The Japanese Paleolithic period is the period of human inhabitation in Japan predating the development of pottery before 10,000 BC. The starting dates given to this period are from around 40,000 BC; the period extended to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jōmon period, or around 14,000 BC. The earliest human bones were discovered in the city of Hamamatsu in Shizuoka Prefecture, which were determined by Radiocarbon dating to date to around 14,000–18,000 years ago; the study of the Paleolithic period in Japan did not begin until quite recently: the first Paleolithic site was not discovered until 1946, right after the end of World War II. Due to the previous assumption that humans did not live in Japan before the Jōmon period, excavations stopped at the beginning of the Jōmon stratum, were not carried on further. However, since that first Paleolithic find by Tadahiro Aizawa, around 5,000 Paleolithic sites have been discovered, some of them at existing Jōmon archaeological sites, some dating to the Pleistocene era.
Sites have been discovered from southern Kyushu to northern Hokkaido, but most are small and only stone tools have been preserved due to the high acidity of the Japanese soil. As the Palaeolithic peoples occupied the wide coastal shelves exposed by lower sea levels during the Pleistocene, the majority of sites are most inundated; the study of the Japanese Paleolithic period is characterized by a high level of stratigraphic information due to the volcanic nature of the archipelago: large eruptions tend to cover the islands with levels of Volcanic ash, which are datable and can be found throughout the country as a reference. A important such layer is the AT pumice, which covered all Japan around 21,000–22,000 years ago. In 2000 the reputation of Japanese archaeology of the Paleolithic was damaged by a scandal, which has become known as the Japanese Paleolithic hoax; the Mainichi Shimbun reported the photos in which Shinichi Fujimura, an archaeologist in Miyagi Prefecture, had been planting artifacts at the Kamitakamori site, where he "found" the artifacts the next day.
He admitted the fabrication in an interview with the newspaper. The Japanese Archaeological Association disaffiliated Fujimura from its members. A special investigation team of the Association revealed that all the artifacts which he had found were his fabrication. Since the discovery of the hoax, only a few sites can tentatively date human activity in Japan to 40,000–50,000 BC, the first accepted date of human presence on the archipelago can be reliably dated circa 35,000 BC; the Japanese Paleolithic is unique in that it incorporates one of the earliest known sets of ground stone and polished stone tools in the world, although older ground stone tools have been discovered in Australia. The tools, which have been dated to around 30,000 BC, are a technology associated in the rest of the world with the beginning of the Neolithic around 10,000 BC, it is not known. Because of this originality, the Japanese Paleolithic period in Japan does not match the traditional definition of Paleolithic based on stone technology.
Japanese Paleolithic tool implements thus display Mesolithic and Neolithic traits as early as 30,000 BC. The Paleolithic populations of Japan, as well as the Jōmon populations, appear to relate to an ancient Paleo-Asian group which occupied large parts of Asia before the expansion of the populations characteristic of today's people of China and Japan. During much of this period, Japan was connected to the Asian continent by land bridges due to lower sea levels. Skeletal characteristics point to many similarities with other aboriginal people of the Asian continent. Dental structures belong to the Sundadont group distributed in ancient populations of South-East Asia. Skull features tend to be stronger, with comparatively recessed eyes; the aboriginal populations of the Ainu, today confined to the northern island of Hokkaidō, the Ryukyuan people in southern Japan, appear to be the descendants of these Paleolithic populations, display features that have, in the past, been interpreted as Caucasoid, but today tend to be considered more as part of that early Paleolithic human stock and are genetically closer to Southeast Asians.
Genetic analysis on today's populations is not clear-cut and tends to indicate a fair amount of genetic intermixing between the earliest populations of Japan and arrivals. It is estimated that 20 to 30% of the genetic capital of the Japanese population today derives from the aboriginal Paleolithic-Jōmon ancestry, with the remainder coming from migrations from the continent during the Yayoi period. List of archaeological periods List of archaeological sites sorted by continent and age Prehistoric Asia The History and Geography of Human Genes, Cavalli-Sforza, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-08750-4 Ainu:Spirit of a Northern People, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, ISBN 0-9673429-0-2 Shoh Yamada. Harvard Asia Quarterly "Politics and Personality: Japan's Worst Archaeology Scandal", Volume VI, No. 3. Summer The history of human populations in the Japanese Archipelago inferred from genome-wide SNP data with a special reference to the Ainu and the Ryukyuan populations
Yogyakarta is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, literature, poetry, visual arts, wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious. Yogyakarta is the capital of the Yogyakarta Special Region and served as the Indonesian capital from 1946 to 1948 during the Indonesian National Revolution, with Gedung Agung as the president's office. One of the districts in southeastern Yogyakarta, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanate between 1587 and 1613; the city's population was 422,732 inhabitants at the 2017 census. Its built-up area was home to 4,010,436 inhabitants, which includes Magelang and 65 districts across Sleman, Bantul, Kulon Progo, Magelang regencies.
Yogyakarta-Magelang and Surakarta are being agglomerated within several years. At 0.837, Yogyakarta has one of the highest HDI within Indonesia, with which it is considered a "developed" city. Yogyakarta is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya, the birthplace of the eponymous hero Rama from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, proper", karta means "prosperous, flourishing"—thus, "a city, fit to prosper". In colonial era correspondence, the city is written in the Javanese script as ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ, read as with the added prefix nga-. In the orthography of the time, the proper name was spelt with the Latin alphabet as "Jogjakarta"; as the orthography of the Indonesian language changed, the consonant came to be written with <y>, the consonant with <j>. Personal and geographical names however, were allowed to maintain their original spelling according to contemporary Indonesian orthography. Thus, the city can be written as "Yogyakarta", true to its original pronunciation and the Javanese script spelling, or "Jogjakarta", true to the old Dutch spelling and reflects popular pronunciation today, but differs from the original Ayodhya etymology.
One may encounter either "Yogyakarta" or "Jogjakarta" in contemporary documents. According to the Canggal inscription dated 732 CE, the area traditionally known as "Mataram" became the capital of the Medang Kingdom, identified as Mdang i Bhumi Mataram established by King Sanjaya of Mataram; the inscription was found in a Hindu temple in Central Java, 40 km away from Yogyakarta and 20 km away from the giant Borobudur temple complex. This Hindu temple itself was on the border between the area of the Hindu Sañjaya dynasty and the area of the Buddhist Shailendra dynasty. Mataram became the center of a refined and sophisticated Javanese Hindu-Buddhist culture for about three centuries in the heartland of the Progo River valley, on the southern slopes of Mount Merapi volcano; this time period witnessed the construction of numerous candi, including Prambanan. Around the year 929 CE, the last ruler of the Sañjaya dynasty, King Mpu Sindok of Mataram, moved the seat of power of the Mataram Kingdom from Central Java to East Java and thus established the Isyana dynasty.
The exact cause of the move is still uncertain. Historians suggest that some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram, Merapi erupted and devastated the kingdom's capital in Mataram. During the Majapahit era, the area surrounding modern Yogyakarta was identified again as "Mataram" and recognized as one of the twelve Majapahit provinces in Java ruled by a Duke known as Bhre Mataram. During the reign of the fourth king of the Majapahit Empire, the Hindu King Hayam Wuruk of the Rajasa dynasty, the title of Bhre Mataram was held by the king's nephew and son-in-law Wikramawardhana the fifth king of Majapahit. Kotagede, now a district in southeastern Yogyakarta, was established as the capital of the Mataram Sultanate from 1587–1613. During the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo, the Mataram Sultanate reached its zenith as the greatest kingdom in Java, expanded its influence to Central Java, East Java, half of West Java. After two changes of capital—to Karta and to Plered, both located in present-day Bantul Regency—the capital of the Mataram Sultanate moved to Kartasura.
A civil war in the Mataram Sultanate broke out between Pakubuwono II, the last ruler of Kartasura, his younger brother and heir apparent to the throne, Prince Mangkubumi. Pakubuwono II had agreed to cooperate with the Dutch East India Company, ceded some Mataram territory to the Dutch, his younger brother, Prince Mangkubumi, stood against the agreement, citing concerns that the people would become slaves under Dutch rule. During the war, Prince Mangkubumi defeated Pakubuwono II's forces and declared sovereignty in the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, occupying the southern parts of the former Mataram Sultanate. With Pakubowono II dead from illness, the Yogyakarta Sultanate was established as a result of the Treaty of Giyanti and ratified on 13 February 1755 among Prince Mangkubumi, the Dutch East India Company, his nephew Pakubuwono III and his allies. Ascending to the newly-created Yogyakarta throne with the name Sultan Hamengkubuwono I, Mangkubumi thus established the royal House of Hamengkubuwono, still the ru
Homo floresiensis is an extinct species in the genus Homo. The remains of an individual who would have stood about 1.1 m in height were discovered in 2004 at Liang Bua on the island of Flores in Indonesia. Partial skeletons of nine individuals have been recovered, including one complete skull, referred to as "LB1"; these remains have been the subject of intense research to determine whether they represent a species distinct from modern humans, though the dominant consensus is that these remains do represent a distinct species due to genetic and anatomical differences. This hominin had been considered remarkable for its survival until recent times, only 12,000 years ago. However, more extensive stratigraphic and chronological work has pushed the dating of the most recent evidence of its existence back to 50,000 years ago; the Homo floresiensis. Fossil teeth and a partial jaw from hominins assumed to be ancestral to H. floresiensis were discovered in 2014 and described in 2016. These remains are from a site on Flores called Mata Menge, about 74 km from Liang Bua.
They date to about 700,000 years ago and are smaller than the fossils. The discoverers, Mike Morwood et al. proposed that a variety of features, both primitive and derived, identify these individuals as belonging to a new species, H. floresiensis, within the taxonomic tribe of Hominini, which includes all species that are more related to humans than to chimpanzees. Based on previous date estimates, the discoverers proposed that H. floresiensis lived contemporaneously with modern humans on Flores. Two orthopedic studies published in 2007 reported evidence to support species status for H. floresiensis. A study of three tokens of carpal bones concluded there were differences from the carpal bones of modern humans and similarities to those of a chimpanzee or an early hominin such as Australopithecus. A study of the bones and joints of the arm and lower limbs concluded that H. floresiensis was more similar to early humans and other apes than modern humans. In 2009, the publication of a cladistic analysis and a study of comparative body measurements provided further support for the hypothesis that H. floresiensis and Homo sapiens are separate species.
In 2015, the results of Bayesian analysis were published, which used more than 300 morphological characteristics of fossil hominins. Van den Bergh et al. suggested derivation from a population of H. erectus that arrived on Flores about a million years ago and became dwarfed. A phylogenetic analysis published in 2017 suggests that H. floresiensis was descended from the same ancestor as Homo habilis, making it a "sister species" to either H. habilis or to a minimally habilis-erectus-ergaster-sapiens clade, its line much more ancient than Homo erectus itself. On the basis of this classification H. floresiensis is hypothesized to represent a hitherto unknown and early migration out of Africa. A similar conclusion was suggested in a 2018 study dating stone artefacts found at Shangchen, central China, to 2.1 million years ago. The specimens were discovered on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003 by a joint Australian-Indonesian team of archaeologists looking for evidence of the original human migration of Homo sapiens from Asia to Australia.
They were not expecting to find a new species, were surprised at the recovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a hominin they dubbed LB1 because it was unearthed inside the Liang Bua Cave. Subsequent excavations recovered seven additional skeletons dated from 38,000 to 13,000 years ago. An arm bone provisionally assigned to H. floresiensis is about 74,000 years old. The specimens are not fossilized and have been described as having "...the consistency of wet blotting paper." Once exposed, the bones had to be left to dry. Stone implements of a size considered appropriate to the 3-foot-tall human are widely present in the cave; the implements are at horizons dated at from 95,000 to 13,000 years ago and are associated with an elephant of the extinct genus Stegodon the prey of LB1. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 50,000 years ago, by which time Homo floresiensis is thought to have reached extinction. Comparisons of the stone artefacts with those made by modern humans in East Timor indicate many technological similarities.
Homo floresiensis was unveiled on 28 October 2004, was swiftly nicknamed the hobbit, after the fictional race popularized in J. R. R. Tolkien's book The Hobbit, a proposed scientific name for the species was Homo hobbitus, it was placed in its own genus, Sundanthropus floresianus, but reviewers of the article felt that the cranium, despite its size, belonged in the genus Homo. The most important and obvious identifying features of H. floresiensis are its small body and small cranial capacity. Brown and Morwood identified a number of additional, less obvious features that might distinguish LB1 from modern H
The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge in Tanzania is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world. A steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley that stretches across East Africa, it is about 48 km long, is located in the eastern Serengeti Plains in the Arusha Region about 45 kilometres from Laetoli, another important archaeological site of early human occupation; the British/Kenyan paleoanthropologist-archeologist team Mary and Louis Leakey established and developed the excavation and research programs at Olduvai Gorge which achieved great advances of human knowledge and world-renowned status. Homo habilis the first early human species, occupied Olduvai Gorge 1.9 million years ago. Our species Homo sapiens, estimated to have emerged 300,000 years ago, is dated to have occupied the site 17,000 years ago; the site is significant in showing the increasing developmental and social complexities in the earliest humans, or hominins revealed in the production and use of stone tools.
Prior to tools, evidence of scavenging and hunting can be noted—highlighted by the presence of gnaw marks that predate cut marks—and of the ratio of meat versus plant material in the early hominin diet. The collecting of tools and animal remains in a centralized area is evidence of developing social interaction and communal activity. All these factors indicate an increase in cognitive capacities at the beginning of the period of hominids transitioning to hominin—that is, to human—form and behavior. Oldupai means "the place of the wild sisal", in Maasai. Twenty-five kilometers downstream of Lake Ndutu and Lake Masek, the gorge cuts into Pleistocene lake bed sediments up to a depth of 90 m. A side gorge, originating from Lemagrut Mountain, joins the main gorge 8 km from the mouth; this side gorge follows the shoreline of a prehistoric lake, rich in early man sites. Volcanic ash from Olmoti and Kerimasi ensured preservation of the fossils. While travelling in German East Africa in 1911 to investigate sleeping sickness, German physician and archaeologist Wilhelm Kattwinkel visited Olduvai Gorge, where he observed many fossil bones of an extinct three-toed horse.
Inspired by Kattwinkel's discovery, German geologist Hans Reck led a team to Olduvai in 1913. There, he found hominin remains radiocarbon dated to 17,000 BP. Four more expeditions were planned. After the war, as Tanzania came under British control, Louis Leakey visited Reck in Berlin and viewed the Olduvai fossils. Louis Leakey became convinced that Olduvai Gorge held stone tools, thinking the deposits were of similar age to the Kariandusi prehistoric site in Kenya. Reck and the paleontologist Donald McInnes accompanied Louis Leakey in his 1931 expedition, where Louis found a number of hand axes close to camp soon after their arrival. Mary Leakey first visited the site in 1935, joining Percy Edward Kent. Subsequent visits were made by the Leakeys in 1941, 1953, 1955 and 1957. Louis and Mary Leakey are responsible for most of the excavations and discoveries of the hominin fossils in Olduvai Gorge. In July 1959, at the FLK site, Mary Leakey found the skull of Zinjanthropus or Australopithecus boisei.
In addition to an abundance of faunal remains the Leakeys found stone tools Mary classified as Oldowan. In May 1960, at the FLK North-North site, the Leakeys' son Jonathan found the mandible that proved to be the type specimen for Homo habilis; the stratigraphic sequence in the gorge is up to 90 m thick, with a welded tuff, the Naabi ignimbrite, forming the base. This is overlain by a series of lava flows from another source to the south; the oldest fossils are found on this surface, dated at 1.89 mya, while stone tools have been dated at 1.7 mya through the first use of K-Ar dating by Garniss Curtis. In addition, fission track dating and paleomagnetism were used to date the deposits, while amino acid dating and Carbon-14 dating were used to date the bones. Hominid fossils and stone tools are found continuously throughout the entire exposed sequence in the gorge. Faulting between 100 to 30 kya, formed the Olbalbal Depression northwest of Ngorongoro. Reck identified five main layers of deposition, which he labelled Beds I through V, with Bed I being the oldest and lowest in the sequence.
The Bed IV interval was distinguished as consisting of Bed IV and the Masek Beds, while Bed V was reclassified as the Ndutu Bed and the Naisiuiu Bed. The 20-46 m thick Lower Pleistocene Bed I sediments above the basalt consist of layers of Olmoti tuff and lake sediment claystone. Four well-preserved living sites of note are located within Bed I, the FLK and FLK North-North sites mentioned above, plus DK and FLK North; the DK site has a stone circle, many tools and fossil bones, ranges in age from 1.75 mya to 1.9 mya. Bed II consists of 21-35 m of clay and sandstone Olduvai Lake and stream deposits. Manuports are abundant at the MNK site in addition to a chert nodule quarry containing over 14,000 pieces, including gneiss and lava anvils and hammerstones. Hand axes were found at the TK sites; the BK site contained an Australopithecus boisei deciduous canine. The distinctly red Bed III consists of 6-10 m of clays and conglomerates signifying intermittent dry lake conditions. Few fossils are present and only isolated sto
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Prehistoric Indonesia is a prehistoric period in the Indonesian archipelago that spanned from the Pleistocene period to about the 4th century CE when the Kutai people produced the earliest known stone inscriptions in Indonesia. Unlike the clear distinction between prehistoric and historical periods in Europe and the Middle East, the division is muddled in Indonesia; this is because Indonesia's geographical conditions as a vast archipelago caused some parts — the interiors of distant islands — to be isolated from the rest of the world. West Java and coastal Eastern Borneo, for example, began their historical periods in the early 4th century, but megalithic culture still flourished and script was unknown in the rest of Indonesia, including in Nias and Toraja; the Papuans on the Indonesian part of New Guinea island lived in the stone age until their first contacts with modern world in the early 20th century. Today living megalithic traditions still can be found on the island of Sumba and Nias.
Geologically, the area of modern Indonesia appeared from under the Southeast Asian seas as the result of the Indian and Australian plates colliding and slipping under the Sunda Plate, sometime in the early Cenozoic era around 63 million years ago. This tectonic collision created Sunda volcanic Arc that has produced chains of islands of Sumatra and the Lesser Sunda Islands; the active volcanic arc creating supervolcano that today become Lake Toba in Sumatra. The massive eruption of Toba supervolcano that occurred some time between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago instigated the Toba catastrophe theory, a global volcanic winter that caused a bottleneck in human evolution. Other notable volcanoes in Sunda Arc are Mount Krakatau; the region is known for its instability due to volcano formations and other volcanic and tectonic activities as well as climate changes. The Indonesian archipelago nearly reached its present form in the Pleistocene period. For some periods, the Sundaland was still linked with Asian mainland, creating the landmass extension of Southeast Asia that enabled the migrations of some Asian animals and hominid species.
Geologically the New Guinea island and the shallow seas of Arafura is the northern part of Australia tectonic plate and once connected as a land bridge identified as Sahulland. During the end of the last ice age, earth experienced global climate change. Sundaland was submerged under shallow sea, creating Malacca Strait, South China Sea, Karimata Strait and Java Sea. During that period, Malay peninsula, Java and the islands around them were formed. On the east, New Guinea and Aru Islands were separated from the Australia mainland; the rise of sea surface created isolated areas that separated plants and hominid species, causing further evolution and specification. In 2007 analysis of cut marks on two bovid bones found in Sangiran, showed them to have been made 1.5 to 1.6 million years ago by clamshell tools, is the oldest evidence for the presence of early man in Indonesia. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man" were first discovered by the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois at Trinil in 1891, are at least 700,000 years old, at that time the oldest human ancestor found.
Further Homo erectus fossils of a similar age were found at Sangiran in the 1930s by the anthropologist Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald, who in the same time period uncovered fossils at Ngandong alongside more advanced tools, re-dated in 2011 to between 550,000 and 143,000 years old. In 1977 another Homo erectus skull was discovered at Sambungmacan. In 2003, on the island of Flores, fossils of a new small hominid dated between 74,000 and 13,000 years old and named "Flores Man" were discovered much to the surprise of the scientific community; this 3 foot tall hominid is thought to be a species descended from Homo Erectus and reduced in size over thousands of years by a well known process called island dwarfism. Homo floresiensis was first dated to recent time periods - as recent as 14,000 years ago, however re-examination of the sediments has revised these dates and these hominins have been shown to have been present in Indonesia since at least 700,000 years ago, until about 60-50,000 years ago.
In 2010 stone tools were discovered on Flores dating from 1 million years ago, the oldest evidence anywhere in the world that early man had the technology to make sea crossings at this early time. The archipelago was formed during the thaw after the latest ice age. Early humans travelled by spread from mainland Asia eastward to New Guinea and Australia. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago. In 2011 evidence was uncovered in neighbouring East Timor, showing that 42,000 years ago these early settlers had high-level maritime skills, by implication the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands, as they were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep-sea fish such as tuna. Early Homo sapiens reached the archipelago between 60,000 to 45,000 years ago. Many but not all Southeast Asian Homo sapiens fossils prior to about 8,000 BCE have been identified as the members of the Australoid group of peoples, they survive in isolated pockets in Malaya and the Philippines today as the black-skinned, wiry-haired negritos, related to Papuan and Australian Aborigines.
Australoid still formed as the significant inhabitant of East
Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois was a Dutch paleoanthropologist and geologist. He earned worldwide fame for his discovery of Pithecanthropus erectus, or "Java Man". Although hominid fossils had been found and studied before, Dubois was the first anthropologist to embark upon a purposeful search for them. Dubois was born and raised in the village of Eijsden, where his father, Jean Dubois, was an apothecary the mayor. Interested in all phenomena of the world of nature, Eugène explored the "caves" of Mount Saint Peter and amassed collections of plant parts, insects and animal skulls. From age 12-13 on, he attended school in the Limburg city of Roermond, boarding with a family there and he dropped out. In Roermond he attended lectures on Charles Darwin's new theory of evolution given by the German biologist, Karl Vogt. Resisting his father's plan for him to train to follow in his footsteps, encouraged by his teachers, decided in 1877 to study medicine at the University of Amsterdam. While a student, he taught anatomy at both of the brand new art schools housed at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid and the Rijksnormaalschool voor Teekenonderwijzers.
In 1884 he completed his medical degree. He declined an offer from the University of Utrecht of a position as a docent. Instead, at the invitation of his anatomy instructor, Max Fürbringer, he decided to train as an academic. From 1881 to 1887 he became Fürbringer's assistant. In 1885 he investigated the larynx of vertebrates, which led him to develop a hypothesis of the evolution of this organ, his chief interest was in human evolution, influenced by Ernst Haeckel, who reasoned that there must be intermediate species between ape and human. Dubois contributed an article on whale anatomy to a book by the Dutch zoologist, Max Weber, inspired by the fresh discovery of new Neanderthal fossils at the Belgian town of Spy, he spent his vacation fossil hunting in the vicinity of his birthplace. In the Henkeput near the village of Rijckholt, where a prehistoric flint mine had just been discovered in 1881, he found some prehistoric human skulls. Reasoning that the origins of the human species must be in the tropics, in 1887 he joined the Dutch army and arranged to be posted in the Dutch East Indies, to the dismay of his academic colleagues.
With his wife and newborn daughter he moved to the colony to search for the missing link in human evolution. Between 1887 and 1895, Dubois searched at potential sites near rivers and in caves, first on the island of Sumatra on the Indonesian island of Java. In 1891, Dubois discovered remains of what he described as "a species in between humans and apes", he called his finds Java Man. Today, they are classified as Homo erectus; these were the first specimens of early hominid remains to be found outside of Europe. During this period Dubois carried out fieldwork at sites such as Sangiran in Central Java and Trinil in East Java. In 1897, the University of Amsterdam awarded Dubois an honorary doctorate in botany and zoology, but he had to wait until 1899 for a professorship. In that year, he was appointed a professor in geology, a function that did not keep him from his research in anatomy, he was keeper of paleontology and mineralogy at Teylers Museum, where he kept the H. erectus remains. In 1919 he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences.
Although the scientific debate began to turn in his favour in the 1920s and 1930s, he died embittered in 1940. He was buried in unconsecrated ground on the 16th of December 1940 in Venlo, "Algemene Begraafplaats", grave number NH2\26\-\BR; the reason was that his finding of the missing link in favor of the evolution theory was not welcomed by the catholic church. His paleontological collection and scientific archive remain at Naturalis in Leiden. A special section of Museum Het Ursulinenconvent - International Museum for Family History is devoted to Dubois' life and work. List of fossil sites List of hominina fossils International Museum for Family History Morwood and van Oosterzee, Penny. 2007. A new human: the startling discovery and strange story of the "hobbits" of Flores, Indonesia. Smithsonian Books. Pat Shipman, The Man who Found the Missing Link. Eugène Dubois and His Lifelong Quest to Prove Darwin Right, Harvard University Press, 528 pages, ISBN 0-674-00866-9. DUBOIS - The Quest for the Missing Link, www.eugenedubois.eu Biographies: Eugene Dubois at TalkOrigins Archive http://www.cryingvoice.com/Evolution/ApeMen2.html Fossil Hominids, Human Evolution: Thomas Huxley & Eugene Dubois at www.understandingevolution.org