Sandton is an affluent suburb situated in the Johannesburg Municipality, South Africa. The name comes from the combination of two of its suburbs and Bryanston. In 1969 Sandton was promulgated as a municipality in its own right, but lost its status as an independent town after the re-organisation of South African local governments. Archaeological findings suggest the area, which Sandton comprises today, had been occupied by various indigenous groups, before European settlement, most notably the Tswana and, to a lesser extent, Sotho people; the remains of an Iron Age smelter was discovered in a suburb of northern Sandton. One of the first Voortrekker parties to settle in the area were the Esterhuysen family on the farm Zandfontein. A monument to commemorate them may be found just off Adrienne Street in Sandown where the family cemetery is located. Zandfontein and Rietfontein encumbered what was to become Sandton; the municipal coat of arms of Sandton pays homage to the three farms with three round fountain barrels on its chevron.

In the late 19th-century the Wilhelmi family of Hannover, Germany acquired the farm Driefontein No. 3 while Rietfontein was owned by the Ehler family. The original Driefontein homestead, now within the confines of the Field & Study Centre, was looted during the Anglo-Boer War; the ruins are visible on the northern bank of the Klein Jukskei River. The Wilhemi family, upon return from Germany built the'new' 1906 Driefontein Farmhouse on what is present-day Fifteenth Street, Parkmore cum Riverclub; the farmhouse served as the icon and headquarters for the now defunct Sandton Historical Foundation and is listed as a City of Johannesburg Owned Heritage Site. Sandton was established as a separate municipality in 1969 by the office of the Administrator of the Transvaal, it had not formed part of Johannesburg but was managed, in part by the'parent city' and Pretoria through the North Eastern Peri-Urban Land administration. It was much a residential area consisting of small holdings with a rural "horsey" lifestyle attracting many of the upper-middle classes and Johannesburg elites.

It was subsequently dubbed the "manure" belt. The Rivonia Trial derives its name from the locality of Liliesleaf Farm within the Sandton suburb where many of the Black freedom fighters such as Nelson Mandela were captured by the South African state and subsequently tried for treason. Rivonia had been known as Edenburg and was changed to make itself distinct from Edenburg, Free State, it was named for the surname Riven. Sandton and its constituencies were traditionally more liberal than surrounds. For example, the motion which never materialised by residents in favour for the inclusion of Alexandra, Gauteng a demarcated black township in terms of the Group Areas Act, into Sandton's jurisdiction proved troublesome for the National Party government which had a strong constituency in the adjacent town of Randburg; the construction of Sandton City by Rapp & Maister marked a significant change for the Sandton area. It created rapid industrialisation. Sandton came to symbolise the White Flight movement of Johannesburg and secured itself as Johannesburg's second Central Business District.

After the demise of Apartheid, by 1996, Sandton formed part of the interim Eastern Metropolitan Substructure, in 2000 came to be included, along with the former towns of Randburg and Roodepoort, as part of the newly demarcated City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality thus losing its separate municipal government and town status. Despite this, Sandton is still unofficially earmarked as a distinct region of the city and operates as a macro-suburb. Urban decay in downtown Johannesburg caused many corporate offices to move from the Johannesburg Central Business District to Sandton in the 1990s, it has become the new financial district of Johannesburg's premier business centre. Much of the financial focus of Johannesburg has shifted from the Central Business District to Sandton. However, three of South Africa's four largest banks have kept their head offices in downtown Johannesburg, along with Transnet, the transport parastatal; the other bank, has its headquarters in Sandton. A considerable amount of the city's A-grade office space is to be found in Sandton.

The JSE Securities Exchange, Johannesburg's stock exchange, relocated its offices to Sandton from the central business district in the late 1990s. Sandton's gain was the central business district's loss: it resulted from urban blight of the downtown Johannesburg area. Sandton is home to the Sandton Convention Centre, one of the largest convention centres on the continent and primary site of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, which Johannesburg hosted; the convention centre hosted the African National Congress' victory celebrations after the party was re-elected at the 2004 election. Massmart has its head office in the Massmart House in Sandton. Ster-Kinekor has its head office in the Ster-Kinekor Office Park in Sandton. IBM's and Hewlett Packard's main Southern Africa and South Africa offices are in Sandhurst and Rivonia respectively. In 2013, petrochemical giant Sasol announced the development of their new headquarters in Wierda Valley, Sandton; the Sandton Central commercial node, centred on the suburbs of Sandown and Sandhurst has some of the best and most expensive commercial properties and offices in South Africa.

A number of new developments are underway including 6

Human uses of birds

Human uses of birds have included both economic uses such as food and symbolic uses such as art and religion, for thousands of years. In terms of economic uses, birds have been hunted for food since Palaeolithic times, they have been captured and bred as poultry to provide meat and eggs since at least the time of ancient Egypt. Some species have been used, too, to help locate or to catch food, as with cormorant fishing and the use of honeyguides. Feathers have long been used for bedding, as well as for fletching arrows. Today, many species face. Birds have appeared in the religions of many cultures since ancient Sumer. For example, the dove was the symbol of the ancient Mesopotamian goddess Inanna, the Canaanite mother goddess Asherah, the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, had a little owl as her symbol, and, in ancient India, the peacock represented Mother Earth. Birds have been seen as symbols, whether bringing bad luck and death, being sacred, or being used in heraldry.

In terms of entertainment, raptors have been used in falconry, while cagebirds have been kept for their song. Other birds have been raised for the traditional sports of pigeon racing. Birdwatching, has grown to become a major leisure activity. Birds feature in a wide variety of art forms, including in painting, sculpture and prose, film and fashion. Birds appear in music as well as traditional dance and ballet. In certain cases, such as the bird-and-flower painting of China, birds are central to an artistic genre. Culture consists of the social behaviour and norms found in human societies and transmitted through social learning. Cultural universals in all human societies include expressive forms like art, dance, ritual and technologies like tool usage, cooking and clothing; the concept of material culture covers physical expressions such as technology and art, whereas immaterial culture includes principles of social organization, philosophy and science. This article describes. Birds are important economically, providing substantial amounts of food protein but not from the domestic chicken.

Birds were among the wild animals hunted for food before the Neolithic revolution and the development of agriculture. For example, in the Epipaleolithic of the Levant, between c. 14,500 and 11,500 BP, both waterfowl and migratory birds were eaten. Archaeologists have studied the return in terms of energy from captured food compared to the energy expended to capture it. For example, waterfowl captured in a drive can yield a return of around 2,000 kcal/hour, whereas an antelope can yield as much as 31,000 kcal/hour, wild rye around 1,000 kcal/hour. Birds have been bred as poultry for use as food for at least four thousand years; the most important species is the chicken. It appears to have been domesticated by 5000 BC in northeastern China for cockfighting, only used for food. In ancient Egypt, poultry including ducks and pigeons were captured in nets and bred in captivity. Chicken now provides some 20% of the animal protein eaten by the world's human population in the form of meat and eggs. Chickens are raised intensively in battery farms.

Other species including ducks, pheasants and turkeys are significant economically around the world. Less raised species such as the ostrich are starting to be farmed for their meat, low in cholesterol. Birds are hunted in many countries around the world. In the developed world, ducks such as mallard, wigeon and teal have for centuries been captured by wildfowlers, while pheasants, partridges and snipe are among the terrestrial birds that are hunted for sport with guns. In other parts of the world, traditional subsistence hunting still continues, as in rural Northern Papua, where cassowaries, crowned pigeons and megapodes are captured for food. Seabirds such as muttonbirds and auks have been hunted for food with sufficient intensity to threaten many populations and to make some, such as the great auk, extinct. Seabird hunting continues at more moderate levels today, for instance with the traditional Māori harvest of sooty shearwater chicks; the archaeological and historical records suggest interdependence between humans and vultures for millions of years.

Like other animal species, early hominins used these birds as beacons signalling the location of meat, in the form of carcasses, in the landscape. Cormorant fishing is a traditional fishing method in which trained cormorants are used to catch fish in rivers. Cormorant fishing has taken place in Japan and China since about 960 AD; the greater honeyguide guides people in some parts of Africa to the nests of wild bees. A guiding bird attracts a person's attention with a chattering call, flies in short bounds towards a bees' nest; when the human honey-hunter has taken their honey, the honeyguide eats. The Boran people of East Africa use a specific whistle, which doubles the encounter rate with honeyguides; the Bushmen of the Kalahari thank the honeyguide with a gift o

John M. Merriman

John Mustard Merriman is a Charles Seymour Professor of History at Yale University. He is the author of many books including his most well known A History of Modern Europe since the Renaissance, a popular survey text for undergraduate history classes at many American universities and colleges. Merriman was born and raised in Oregon where he attended a Jesuit all-boys high-school, although he does not consider himself religious, his favorite music is The Rolling Stones, " never written a thing without a record on." Merriman formed many of his current political views during the volatile Vietnam years. His recent books include The Dynamite Club: How a Bombing in the Fin-De-Siecle Paris Ignited The Age of Modern Terror about the French Anarchist Emile Henry, Massacre: The Life and Death of the Paris Commune focusing on the Paris Commune of 1871 on "The Bloody Week", he received his Ph. D. and B. A. at the University of Michigan. Merriman teaches French and Modern European history and first began teaching at Yale in the mid-1970s where he still resides.

He was the seventh master of Branford College. He lives part of each year with his family in France. 2000 Yale University Harwood F. Byrnes/Richard B. Sewall Teaching Prize 2002 Docteur Honoris Causa in France 2009 “Medal of Meritorious Service to Polish Education” awarded by the Ministry of Education of Poland Books The Agony of the Republic: The Repression of the Left in Revolutionary France, 1848-1851 The Red City: Limoges and the French Nineteenth Century The Margins of City Life: Explorations on the French Urban Frontier A History of Modern Europe since the Renaissance, 2 vols; the Stones of Balazuc: A French Village in Time, available in French as Mêmoires de pierres: Balazuc, village ardechois. Police Stories: Making the French State, 1815-1851 The Dynamite Club: How a Bombing in the Fin-De-Siecle Paris Ignited The Age of Modern Terror Massacre: The Life and Death of the Paris Commune Ballad of the Anarchist Bandits: The Crime Spree that Gripped Belle Epoque Paris Edited books 1830 in France Consciousness and Class Experience in Nineteenth-Century Europe French Cities in the Nineteenth Century For Want of a Horse: Chance and Humor in History Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in Early Modern Europe The Story of Mankind The Encyclopedia of Europe, 1789-1914 and The Encyclopedia of Europe, 1914-2006, Lectures HIST 276: France Since 1871, by John Merriman at Open Yale Courses.

HIST 202: European Civilization, 1648-1945, by John Merriman at Open Yale Courses. John Merriman, Yale faculty page. Appearances on C-SPAN