Cato (1800 ship)
Cato was launched at Stockton in 1800 and registered in London to Reeve & Green. She was wrecked on Australia, in 1804 at. Cato first appears in Lloyd's Register in 1802 with C. Pearson, changing to I. Park, trade London—Suriname; the Register of Shipping has a little more information. It reports Cato's armament, shows her trade changing to London—Botany Bay. Cato, master, arrived in Port Jackson, New South Wales, from England on 9 March 1803, carrying stores. On 10 August 1803, Cato left Sydney in the company of HMS Porpoise and Bridgewater, all bound for Canton. On 17 August the three ships got caught near a sandbank, 157 miles north and 51 miles east of Sandy Cape. With shrinking leeway, both Cato and Porpoise grounded. Bridgewater sailed on, despite knowing; the crew and passengers of the wrecked vessels were able to land on a sandbank as both their ships broke up. On 26 August 1803 with no sign of rescue, Porpoise passenger Matthew Flinders and Captain John Park of Cato took the largest cutter, twelve crewmen and headed to Sydney to seek rescue.
Through marvelous navigation, Hope made it to Port Jackson by 8 September. Although three lives had been lost in the joint shipwreck and the schooners HMS Cumberland and Francis, were able to rescue all the remaining passengers. Rolla took the people she had rescued to Canton; this sandbank become known as Wreck Reefs and is located in the southern part of the Coral Sea Islands 450 km East Nor East of Gladstone, Queensland or 250 km east of the Swain reefs complex. They form a narrow chain of reefs with small cays that extends for around 25 km in a west to east line. Cato gave its name to the nearby Cato Reef, which it discovered. Citations References Bateson, Charles Australian Shipwrecks – 1622–1850, Vol. 1.. ISBN 0-589-07112-2 Hackman, Rowan Ships of the East India Company.. ISBN 0-905617-96-7
Cape Byron is the easternmost point of the mainland of Australia. It is about 3 km east of the town of projects into the Pacific Ocean; the cape was named by British explorer Captain James Cook, when he passed the area on 15 May 1770, to honour British explorer John Byron who circumnavigated the globe in HMS Dolphin from 1764 to 1766. The Cape is part of the Cape Byron State Conservation Area. Built in 1901, the Cape Byron Lighthouse is the last of the great 19th-century Victorian era lighthouses managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service, it is constructed from concrete blocks and stands on the most easterly point of the Australian mainland. The Cape Byron walking track winds through the Cape Byron State Conservation Area; the 3.7 kilometres loop walk can be started at any point with parking available at Captain Cook Lookout, Palm Valley, Wategos Beach and the Lighthouse. Cape Byron is part of the 22,000 hectare Cape Byron Marine Park, established in November 2002; the area is noted for its wildlife, with the whale watching industry a significant contributor to the local economy.
Cape Byron Marine Park is a multiple-use marine park which includes protected areas where fishing and collecting are prohibited, general-use areas which support both commercial and recreational fishing. It extends from the Brunswick River to Lennox Head, from mean high water out to three nautical miles from the coast or islands, it includes the tidal waters of the Brunswick River and Tallow creeks. Migrating whales can be seen swimming past the Cape. Cape York, the northernmost point on the Australian mainland. South Point, the southernmost point on the Australian mainland. Steep Point, the westernmost point on the Australian mainland. Mount Kosciusco, the uppermost point on the Australian mainland. Extreme points of Australia
Rame Head (Victoria)
Ram Head or since 1970 Rame Head is a coastal headland in eastern Victoria, Australia. It is within the Croajingolong National Park; the local aboriginal people call Kouowee. James Cook named today's Rame Head as he passed by on 19 April 1770. Cook named Rame Head Ram Head, after a point that can be seen going into Plymouth Sound, Cook wrote the name Ram in Modern English and that spelling was adopted by Aaron Arrowsmith, George Bass, Matthew Flinders, James Grant, Louis de Freycinet and John Hawesworth when commissioned by the Admiralty to edit Cook's papers and journal and that spelling became official when the Admiralty published Matthew Flinders' charts, dated January and February 1814; the Royal Navy and the Australian Navy continued to use Cook's spelling of "Ram" for the headland in Australia. In the early 1800s. In 1971, the Victorian Government gazetted the point as "Rame" to match its Cornish namesake. In Cook's time, Naval Charts used Cook's spelling for the Headland in Cornwall, the small village nearby used the New modem English spelling, we use today.
Around 1810 the small village and Headland, in Cornwall, reverted to the Old Modern English spelling of Rame. There are many grave stones in the area, dating back to the early and mid 1700's that used "Ram". In 1986 one of Australia’s foremost maritime historians, Lieutenant Commander Geoffrey Ingleton RAN - "An accomplished and fine Cartographer" www.navyhistory.org.au/obituary-geoffrey-ingleton-1908-1998/ Wrote in his book -'Matthew Flinders: Navigator and Chartmaker': "The coastlines of both New South Wales and Van Diemens Land were delineated by Flinders, considering the nature and quickness of the survey. Interesting was Flinders' correct identification of Cook's Ram Head, so named for its' similarity to Rame Head in England in the western approaches to Plymouth. Flinders was familiar with its' characteristic appearance - a conical hill on a distinctive promontory; the only feature on this coast SW of Cape Howe which meets that description is the present Rame Head. This historic headland is identical with that shown on Flinders' charts.
There is a walking track to the "summit" of the head. However, this point lacks a clear vantage point over surrounding scrub, is marked by a trig point. Placenames Australia, journal of the Australian National Placenames Survey, June 2002 Rame Head at Geoscience Australia Captain James Cook Captain Cook's Journal of the First Voyage Around the World A Voyage to Terra Australis
Sandy Cape Light
Sandy Cape Light is a heritage-listed active lighthouse located on Sandy Cape, the most northern point on Fraser Island, Australia. It stands about 6 kilometres southwest of the northeastern tip of the island, it is the tallest lighthouse in Queensland. Built in 1870, it is the second major lighthouse to be built in Queensland after its formation in 1859, it is one of the first lighthouses in Australia to be constructed using bolted prefabricated segments of cast iron, one of only two such lighthouses in Queensland, the other being its sibling, Bustard Head Light. The Government of Queensland was formed in 1859. In 1862, the Queensland government appointed Commander George Poynter Heath. However, it was only in 1864 that two committees were appointed to deal with the issue of coastal lighthouses; the only location for which both committees were in clear agreement about the need of a lighthouse was Sandy Cape. The site was strongly recommended by Joseph Brady, Queensland Engineer for Harbours and Rivers of the time, on a tour of inspection he did in 1865.
An order for the prefabricated tower was placed with Kitson & Co. of Leeds, the design being done by William Pole of Kitson & Co. The lantern and apparatus were ordered from Chance Brothers of Birmingham, by 1867 all the materials have arrived at Brisbane; the winning tender for the construction of the tower was of £4524 by the brothers John and Jacob Rooney of Maryborough, Sandy Cape Light being the first of several lighthouses they constructed, to be followed by Cape Bowling Green Light, Cowan Cowan Point Light, Cape Capricorn Light, Lady Elliot Island Light and Booby Island Light. The materials from Brisbane and cement from Sydney were brought by ship, unloaded into barges, pulled by horses in trolleys on a 1.2 kilometres wooden rail, rising 50 metres. Materials were raised the final 50 metres by a horse powered whim, it was planned that the light will be the first to be constructed by the new Queensland government. However, it was beat by Bustard Head Light, constructed in 1868. Sandy Cape light was officially lit in May 1870.
The original apparatus was a revolving first order Chance Brothers apparatus which showed a light characteristic of one white flash every two minutes, visible for 20 nautical miles. The light source was an Argand lamp fueled by Colza Rapeseed oil. Rotation was achieved by a clockwork mechanism. Built in the station were quarters for the head keeper and three assistant keepers, their families, built of timber framed weather board and iron roofs. In 1875, the light source was changed to Kerosene. In 1915, the station was transferred to the Commonwealth; the light was upgraded in 1917 and again in 1923. In one of these upgrades when the light source was converted to an incandescent mantle using vaporised kerosene. In the 1930s the lens was replaced with a 4th order Chance Brothers lens and the lighthouse was converted to electrical operation. Around that time The keepers' cottages were rebuilt and most of the other buildings at the premises were constructed. Septic tanks were only installed in the 1960s.
A boarded roadway was constructed in the 1970s and a brick engine room was built in 1974. The kitchens were renovated in the 1980s. In 1995, the lighthouse was converted to solar power and automated, the 4th order lens was replaced with a VRB-25 apparatus. In 1997, the station was demanned, was transferred back to the Queensland Government, to be administered by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, which employs a ranger in the premises. A remote area power supply for powering the quarters was installed in 2001, with both solar and wind power sources and a diesel generator for backup, though the wind turbine is unused since October 2002; the current characteristic is one white flash every ten seconds, visible for 21 nautical miles. The light source is a 100 Watt 10 Volt VRB-25 lantern, with an intensity of 160,000 cd; the power source is a photovoltaic system. The lighthouse is round conical in form, standing 26 metres high, it is constructed of prefabricated cast iron plates, painted white, with splayed flanges at the base standing on a 4 metres concrete base foundation.
The diameter at the base is 7 metres, tapering to about 4 metres at the top, below the lantern. Internally it has five floors, connected by a spiral iron staircase with cast iron steps, adjoined to the internal walls; the lighthouse has two entrances, one at the bottom and one about 3 metres above the ground, accessible by an outside staircase supported on brackets. The bottom entrance provides access to the ground floor, where a display of various maritime artefacts resides, including the 4th order Chance Brothers lens; the top entrance leads to the main tower. The words ""Kitson & Co LEEDS 1866" are cast above the doorway; the tower is topped by a cantilevered iron balcony with a simple iron balustrade. On top of the balcony is the lantern room, with a cast iron catwalk supported on ornate iron brackets; the lantern room is constructed of cast iron, topped by a domed roof clad with copper sheeting and painted bright red. A workshop and some other associated structures surround the lighthouse.
The residences at the station consist of two one-story lighthouse keeper's houses flanking the lighthouse, one for the head keeper and one for the assistant keeper. They are fibro clad, with timber cover battens and timber door and window frames. Windows louvers. Near the residences are a fowl yard and a shelter. A group of service buildings, includi
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl
Fraser Island is a heritage-listed island located along the southeastern coast of the state of Queensland, Australia. It is 250 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane. Known as Fraser Island, it is a locality within the Fraser Coast local government in the Wide Bay–Burnett region. Together with some satellite islands off the southern west coast and thus in the Great Sandy Strait, Fraser Island forms the County of Fraser, subdivided into six parishes. Among the islands are Slain Island, Tooth Island, Roundbush Island, Moonboom Island, Gardner Island, Dream Island, Stewart Island, the Reef Islands, all part of the southernmost parish of Talboor, its length is about 123 kilometres and its width is 22 kilometres. It was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1992; the island is considered to be the largest sand island in the world at 1,840 km2. It is Queensland's largest island, Australia's sixth largest island and the largest island on the East Coast of Australia, it was the homeland of the Butchulla tribe.
The island has rainforests, eucalyptus woodland, mangrove forests and peat swamps, sand dunes and coastal heaths. It is made up of sand, accumulating for 750,000 years on volcanic bedrock that provides a natural catchment for the sediment, carried on a strong offshore current northwards along the coast. Unlike on many sand dunes, plant life is abundant due to the occurring mycorrhizal fungi present in the sand, which release nutrients in a form that can be absorbed by the plants. Fraser Island is home to a small number of mammal species, as well as a diverse range of birds and amphibians, including the occasional saltwater crocodile; the island is protected in the Great Sandy National Park. Fraser Island has been inhabited by humans for as long as 5,000 years. Explorer James Cook sailed by the island in May 1770. Matthew Flinders landed near the most northern point of the island in 1802. For a short period the island was known as Great Sandy Island; the island became known as Fraser due to the stories of a shipwreck survivor named Eliza Fraser.
Today the island is a popular tourism destination. Its resident human population was 194 at the 2011 Australian Census. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Fraser Island was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction". Fraser Island is separated from the mainland by Great Sandy Strait; the southern tip, near Tin Can Bay, is situated to the north of Inskip Peninsula. The most northern point of the island is Sandy Cape where the Sandy Cape Light operated from 1870 to 1994; the establishment of the lighthouse was the first permanent European settlement on the island. The nearest large town to Fraser Island is Hervey Bay, while Maryborough and Bundaberg are close by; the bay on the north east coast is called Marloo Bay and on the north west coast is Platypus Bay. The most westerly place on the island is Moon Point. Eli Creek is the largest freshwater creek on the east coast of the island with a flow of 80 million litres per day. Eli Creek has its own unique and varied wild life.
Coongul Creek on the west coast has a flow rate of four to five million litres per hour. Some of the swamps on the island are fens near Moon Point; this was only discovered in 1996 when a group of experts who had attended a Ramsar conference in Brisbane flew over the island and conducted an aerial survey. From above they noticed the distinct patterns of potholed peat; this was the first instance of fens found in Australia and in a sub-tropical region, although more were subsequently found on the adjacent Cooloola coast. The total volume of sand above sea level on Fraser Island is directly proportional to the mass of 113 cubic kilometres. All of the sand, which originated in the Hawkesbury and Clarence River catchments in New South Wales has been transported north by longshore transport. Along the eastern coast of the island the process is removing more sand than it is depositing, resulting in the slow erosion of beaches which may accelerate with sea level rises attributed to climate change; the sand consists of 98% quartz.
All hills on the island have been formed by sandblowing. Sandblows are parabolic dunes which move across the island via the wind and are devoid of vegetation. In 2004, there was an estimated total of 36 sandblows on the island. With year-round south-easterly wind, the sand dunes on the island move at the rate of 1 to 2 metres a year and grow to a height of 244 metres; the dune movement creates overlapping dunes and sometimes intersects waterways and covers forests. Dune-building has occurred in episodes as the sea levels have changed and once extended much further to the east; the oldest dune system has been dated at 700,000 years, the world's oldest recorded sequence. The coloured sands found at Rainbow Gorge, The Cathedrals, The Pinnacles and Red Canyon are examples of where the sand has been stained over thousands of years due to the sand conglomerating with clay. Hematite, the mineral pigment responsible for the staining acts like cement; this allows the steeper cliffs of coloured sand to form.
Coffee rock, so-called because when it is dissolved in water it turns the colour of coffee, is found in outcrops along the beaches on both sides of the island. The 120 kilometres beach runs along most of the east coast of Fraser Island, it is used as a landing strip for planes and is designated as a main road. Along the beach are Indian Head, the Maheno Wreck and the outflow of Eli Creek. Exposed volcanic rocks are found at Indian Head, Waddy Point and Mid