Chief Walkara was a Shoshone leader of the Utah Indians known as the Timpanogo and Sanpete Band. It is not clear what cultural group the Utah or Timpanogo Indians belonged to, but they are listed as Shoshone, he had a reputation as a diplomat and warrior, a military leader of raiding parties, in the Wakara War. He was the most prominent Native American chief in the Utah area when the Mormon Pioneers arrived in 1847. One observer described Walkara in 1843 as: "the principal ruling chief... owing his position to great wealth. He is a good trader, trafficking with the whites and reselling goods to such of his nation as are less skillful in striking a bargain."In 1865, some ten years after his death, the Timpanogo agreed to go live on the Uintah Reservation under Chief Tabby-To-Kwanah and merged with the Northern Shoshone. Walkara is referred to as Ute, but this is incorrect. Ute is a blanket name for many tribes; the Shoshone have cultural and linguistic heritage as part of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Walkara is Shoshone and his name, means Hawk, in Shoshone. Walkara was born 1808 along the Spanish Fork River in Utah, he was one of the five sons of a chief of the Timpanogos Tribe. He spent much time fishing along the Utah Lake shores in what is now Vineyard. Walkara could communicate in Spanish and native languages, his brothers included Chief Arapeen, for whom the Arapeen Valley near Utah was named. He gathered a raiding band of warriors from Great Basin tribes, Ute and Shoshone, rode with his brothers on raids, his band raided ranches and attacked travelers in the Great Basin and along the Old Spanish Trail between New Mexico and California. Small native bands and tribes in the area paid him tribute in return for assistance. Walkara was distinguished by the yellow face paint that he wore; some people called him,'The Greatest Horse thief in History.' In California Walkara was known as a great horse thief, due to his stealing around 3,000 horses in Southern California in the 1840s. In some of these raids, the band fought Cahuilla leader Juan Antonio.
Mountain men James Beckwourth and Thomas "Pegleg" Smith were involved in this campaign and were known to trade with Walkara, providing the band with whiskey in return for horses. In 1845 Benjamin Davis Wilson, Justice of the Peace and assistant for Indian affairs in Riverside County, was commissioned to track down Walkara and his marauders and bring them to justice, but never succeeded, their mission was interrupted by the discovery of the Big Bear Lake area. No additional account of the pursuit was reported. Horsethief Canyon and Little Horsethief Canyon in the Cajon Pass are named for Walkara's exploits. Several men were killed in both canyons; when Mormon pioneers arrived in what is today known as Utah, they were caught between the Shoshone and the Ute: both tribes claimed the Salt Lake Valley. The settlers refused to pay the Shoshone for the land, knowing that they would have to pay the Ute as well. Brigham Young, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, recommended that the Mormon settlers avoid trading with Native American tribes.
At this time, the Ute bands of Indians were divided, but Walkara's band was one of the most influential. Walkara recognized. However, the Ute were angered by the Mormons building a permanent settlement in the area, Walkara favored driving them out by force, his brother, wanted to accommodate the Mormons. After initial disagreement, Walkara conceded to Sowiette. Instead of war, the Mormons had peace with the Timpanogo; the first act of violence between the Ute and the Mormon settlers occurred on March 5, 1849. Some Ute had disregarded their leaders' instruction not to steal from the Mormons, had killed and stolen livestock from the settlers. In retaliation, the settlers set out to find those responsible, they ambushed some Ute. In April, Walkara supported Ute attacks on Fort Utah. In late 1849, Walkara met with Young, asking him to send men to help settle Ute land, with that request, settlers including Welcome Chapman went to the Sanpete Valley. Young dispatched a company of about 225 settlers, under the direction of Isaac Morley.
The settlers arrived at the present location of Manti, Utah in November, established a base camp for the winter, digging temporary shelters into the south side of the hill on which the LDS Manti Utah Temple now stands. It was an isolated place, at least four days by wagon from the nearest Mormon settlement. Relations between the Mormon settlers and the local Ute Indians were cooperative. Morley and his settlers felt. Morley wrote, "Did we come here to enrich ourselves in the things of this world? No. We were sent to enrich the Natives and comfort the hearts of the long oppressed."During the severe winter, a measles epidemic broke out. The Mormons used their limited medicine to nurse the Indians, when Mormon supplies ran low, the Ute shared their food supply. In 1850, Walkara agreed to be baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints with his son. Walkara traded women and children as slaves in order to trade for horses and ammunition. Mormon settlers tried to stop this practice, but their efforts only angered the tribe for inte
Millard County, Utah
Millard County is a county in the U. S. state of Utah. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 12,503, its county seat is Fillmore, the largest city is Delta. The Utah Territory legislature created the county on October 4, 1851, with territory not covered by county creations, including some area in the future state of Nevada, it was named for thirteenth US President Millard Fillmore, in office at the time. Fillmore was designated as the county seat; the county boundaries were altered in 1852, in 1854, in 1861, in January 1862. In July 1862, the US government created the Nevada Territory, which de-annexed the described portion of Millard County falling in that Territorial Proclamation; the county boundary was further altered in 1866, in 1888, in 1919. In 1921 a boundary adjustment with Sevier brought Millard to its present configuration. Fillmore, located near the geographic center of the territory, was built as the capital of Utah Territory; the Utah Territorial Legislature approved a plan to locate the capital in the Pahvant Valley.
On October 28, 1851, Utah Governor Brigham Young traveled to the valley and chose the specific site for Fillmore. The town was surveyed that same day. A colonizing company soon followed. Construction of the State Capitol was initiated in 1852; the Territorial legislature met in Fillmore for the first in 1855. The following year they voted to keep the capitol in Great Salt Lake City. Millard County lies on the west side of Utah, its west border abuts the east border of the state of Nevada. The county terrain consists of arid, rough andulating flatlands interrupted by numerous hills and mountain ridges; the highest point in the county is Mine Camp Peak in the Central Utah Plateaus, at 10,222' ASL. The county has a total area of 6,828 square miles, of which 6,572 square miles is land and 255 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in Utah by area. The Sevier Desert covers much of Millard County. Sevier Lake, a dry remnant of Lake Bonneville, is in central Millard County; the Pahvant Mountains form the county's eastern boundary.
Fillmore and other farming communities lie at the base of the Pahvant Mountains. Delta sits several miles from the banks of the Sevier River in the middle of the basin. Pahvant Valley in Millard County has several ancient lava flows and extinct volcanoes, including the "Black Rock" lava flow. About 17 miles southwest of Delta, near Black Rock's northwest perimeter is a feature named the "Great Stone Face", which protrudes about four stories above the general elevation. Locals claim that this rock formation, when viewed at the correct angle, appears similar to a profile of Joseph Smith. At ground level, within view of the "Great Stone Face", is a large, smooth-faced rock covered in Native American petroglyphs. Notch Peak is 50 miles west of Delta; the skyline appears to have a notch taken out of it. Little Sahara Recreation Area, 25 miles north of Delta, is a popular area for ATV riders; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,405 people, 3,840 households, 3,091 families in the county.
The population density was 1.89/sqmi. There were 4,522 housing units at an average density of 0.69/sqmi. In 2000 there were 3,840 households out of which 46.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.60% were married couples living together, 7.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.50% were non-families. 18.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.19 and the average family size was 3.66. The county population contained 37.30% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 19.40% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 104.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,178, the median income for a family was $41,797. Males had a median income of $36,989 versus $20,168 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,408.
About 9.40% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.20% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. The 2000 Census reported the racial makeup of the county was 93.94% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 1.31% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 2.76% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. 7.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. By 2005, 86.7% of Millard County's population was non-Hispanic whites. The proportion of African Americans had doubled to 0.2%. Native Americans were now 1.5% of the county's population. Asians had fallen to only 0.4% of the population. 11.0% of the population was Latino, just above the 10.9% for Utah as a whole. As of 2010 Millard County had a population of 12,310; the ethnic and racial makeup of the population was 84.7% non-Hispanic white, 0.1% black, 1.0% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% reporting two or more races and 12.8% Hispanic or Latino.
One element of Millard County's economy is the digging of fossils. Trilobite fossils are common in the region west of Delta. 15% of Millard county's economy is from farming. Millard County is working hard to make it easier to build Earthships, straw bale homes, other ecological and sustainable housing. Millard County is the home of the Telescope Array Project ultra-high-energy cosmic ray observator
The Sevier River is a 385-mile -long river in the Great Basin of southwestern Utah in the United States. Originating west of Bryce Canyon National Park, the river flows north through a chain of high farming valleys and steep canyons along the west side of the Sevier Plateau, before turning southwest and terminating in the endorheic basin of Sevier Lake in the Sevier Desert, it is used extensively for irrigation along its course, with the consequence that Sevier Lake is dry. The Sevier River drainage basin of 11,574 square miles covers more than 13 percent of Utah and includes parts of ten counties, of which the river flows through seven; the name of the river is derived from the Spanish Rio Severo, "violent river". The Sevier is the longest river within the state of Utah; the Sevier River is formed by the confluence of Minnie Creek and Tyler Creek in Long Valley in Kane County. The headwaters are at an elevation of 7,310 ft between the Markagunt Plateau and the Paunsaugunt Plateau; the river flows north through a wide valley into Garfield County passing Panguitch.
It flows through the narrow, 5-mile Circleville Canyon and enters Piute County at the town of Circleville, is joined by the East Fork Sevier River at Kingston. North of Kingston, it is dammed to form Piute Reservoir; the Sevier continues north past Marysvale and through Marysvale Canyon into Sevier County. At Sevier the river enters the agricultural Sevier Valley, a 50-mile long basin between the Pavant Range on the west and the Sevier Plateau to the east. In the valley, the Sevier River flows northeast, passing the towns of Joseph, Richfield, Aurora and Redmond flows north into Sanpete County where it picks up the San Pitch River near Gunnison. In Juab County the Yuba Dam forms Sevier Bridge Reservoir, which extends into Sanpete County. Below the dam the river flows north turns abruptly west through Leamington Canyon, between the Canyon Mountains and Gilson Mountains, into Millard County; the river flows southwest across the Sevier Desert, where it is used for irrigation in the Delta area, is dammed at the DMAD and Gunnison Bend reservoirs.
The river is dry for the last 30 miles below Delta, through its confluence with the dry Beaver River before reaching the intermittent Sevier Lake bed. The Sevier River drainage basin is on the border of the Basin and Range Province and the Colorado Plateau, The north and west parts of the basin are defined by long linear mountain ranges such as the Pavant and Canyon Mountains. To the east and south rise high plateaus and block-shaped mountain ranges, chief of which are the Wasatch and Sevier Plateaus to the east, the Paunsaugunt and Markagunt Plateaus, the Pink Cliffs and the Tushar Mountains to the south; the entire basin is at high elevation, with the highest point at 12,174-foot Delano Peak in the Tushar Mountains. There are twelve other peaks in the basin rising more than 11,000 feet; the lowest point is at Sevier Lake, 4,524 feet above sea level. The basin experiences a continental climate ranging in character from semi-arid to alpine. Precipitation – ranging from 6.4 inches in the desert valleys to more than 40 inches in the mountains – falls as snow during the winter and early spring, as monsoon thunderstorms in late summer and early fall.
As of 1999, there was an estimated annual runoff of 823,000 acre feet in the Sevier River basin, but only about 32,900 acre feet of that reached Sevier Lake, in wet years. Before irrigation, not all of this water reached Sevier Lake due to large evaporation losses in the Sevier Desert; the Sevier River basin is bordered to the south by the drainage basins of Virgin River, Kanab Creek, Paria River, Dirty Devil River, all tributaries of the Colorado River. To the east it is bordered by the Price and San Rafael River basins, tributaries of the Green River, which flows into the Colorado. On the north it is bordered by the Utah Lake–Great Salt Lake basin, to the west it is bordered by the Great Salt Lake Desert basins. Most of the Sevier drainage is rural, composed of small farming communities; the largest town is Richfield, with a population of 7,723 as of 2016. About 69 percent of the land is federally owned, much of that in national forest lands such as the Manti-La Sal, Fishlake and Uinta National Forests.
The basin includes parts of Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument. About 23 percent of the basin is owned and 8 percent is owned by the state of Utah; the Sevier River corridor is a major transportation route, with U. S. Route 89 following the river for over 100 miles from its headwaters as far as Gunnison, I-70 paralleling the river for about 30 miles between Sevier and Salina. Surface rock in the Sevier River basin is composed of Tertiary igneous rock, sedimentary rock ranging in age from Jurassic to Quaternary; this is underlain by marine sedimentary rock including thick limestone layers, which accumulated prior to the Jurassic when the western US was part of a shallow sea. Uplift during the Jurassic and Cretaceous thrust western Utah above sea level for the first time. Between 100 and 80 million years ago the Sevier Orogeny created mountains much higher than those found in western Utah today; the Sevier Desert was formed starting about 20 million years ago due to crustal stretching that lowered the local terrain.
Another period of uplift occurred towards the end of the Tertiary, about 12–2 million years ago, creating most of the present-day mountain ranges and plateaus. Significant vertical displacement has o
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions: Eastern Shoshone: Wyoming Northern Shoshone: southeastern Idaho Western Shoshone: Nevada, northern Utah Gosiute: western Utah, eastern NevadaThey traditionally speak the Shoshoni language, part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers, their peoples have become members of federally recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement colocated with the Northern Paiute people of the Great Basin. The name "Shoshone" comes from a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses; some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone "Grass House People," based on their traditional homes made from sosoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning "People."Meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the "Sosonees or snake Indians" in 1805. The Shoshoni language is spoken by 1,000 people today.
It belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming; the largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho. Idaho State University offers Shoshoni-language classes; the Shoshone are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming. By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Lakota and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward; some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700. As more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the second half of the 19th century; the Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho.
As more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre, when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, who were at their winter encampment. A large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers; this was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces. Allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868, they fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War. In 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U. S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne. In 1879 a band of 300 Eastern Shoshone became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War, it was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States.
In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett known as "Shoshone Mike," killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. The settlers went out after the Native Americans, they killed eight. They lost one man of Ed Hogle; the posse captured a woman. A rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, three children to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study. In 1994, the institution repatriated the remains to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. In 2008 the Northwestern Shoshone acquired the site of the Bear River Massacre and some surrounding land, they wanted to protect the holy land and to build a memorial to the massacre, the largest their nation had suffered. "In partnership with the American West Heritage Center and state leaders in Idaho and Utah, the tribe has developed public/private partnerships to advance tribal cultural preservation and economic development goals." They have become a leader in developing tribal renewable energy.
In 1845 the estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500, much reduced after they had suffered infectious disease epidemics and warfare. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 was followed by European-American immigrants arriving in unprecedented numbers in the territory. In 1937 the Bureau of Indian Affairs counted 1,201 Western Shoshone; as of the 2000 census, some 12,000 persons identified as Shoshone. Shoshone people are divided into traditional bands based both on their homelands and primary food sources; these include: Eastern Shoshone people:Guchundeka', Buffalo Eaters Tukkutikka, Mountain Sheep Eaters, joined the Northern Shoshone Boho'inee', Pohogwe, Sage Grass people, Sagebrush Butte PeopleNorthern Shoshone people:Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Snake River and Lemhi River Valley Doyahinee', Mountain people Kammedeka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters synonymous with Kammitikka Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters, Sawtooth Range, Idaho Yahandeka, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise and Wiser RiversWestern Shoshone people:Kusiutta, Great Salt Desert and Great Salt Lake, UtahCedar Valley Goshute Deep Creek Goshute Rush Valley G
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Emery County, Utah
Emery County is a county in east-central Utah, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 10,976, its county seat is Castle Dale, the largest city is Huntington. Occupation of the San Rafael region dates back thousands of years to include people of the Desert Archaic Culture who were followed by those of the Fremont culture who inhabited present-day Emery County through the sixth through thirteenth centuries AD. Ute Indians occupied sites in Castle Valley, The first non-indigenous persons to view Castle Valley were undoubtedly Spanish Traders and Explorers; the first of record was Silvestre Vélez de Escalante. Spanish traders and explorers soon found a more southerly route, their path became known as the Old Spanish Trail, it began at Santa Fe, to Durango, crossed the Colorado River near present-day Moab to the Green River-crossing where Green River is now located, thence westerly to Cedar Mountain. It went on the South side of Cedar Mountain, across Buckhorn Flat, passed the Red Seeps to Huntington Creek, crossing about a mile below where the present bridge crosses.
It crossed the Ferron Creek. It passed through the Rochester Flats about one mile east of present-day Moore and crossed the Muddy Creek about two miles due east of the present town of Emery, it went over Salina Canyon. It turned south and went through Parowan, Mountain Meadows, Las Vegas, Barstow California and to the coast; this Trail had to traverse Castle Valley, to skirt the steep-walled canyons of the San Juan, Green, Dirty Devil, San Rafael Rivers. Slavery was the principal trade which developed between the Utah region; the trading of Indian women and children to the Spanish, although illegal, was the purpose of the Spanish coming into the area, to become Utah. The other use of the trail was to herd livestock horses, from California to Santa Fe. Since the slave trade was illegal, the traders kept neither records of their activities nor the extent of their travels and explorations. Travelers along the Old Spanish Trail gave Castle Valley its names, as the travelers marveled at the imposing rock formations.
The first Americans to come to Castle Valley were fur trappers, including the "lost trappers", James Workman and William Spencer, separated from their trapping party by Comanche Indians and had wandered all the way to the Moab crossing of the Colorado River hoping that they would find Santa Fe. Here they met a Spanish caravan of fifty people going to California, they traveled through Castle Valley in 1809 and went on to California. In 1830, William Wilfskill came to Castle Valley along the Spanish Trail, he and his party found little in the area to keep them here. Following the trappers in the late 1840s and early 1850s, government explorers came to the valley seeking usable overland routes across the continent. Kit Carson was the first of these famous men, he was looking for a direct route for the mail to be carried overland from St. Louis to California. Carson carried through Castle Valley to the nation the news of gold being found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848. In 1853 John W. Gunnison, an Army Topographical Engineer came through Castle Valley, plotting a railroad route.
He was commissioned for this assignment by US Secretary of War Jefferson Davis. He left detailed descriptions of his travels, laid out his route through Castle Valley. Gunnison's route first met the Spanish Trail at the Green River crossing, he followed this trail for a short distance west of the Green River, but when the Spanish Trail entered a rugged rocky region he charted a route around this feature. The third government explorer was John C. Fremont, in the winter of 1853-54, his trip was impacted by the cold weather. They suffered from the inhospitable landscape. There was no relief from their difficulties until they left Castle Valley and made their way to the small Mormon settlement of Parowan. In 1875 livestock growers from Sanpete County brought cattle and sheep into Castle Valley to graze, several recognized the settlement potential of the region. With a shortage of sufficient land and water in Sanpete County and a strong desire by LDS Church leaders to acquire unoccupied land in the region before non-Mormons did, young families began moving into Castle Valley in the fall of 1877 to homestead in the future sites of Huntington, Castle Dale, Orangeville.
In late August 1877, Brigham Young, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, issued an order to the Sanpete LDS Stake president seeking "... at least fifty families locate in Castle Valley this fall." The order led to the last Mormon colony settled under the direction of Brigham Young. One week on August 29, the Great Colonizer, died. During his 30 years as leader of the LDS Church, Young had overseen and directed the establishment of 400 towns and villages; the settlement of Emery County was his last. Soon after issuance of Young’s order, several bands of settlers moved out from the Sanpete region headed for Castle Valley, they settled along Huntington Creek, Cottonwood Creek, Ferron Creek. The following spring several more families arrived. In the spring of 1878, Elias Cox and Charles Hollingshead set up a sawmill in Huntington Canyon to support
Wasatch-Cache National Forest
Wasatch-Cache National Forest is a United States National Forest located in northern Utah, with smaller parts extending into southeastern Idaho and southwestern Wyoming. The name is derived from the Ute word Wasatch for a low place in high mountains, the French word Cache meaning to hide; the term cache referred to fur trappers, the first Europeans to visit the land. The Wasatch-Cache National Forest boundaries include 1,607,177 acres of land; the Wasatch-Cache was headquartered in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah until August 2007 when its management was combined with the Uinta National Forest and is being managed as the Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest. The merged forest is based out of Utah; the Kamas Ranger District was merged with the Uinta National Forest's Heber Ranger District in Heber City. With the newly included Uinta National Forest the forest will expand to 2,487,896 acres; the Cache National Forest portion is located in southern Idaho. It has a land area of 701,453 acres. In descending order of land area it is located in parts of Cache, Bear Lake, Weber, Box Elder and Morgan counties.
There are local ranger district offices located in Ogden. The Wasatch National Forest portion is located in southwestern Wyoming, it has a land area of 905,724 acres. In descending order of land area it is located in parts of Summit, Salt Lake, Uinta, Wasatch, Utah and Juab counties. There are local ranger district offices located in Evanston and Mountain View in Wyoming, in Kamas, Salt Lake City in Utah. There are seven designated wilderness areas in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest, totalling 309,000 acres and comprising 25% of the Forest's total acreage. Logan District Mount Naomi Wilderness at 44,523 acres Wellsville Mountain Wilderness at 22,986 acres Kamas and Mountain View Districts High Uintas Wilderness at 456,705 acres Salt Lake District Mount Olympus Wilderness at 15,856 acres Twin Peaks Wilderness at 11,796 acres Lone Peak Wilderness at 30,088 acres Deseret Peak Wilderness at 25,508 acres Hardware Ranch Harker Canyon List of U. S. national forests Peter Sinks Pfeifferhorn - The Little Matterhorn Tank Hollow Fire USFS.gov: official Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest website