Neumann to musicians and composers have survived.

He wrote an autobiographical book focused on his memories of Wagner, Erinnerungen an Richard Wagner, published in Leipzig in 1907. Heinzle, Joachim. Indianer-Häuptlinge in Walhall / Ein Mythos wird kostümiert. Christa Jost, "Neumann, Angelo", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 19, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 139–140. Neumann,Angelo. Großes Sängerlexikon. Walter de Gruyter. P. 3331. ISBN 978-3-59-844088-5. Neumann, Angelo. Erinnerungen an Richard Wagner. Leipzig: Verlag L. Staakmann. Oppenheimer, John F.. Lexikon des Judentums. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag. P. 583. ISBN 3-570-05964-2. Literature by and about Angelo Neumann in the German National Library catalogue

Jack the Giant Killer

"Jack the Giant Killer" is an English fairy tale and legend about a young adult who slays a number of bad giants during King Arthur's reign. The tale is characterised by violence and blood-letting. Giants are prominent in Cornish folklore, Breton mythology and Welsh Bardic lore; some parallels to elements and incidents in Norse mythology have been detected in the tale, the trappings of Jack's last adventure with the Giant Galigantus suggest parallels with French and Breton fairy tales such as Bluebeard. Jack's belt is similar to the belt in "The Valiant Little Tailor", his magical sword, shoes and cloak are similar to those owned by Tom Thumb or those found in Welsh and Norse mythology. Jack and his tale are referenced in English literature prior to the eighteenth century. Jack's story did not appear in print until 1711, it is an enterprising publisher assembled a number of anecdotes about giants to form the 1711 tale. One scholar speculates the public had grown weary of King Arthur – the greatest of all giant killers – and Jack was created to fill his shoes.

Henry Fielding, John Newbery, Samuel Johnson and William Cowper were familiar with the tale. In 1962, a feature-length film based on the tale was released starring Kerwin Mathews; the film made extensive use of stop motion in the manner of Ray Harryhausen. This plot summary is based on a text published ca. 1760 by John Cotton and Joshua Eddowes, which in its turn was based on a chapbook ca. 1711, reprinted in'The Classic Fairy Tales' by Iona and Peter Opie in 1974. The tale is set during the reign of King Arthur and tells of a young Cornish farmer's son named Jack, not only strong but so clever he confounds the learned with his penetrating wit. Jack encounters a livestock-eating giant lures him to his death in a pit trap. Jack is dubbed'Jack the Giant-Killer' for this feat and receives not only the giant's wealth, but a sword and belt to commemorate the event. A man-eating giant named Blunderbore vows vengeance for Cormoran's death and carries Jack off to an enchanted castle. Jack manages to slay his brother Rebecks by hanging and stabbing them.

He frees three ladies held captive in the giant's castle. On a trip into Wales, Jack tricks a two-headed Welsh giant into slashing his own belly open. King Arthur's son now enters Jack becomes his servant, they rob him in the morning. In gratitude for having spared his castle, the three-headed giant gives Jack a magic sword, a cap of knowledge, a cloak of invisibility, shoes of swiftness. On the road and the Prince meet an enchanted Lady serving Lucifer. Jack breaks the spell with his magic accessories, beheads Lucifer, the Lady marries the Prince. Jack is rewarded with membership in the Round Table. Jack ventures forth alone with his magic shoes, sword and cap to rid the realm of troublesome giants, he encounters a giant terrorizing his lady. He cuts off the giant's legs puts him to death, he discovers the giant's companion in a cave. Invisible in his cloak, Jack cuts off the giant's nose slays him by plunging his sword into the monster's back, he frees the giant's captives and returns to the house of the knight and lady he earlier had rescued.

A banquet is prepared, but it is interrupted by the two-headed giant Thunderdel chanting "Fee, fum". Jack beheads the giant with a trick involving the house's moat and drawbridge. Growing weary of the festivities, Jack sallies forth for more adventures and meets an elderly man who directs him to an enchanted castle belonging to the giant Galligantus; the giant holds captive many knights and ladies and a Duke's daughter, transformed into a white doe through the power of a sorcerer. Jack beheads the giant, the sorcerer flees, the Duke's daughter is restored to her true shape, the captives are freed. At the court of King Arthur, Jack marries the Duke's daughter and the two are given an estate where they live ever after. Tales of monsters and heroes are abundant around the world, making the source of "Jack the Giant Killer" difficult to pin down. However, the ascription of Jack's relation to Cornwall suggests a Brythonic origin; the early Welsh tale How Culhwch won Olwen, set in Arthurian Britain places Arthur as chief among the kings of Britain.

The young hero Culhwch ap Cilydd makes his way to his cousin Arthur's court at Celliwig in Cornwall where he demands Olwen as his bride. The Giant sets a series of impossible tasks which Arthur's champions Bedwyr and Cai are honour-bound to fulfill before Olwen is released to the lad. Folklorists Iona and Peter Opie have observed in The Classic Fairy Tales that "the tenor of Jack's tale, some of the details of more than one of his tricks with which he outwits the giants, have similarities with Norse mythology." An incident between Thor and the giant Skrymir in the Prose Edda of ca. 1220, they note, resembles the incident between the stomach-slashing Welsh giant. The Opies further note that the Swedish tale of "The Herd-boy and the Giant" shows similarities to the same incident, "shares an ancestor" with the Grimms's "The Valiant Little Tailor", a tale with wide distribution. According to the Opies, Jack's magical accessories – the cap of knowledge, the cloak of invisibility, the magic sword, the shoes of swi