Victoria was a Spanish carrack and the first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world. Victoria was part of a Spanish expedition commanded by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the expedition began on August 10,1519 with five ships but Victoria was the only ship to complete the voyage, returning on September 6,1522. Magellan was killed in the Philippines, the ship was built at a shipyard in Gipuzkoa, with the Basques being reputed shipbuilders at the time, and along with the four other ships, she was given to Magellan by King Charles I of Spain. Victoria was named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, Victoria was an 85 ton ship with a crew of 42. The four other ships were Trinidad, San Antonio, Victoria was rated a carrack or nao, as were all the others except Santiago, which was a caravel. The voyage started with a crew of about 265 men aboard five ships, of all these, only 18 men returned alive on Victoria. Many of the men died of malnutrition, beginning the voyage, Luis De Mendoza was her captain.
On April 2,1520, after establishing a settlement they called Puerto San Julian, Antonio Pigafettas and other reports state that Luis de Mendoza and Gaspar Quesada, captain of Concepcion were executed and the remains hung on gallows on the shore. Juan de Cartagena, captain of San Antonio was marooned on the coast, Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese who had sided with Magellan in facing the mutiny, became the captain of Victoria. According to Pigafetta, after Magellans death on April 27,1521, at the Battle of Mactan, Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão were elected leaders of the expedition. On May 1,1521 they were invited by rajah Humabon of Cebu, there most were killed or poisoned, including Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão, who was brought by natives who wanted to exchange him for weapons, but was left behind. Pilot João Carvalho, who had survived the trap, became the captain of Victoria, in August, near Borneo he was deposed and Juan Sebastián Elcano became captain for the remainder of the expedition.
Out of an expedition of 260 people, only 18 returned to Seville with the expedition. They were, Out of all survivors, Antonio Pigafetta was the most significant because his journals supply most of the information known about the first expedition around the world. On December 21,1521, Victoria sailed on from Tidore alone because the ships left the convoy due to lack of food/water rations. The ship was in shape, with her sails torn. Victoria managed to pull through and return to Spain with a shipload of costly spices, Victoria was repaired, bought by a merchant shipper and sailed for almost another fifty years before being lost with all hands on a trip from the Antilles to Seville in about 1570. A replica was built in 1992 and is operated by the Fundación Nao Victoria, the search for the original plans of Nao Victoria took longer than expected and the project was delayed by almost three years, from 2006 to 2009
Jerez de la Frontera
As of 2015, the city, the largest in the province, had 212,876 inhabitants, it is the fifth largest in Andalusia. It has become the transportation and communications hub of the province, surpassing even Cádiz, Jerez de la Frontera is also, in terms of land area, the largest municipality in the province, and its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations, as well as a wine industry. Currently, with 212,876 inhabitants, is the 25th largest city in Spain and it belongs to the Municipal Association of the Bay of Cádiz, the 3rd largest Andalusian metropolitan area and the 12th in Spain, with over 650,000 inhabitants. Its municipality covers an area of 1,188.14 km2 and includes the Los Alcornocales Natural Park, the city is located 12 km from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Campiña de Jerez, region appropriate to cultivate the vineyards that produce the famous sherry. Some famous places in to the city are Alcazar of Jerez, Church of San Miguel, Charterhouse of Jerez, since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May.
On this weekend, the city welcomes tens of thousands of bikers from around the world, the same circuit has hosted several Formula 1 Grands Prix, including the 1997 final race of the season, which was marred with controversy for a notable high-profile championship-deciding incident. Other popular festivals in the city are Feria de Jerez or the Holy Week in Jerez, Jerez is known as the city of flamenco, sherry and motorcycles. In 2013, Jerez was the European Capital of Wine and 2014, the name Jerez goes back to the Phoenician Xera, Sèrès, Romanized under the name of Ceret, the location of this settlement, remains unknown. The classical Latin name of Asta Regia, unrelated to the present name, referred to an ancient city now found within Mesas de Asta, the current Castilian name came by way of the Arabic name شريش Sherish. In former times, during the Muslim occupation of Iberia, it was called Xerez or Xerés, the name of the famous fortified wine, which originated here, represents an adaptation of the citys Arabic name, Sherish.
Over two centuries later, after the Castilian conquest of Granada in 1492, Xerez definitively lost its status as a frontier city, in the 16th century, the consonant /ʃ/ changed into the consonant /x/, with the corresponding spelling of Jerez. The citys main football team continues to use the old spelling, the first major protohistoric settlement in the area is attributed to the Tartessians. Jerez became a Roman city under the name of Asta Regia, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Vandals and the Visigoths ruled it until the Arabs conquered the area in 711. In the 11th century it became the seat of an independent taifa. Some years Abdun ibn Muhammad united it with Arcos and ruled both, in 1053 it was annexed to Seville. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez briefly operated as an emirate under dependency of Granada, the Almohads conquered the city. In the 12th and 13th centuries Jerez underwent a period of development, building its defense system
The New World is one of the names used for the Earths Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas. The term was coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci, the Americas were referred to as the fourth part of the world. New World are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the worlds major ecozones, and to classify plant and animal species that originated therein. One can speak of the New World in a context, e. g. when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus. For lack of alternatives, the term is still useful to those discussing issues that concern the Americas. The term New World is used in a context, when one speaks of Old World. Biological taxonomists often attach the New World label to groups of species that are exclusively in the Americas, to distinguish them from their counterparts in the Old World. New World monkeys, New World vultures, New World warblers, the label is often used in agriculture. Common Old World crops, and domesticated animals did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by contact in the 1490s.
Other famous New World crops include the cashew, rubber, sunflower and vanilla, there are rare instances of overlap, e. g. In wine terminology, New World has a different definition, Vespucci was finally convinced when he proceeded on his mapping expedition through 1501-02, covering the huge stretch of coast of eastern Brazil. But this opinion is false, and entirely opposed to the truth, Vespuccis letter was a publishing sensation in Europe, immediately reprinted in several other countries. The Venetian explorer Alvise Cadamosto had used the term un altro mundo to refer to sub-Saharan Africa, this was merely a literary flourish, not a suggestion of a new fourth part of the world. Cadamosto was quite aware sub-Saharan Africa was firmly part of the African continent, the Italian-born Spanish chronicler Peter Martyr dAnghiera often shares credit with Vespucci for designating the Americas as a new world. Peter Martyr used the term Orbe Novo in the title of his history of the discovery of the Americas as a whole, a year later, Peter Martyr again refers to the marvels of the New Globe and the Western hemisphere.
Christopher Columbus touched the continent of South America in his 1498 third voyage, in another letter, Columbus refers to having reached a new heavens and world and that he had placed another world under the dominion of the Kings of Spain. The Vespucci passage above applied the New World label to merely the continental landmass of South America, although the proceedings of the Toro-Burgos conferences are missing, it is almost certain that Vespucci articulated his recent New World thesis to his fellow navigators there. In English usage the term New World was problematic and only accepted relatively late, while it became generally accepted after Vespucci that Columbuss discoveries were not Asia but a New World, the geographic relationship between the two continents was still unclear
The Guadalquivir Marshes are a natural region of marshy lowlands on the lower Guadalquivir River. The Las Marismas zone forms a part of the province of Seville in Andalucia. The area includes parts of the municipalities of Isla Mayor, Los Palacios y Villafranca, La Puebla del Río, Las Cabezas de San Juan and Lebrija. Approximately two millennia ago the wetlands comprised a large lagoon and estuary, known as Lacus Ligustinus in Latin, over time the lake silted up, gradually transforming into marshland. Nowadays the Guadalquivir wetland regions main economic activity is agriculture, specialising in the cultivation of rice, an area of about 400 km² is devoted to rice farming with an annual output of about 310,000 metric tonnes, equating to approximately 40% of Spains rice production. The wetland zone acts as a zone between the human settlements of the Guadalquivir region and Doñana National Park, a protected area of marshland, streams. Gulf of Cádiz Sanlúcar de Barrameda Coto de Doñana Sanlúcar Central Bureau for Tourism
The town of Rota is a Spanish municipality located in the Province of Cádiz, Andalusia. Its surface area is 84 km ² and is bordered by the towns of Chipiona, Sanlúcar de Barrameda and it is located near the city of Jerez de la Frontera and is 36 kilometers away from the provincial capital, Cadiz. In the year 2009 had 28,516 inhabitants, with a density of 339.44 inhabitants / km ². Located along the Bay of Cádiz in the Atlantic Ocean, it is halfway between Portugal and Gibraltar, is predominantly a tourist town, a destination for travelers from all over Europe. During the low season, its business activity is the fishing industry. In the municipality is located the Naval Station Rota, which is the largest source of employment to the municipality, archaeological evidence suggests that there was a Bronze Age settlement on the present site of Rota. The current town was founded by the Phoenicians at approximately the time as Cádiz. Rota is assumed to be the city known as Astaroth of the Tartesian empire.
It passed to the Romans, who knew the town as Speculum Rotae, following the arrival of the Moors in Spain, the city became known as Rabita Rutta, from which it derives its present name. From 1248 onwards, the Moors were gradually expelled from Spain, in 1297, Sancho IV awarded the town to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán in honour of his defence of Tarifa. Later, Pérez de Guzmán gave it to his daughter, Isabel, as a present when she married Fermin Ponce de León, Maestre of Alcántara. During the Middle Ages, the town was an important port for trading with North Africa, in 1780 the 11th Duke of Arcos died without issue, and the city was rendered to the Duke of Osuna. Rota is primarily a town, offering eight hotels and nearly two thousand beds. It is a destination for tourists from all over Europe. During the off-season, its commercial activity centres on the fishing industry. Rota is the location of the Rota naval base, a joint Spanish and U. S. naval base and it is the usual first and last port of call for U. S.
naval vessels after leaving the Mediterranean Sea. The surrounding area is used for agriculture, the predominant crops are cotton and sunflowers, as well as green peppers, tomatoes. A traditional dish is the arranque made with chopped bread, green peppers, salt, the local wine, known as tintilla, is made with dark, ripe grapes
Spanish Civil War
Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. Sanjurjo was killed in an accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal. The coup was supported by units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, and Málaga—did not gain control, Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country, the Nationalist forces received munitions and soldiers from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Communist Soviet Union and leftist populist Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, operated a policy of non-intervention. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west and they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists, with the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime. The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired, organized purges occurred in territory captured by Francos forces to consolidate the future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans, the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain and those in favour of reforming Spains government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain, the reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government.
Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874, until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was primarily based on agriculture. There was little development of an industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful, a number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon, two distinct factors led to the uprisings, a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabellas replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing pressure. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy, alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was particularly acute
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Tartessos or Tartessus was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC, for example, describes it as beyond the Pillars of Heracles. Archaeological discoveries in the region have built up a picture of a widespread culture, identified as Tartessian. The Tartessians were rich in metal, in the 4th century BC the historian Ephorus describes a very prosperous market called Tartessos, with much tin carried by river, as well as gold and copper from Celtic lands. Trade in tin was very lucrative in the Bronze Age, since it is a component of true bronze and is comparatively rare. Herodotus refers to a king of Tartessos, presumably named for his wealth in silver, the people from Tartessos became important trading partners of the Phoenicians, whose presence in Iberia dates from the 8th century BC and who nearby built a harbor of their own, Gadir.
Several early sources, such as Aristotle, refer to Tartessos as a river, Aristotle claims that it rises from the Pyrene Mountain and flows out to sea outside the Pillars of Hercules, the modern Strait of Gibraltar. No such river traverses the Iberian peninsula, according to Pytheas, in the 4th century BC, as reported by Strabo in the 1st century AD, the Turduli occupied the area that was Tartessos which was the Baetis River. The river, which is the largest in Iberia and tidal, those of a day called Baetis and there are some who think that Tartessus was the ancient name of Carpia. The river known in his day as the Baetis is now the Guadalquivir, Tartessos may be buried, Schulten thought, under the shifting wetlands. The river delta has gradually been blocked by a sandbar that stretches from the mouth of the Rio Tinto, near Palos de la Frontera, the area is now protected as the Parque Nacional de Doñana. In the 2nd century AD Appian thought that Karpessos was previously known as Tartessos, subsequent discoveries were widely reported, in September 1923 archaeologists discovered a Phoenician necropolis in which human remains were unearthed and stones found with illegible characters.
It may have been colonized by the Phoenicians for trade because of its richness in metals, J. M. Luzón was the first to identify Tartessos with modern Huelva, based on discoveries made in the preceding decades. Alluvial tin was panned in Tartessian streams from an early date, the spread of a silver standard in Assyria increased its attractiveness. The invention of coinage in the 7th century BC spurred the search for bronze, henceforth trade connections, formerly largely in elite goods, assumed an increasingly broad economic role. By the Late Bronze Age, silver extraction in Huelva Province reached industrial proportions, pre-Roman silver slag is found in the Tartessian cities of Huelva Province. Cypriot and Phoenician metalworkers produced 15 million tons of pyrometallurgical residues at the vast dumps of Riotinto, tartessic artifacts linked with the Tartessos culture have been found, and many archaeologists now associate the lost city with Huelva. In excavations on spatially restricted sites in the center of modern Huelva, Huelva contains the largest accumulation of imported elite goods and must have been an important Tartessian center
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a clearly defined status, are regulated by law, there is even a comarca, the Cerdanya that is divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, county, or sometimes four, Tierra de Pinares. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas, Tierra de Pinares, Tierras de Cantalejo y Santa María la Real de Nieva. Tierra de Campos Montes Torozos Páramos del Esgueva Tierra de Pinares Campo de Peñafiel Campiña del Pisuerga Tierras de Medina Alfoz de Toro, Spain Comarcas, list of the Spanish comarcas
Manzanilla is a variety of fino sherry made around the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia. In Spanish, chamomile tea is called manzanilla, and thus this wine gets the name because the flavour is said to be reminiscent of such tea. The sherry is manufactured using the methods as a fino and results in a very pale. In addition, the sherry is often described as having a salty flavour, Sanlúcar de Barramedas cool temperatures and high humidity contribute to a higher yield of flor yeast than in Jerez or El Puerto de Santa María. The thicker cap of flor better protects the wine from contact with the air, resulting in a fresher and it is typically aged for five years in a solera, but some types may be aged longer. Manzanilla Pasada is a Manzanilla aged longer than usual, so that its veil of flor begins to fade, Manzanilla Amontillada is similar to a Manzanilla pasada but in some cases aged as long as 12 years, taking on more of the qualities of an Amontillado. Manzanilla Olorosa is a form of Manzanilla that takes on the quality of Oloroso through extended aging.
Jerez Cortado is a Palo Cortado made from Manzanilla, on 12 April 2012, the rules applicable to the sweet and fortified Denominations of Origen Montilla-Moriles and Jerez-Xérès-Sherry were changed. The classification by sweetness is, Manzanilla is best served chilled at 7-10°C, with olives, almonds and it is popular in the cocktail Rebujito. Like fino, manzanilla is a form of sherry and should be drunk within a year of bottling. Once opened it will begin to deteriorate and should be drunk in one sitting for the best results. If necessary it can be stored and refrigerated, for up to one week after opening