Sanremo Music Festival

The Festival della canzone italiana di Sanremo is the most popular Italian song contest and awards, held annually in the town of Sanremo and consisting of a competition amongst unreleased songs. Referred to as Festival di Sanremo, or outside Italy as Sanremo Music Festival or Sanremo Music Festival Award, it was the inspiration for the Eurovision Song Contest, it is the music equivalent to the Premio Regia Televisiva for television, the Premio Ubu for stage performances, the Premio David di Donatello for motion pictures, but with a longer history and contest associated with. The first edition of the Sanremo Music Festival, held between 29 and 31 January 1951, was broadcast by RAI's radio station Rete Rossa and its only three participants were Nilla Pizzi, Achille Togliani and Duo Fasano. Starting from 1955 all the editions of the Festival have been broadcast live by the Italian TV station Rai 1. From 1951 to 1976, the Festival took place in the Sanremo Casino, but starting from 1977, all the following editions were held in the Teatro Ariston, except 1990's one, held at the Nuovo Mercato dei Fiori.

Between 1953 and 1971, except in 1956, each song was sung twice by two different artists, each one using an individual orchestral arrangement, to illustrate the meaning of the festival as a composers' competition, not a singers' competition. During this era of the festival, it was custom that one version of the song was performed by a native Italian artist while the other version was performed by an international guest artist. And, the way for many international artists to debut with hits in Italian market in those years, such a case for Louis Armstrong, Stevie Wonder, Jose Feliciano, Roberto Carlos, Paul Anka, Marianne Faithfull, Shirley Bassey, Mungo Jerry and many others; the festival is used as the way of choosing the Italian entry to the Eurovision Song Contest and it has launched the careers of some of Italy's most successful singers, including Andrea Bocelli, Paola e Chiara, Il Volo, Laura Pausini, Eros Ramazzotti, Gigliola Cinquetti. In the aftermath of World War II, one of the proposals to revitalize the economy and the reputation of Sanremo was to create an annual music festival to be held in the city.

During the summer of 1950, the administrator of the Sanremo Casino, Piero Bussetti, the conductor of the RAI orchestra, Giulio Razzi, rediscussed the idea, deciding to launch a competition among unreleased songs. Titled Festival della Canzone Italiana, the first edition of the show was held at the Sanremo Casino on 29, 30 and 31 January 1951; the final of the competition was broadcast by Rete Rossa, the second most important RAI radio station. Twenty songs took part in the competition, performed by three artists only–Nilla Pizzi, Duo Fasano and Achille Togliani. Starting from the third edition of the festival, held in 1953, each song was performed by two different artists with different orchestras and arrangements. Two years in 1955, the festival made its first appearance on television, since part of the final night was broadcast by RAI's channel Programma Nazionale; the last night of the show was broadcast in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In 1964, Gianni Ravera, who organized the 14th Sanremo Music Festival changed the rules of the contest, requiring each song to be performed once by an Italian artist, once by an international singer, allowed to perform the song in any language.

The same rule was applied in the following year's contest. Between 1967 and 1971, entries were not forced to be interpreted by foreign artists, but double performances were kept. Starting from 1972, each entry was sung by one artist only; the competing artists were split for the first time into "Big artists" and "Young artists" during the Sanremo Music Festival 1974. The competition had one winner only, but the entries in the "Young artists" category had to go through an elimination round, while "Big artists" were directly admitted to the final. In 1977, the Sanremo Casino, which hosted all the previous editions of the contest, was not available for renovations, therefore the show moved to the Teatro Ariston; the theater became the usual location for the annual contest, hosting it every year except in 1990, when the show was held at the Nuovo Mercato dei Fiori known as Palafiori. In 1980, pre-recorded backing tracks replaced the orchestra, while playback performances were allowed in 1983 during the final.

In 1984 and 1985, all the artists were forced to perform in playback, while live performances with the orchestra were reintroduced in 1986. During the same years, several other changes were introduced in the contest. In 1982, accredited music journalists decided to create an award to recognise the best song competing in the festival. Starting from 1983, the prize was awarded during the event; the critics' prize was entitled to Mia Martini, the first artist receiving it in 1982 for her entry "E non finisce mica il cielo". Moreover, starting from 1984, the separation between newcomers and established artists was marked introducing two different competitions with separate winners. In 1989 a third category, the Upcoming Artists Section, was introduced, but it was removed the following year. Only in 1998 the top three artists in the newcomers section were allowed to compete in the main competition; this led to the victory of the debuting Annalisa Minetti, which generated several controversy and led to the reintroduction of separate competitions starting from 1999.

The distinction among different categories was abolished again in 2004. The following year, the contest included five different categories—Newcomers, Women and Cla

Isi Metzstein

Isi Israel Metzstein OBE was a German-born architect who worked at Gillespie, Kidd & Coia and taught at the Glasgow School of Art. He became known for his postwar architectural designs working in the European modernist style of Le Corbusier and the American Frank Lloyd Wright. Isi Metzstein was born in the Mitte district of Berlin in one of five children, his parents and Rachel Metzstein, were Polish Jews who had moved to Germany in 1920. Isi had an older sister, Lee, an older brother, Josef, a twin sister, a younger brother, Leo, In 1933, Isi's father, died leaving his mother to raise the five children on her own. In November 1938, after Kristallnacht had seen Isi's school set on fire, his mother saw to it that her children were kept safe by sending the 11-year-old Isi and his siblings to Britain on the Kindertransport. With his brothers and sisters scattered around the UK, Isi was taken in by a family in Hardgate, Clydebank before they could all be reunited once more settling in Glasgow. After leaving Hyndland School in 1945, Isi's professional career as an architect began with taking evening classes in architecture at the Glasgow School of Art and an apprenticeship under Jack Coia at Gillespie, Kidd & Coia.

Whilst at the Glasgow School of Art, Isi met Andy MacMillan and the two became friends going for drinks together in the Kings Arms on Elmbank Street. When Andy MacMillan joined the firm in 1954, the pair designed many churches, colleges & schools together in the Modernist style. In 1969, Isi began teaching at the Glasgow School of Art. and became Professor of Architecture at the University of Edinburgh in 1984 before returning to teach in Glasgow in 1991. St. Paul's Church, Glenrothes St. Bride's Church, East Kilbride Halls of Residence, University of Hull St. Patrick's Church, Kilsyth Our Lady of Good Counsel, Dennistoun St. Peter's Seminary. Notre Dame College, Bearsden St. Benedict's, Drumchapel St Margaret's Hospice, Clydebank St Margaret's RC Church, Clydebank The Library at Wadham College, Oxford. Cumbernauld Technical College Robinson College, Cambridge. Bonar Hall, Dundee Glasgow School of Art refectory Royal Scottish Academy Gold Medal. RIAS Lifetime Achievement Award 2008 Honorary RIBA Fellowship RIBA Annie Spink Prize for Education 2008 Isi married Danielle Kahn in 1967 and the pair had three children, Mark and Ruth.

He died on 10 January 2012 at their home in Glasgow. Writing of Isi Metzstein's passing for Architectural Review, Clare Wright noted that:"With a change of ethos post war, Coia ceded much of the design control to the young Isi and Andy. An early project for St Paul’s Church in Glenrothes is a modest building of simple form and materials, yet exhibits an extraordinary quality of light and monumental presence which owed much to Le Corbusier; the sixteen churches that followed formed a distinctive body of work. Combining functional requirements with resonant symbolism, they were the perfect vehicle for developing an architectural philosophy, which reached its most mature expression in the design for St Peter’s Seminary at Cardross." Andy Macmillan Gillespie, Kidd & Coia The Glasgow School of Art

Williams Mix

Williams Mix is a 4'15" electronic composition by John Cage for eight played independent quarter-inch magnetic tapes. The first octophonic music, the piece was created by Cage with the assistance of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, David Tudor, using many tape sound sources and a paper score he created for the construction. "Presignifying the development of algorithmic composition, granular synthesis and sound diffusion," it was the third of five pieces completed in the Project for Music for Magnetic Tape, funded by dedicatee architect Paul Williams. The material, recorded by Louis and Bebe Barron, was organized in six categories: city, electronic, manually produced, "small" sounds; the 193-page score, "a full-size drawing of the tape fragments, which served as a'score' for the splicing," is described by Cage as similar to "a dressmaker's pattern – it shows where the tape shall be cut, you lay the tape on the score itself." Thus, like a recipe, the piece may be recreated using the score. The work was premiered at the 25th Year Retrospective Concert Of The Music Of John Cage on May 15, 1958, was recorded by Columbia Records producer George Avakian and issued by him on a three-LP set with a booklet including extensive notes and illustrations of scores.

Larry Austin created a computer program, the "Williams Mix", based on an analysis of ""Williams Mix"", which could "yield ever-new Williams Mix scores." With this software, Austin created Williams Mix, an octophonic variation of Williams Mix using different sound sources. In 2012, Tom Erbe became the first person to recreate "Williams Mix" from the original score, entering each tape edit from the 193 page score into the computer, creating performance software following Cage's notes. Erbe's debut performance of "Williams Mix" was on Cage's 100th birthday, September 5, 2012, at Fresh Sound in San Diego. Erbe created a version of "Williams Mix" for clipping.'s 2014 album CLPPNG, using clipping. Samples to re-record the work according to the original instructions. John Cage; the 25 Year Retrospective Concert of the Music of John Cage. Wergo.. OHM: The Early Gurus of Electronic Music. Ellipsis Arts. Larry Austin. Octo-Mixes, Larry Austin, Octophonic Computer Music, 1996–2001. EMF CD 039. John Cage. Fontana Mix.

Él. Clipping.. Last track on "Clppng". Subpop SP1071. Schrader, Barry. "Composing with Cutting and Splicing Techniques: Williams Mix by John Cage", Introduction to Electro-Acoustic Music. ISBN 978-0-13-481515-2