Irvine is a master-planned city in Orange County, United States in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The Irvine Company started developing the area in the 1960s and the city was formally incorporated on December 28, 1971; the 66-square-mile city had a population of 212,375 as of the 2010 census. A number of corporations in the technology and semiconductor sectors, have their national or international headquarters in Irvine. Irvine is home to several higher education institutions including the University of California, Concordia University, Irvine Valley College, the Orange County Center of the University of Southern California, campuses of California State University Fullerton, University of La Verne, Pepperdine University; the Gabrieleño indigenous group inhabited Irvine about 2,000 years ago. Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish explorer, came to the area in 1769, which led to the establishment of forts and cattle herds; the King of Spain parceled out land for private use. After Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government secularized the missions and assumed control of the lands.
It began distributing the land to Mexican citizens. Three large Spanish/Mexican grants made up the land that became the Irvine Ranch: Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, Rancho San Joaquin and Rancho Lomas de Santiago. In 1864, Jose Andres Sepulveda, owner of Rancho San Joaquin sold 50,000 acres to Benjamin and Thomas Flint, Llewellyn Bixby and James Irvine for $18,000 to resolve debts due to the Great Drought. In 1866, Irvine and Bixby acquired 47,000-acre Rancho Lomas de Santiago for $7,000. After the Mexican-American war the land of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana fell prey to tangled titles. In 1868, the ranch was divided among four claimants as part of a lawsuit: Flint and Irvine; the ranches were devoted to sheep grazing. However, in 1870, tenant farming was permitted. In 1878, James Irvine acquired his partners' interests for $150,000, his 110,000 acres stretched 23 miles from the Pacific Ocean to the Santa Ana River. James Irvine died in 1886; the ranch was inherited by James Irvine II, who incorporated it into The Irvine Company.
James Irvine II shifted the ranch operations to field crops and citrus crops. In 1888, the Santa Fe Railroad extended its line to Fallbrook Junction, north of San Diego, named a station along the way after James Irvine; the town that formed around this station was named Myford, after Irvine's son, because a post office in Calaveras County bore the family name. The town was renamed Irvine in 1914. By 1918, 60,000 acres of lima beans were grown on the Irvine Ranch. Two Marine Corps facilities, MCAS El Toro and MCAS Tustin, were built during World War II on ranch land sold to the government. James Irvine II, died in 1947 at the age of 80, his son, assumed the presidency of The Irvine Company. He began opening small sections of the Irvine Ranch to urban development; the Irvine Ranch played host to the Boy Scouts of America's 1953 National Scout Jamboree. Jamboree Road, a major street which now stretches from Newport Beach to the city of Orange, was named in honor of this event. David Sills a young Boy Scout from Peoria, was among the attendees at the 1953 Jamboree.
Sills went on to serve four terms as the city's mayor. Myford Irvine died in 1959; the same year, the University of California asked The Irvine Company for 1,000 acres for a new university campus. The Irvine Company sold the requested land for $1 and the state purchased an additional 500 acres. William Pereira, the university's consulting architect, The Irvine Company planners drew up master plans for a city of 50,000 people surrounding the new university; the plan called for industrial and recreational areas, commercial centers and greenbelts. The new community was to be named Irvine; the first phases of the villages of Turtle Rock, University Park, Westpark, El Camino Real, Walnut were completed by 1970. On December 28, 1971, the residents of these communities voted to incorporate a larger city than the one envisioned by the Pereira plan. By January 1999, Irvine had a total area of 43 square miles. In the 1970s, the mayor was Bill Vardoulis. After the Fall of Saigon in 1975, a large influx of Vietnamese refugees settled in nearby Fountain Valley in the late 1970s and throughout the 80s, forming a large percentage of Asian Americans in the city.
In late 2003, after a ten-year-long legal battle, Irvine annexed the former El Toro Marine Corps Air Station. This added 7.3 square miles of land to the city and blocked an initiative championed by Newport Beach residents to replace John Wayne Airport with a new airport at El Toro. Most of this land has become part of the Orange County Great Park. Irvine borders Tustin to the north, Santa Ana to the northwest, Lake Forest to the east, Laguna Hills and Laguna Woods to the southeast, Costa Mesa to the west, Newport Beach to the southwest. Irvine shares a small border with Orange to the north on open lands by the SR 261. San Diego Creek, which flows northwest into Upper Newport Bay, is the primary watercourse draining the city, its largest tributary is Peters Canyon Wash. Most of Irvine is in a broad, flat valley between Loma Ridge in the north and San Joaquin Hills in the south. In the extreme northern and southern areas, are several hill
Downey is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States, 13 mi southeast of downtown Los Angeles. It is considered part of the Gateway Cities; the city is the birthplace of the Apollo space program. It is the home of the oldest still operational McDonald's restaurant in the world; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 111,779. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in Alta California, the area, now Downey was inhabited by the Tongva ethnic group, which came to be called the Gabrielino by the Spanish; the nearest Tongva settlements appear to have been just north and northeast of present-day Downey, although there is difficulty in locating them precisely. The villages of Naxaaw’nga and Sehat seem to have been situated near the present-day community of Los Nietos, or farther west on sites that were lost to floods of the San Gabriel River. Chokiishnga and Huutnga are other Tongva place names that may have referred to villages in the general area north of Downey between the San Gabriel River and Rio Hondo.
In all four cases, it is difficult to relate the original location descriptions, based on ranchos and land grants, to more specific sites identifiable by today's landmarks. Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was founded on September 8, 1771, near these concentrations of Tongva population, at a site in the Whittier Narrows on a bluff overlooking the Rio Hondo near the intersection of today's San Gabriel Blvd and Lincoln Avenue. After five years, flooding forced the relocation of the mission to its present site in San Gabriel. In 1784, Governor Pedro Fages granted to former soldier Manuel Nieto the largest of the land concessions made during the Spanish control of California, its 300,000 acres stretched from the Santa Ana River on the east to the Old San Gabriel River on the west, from the mission highway on the north to the ocean on the south. Its acreage was reduced at the insistence of Mission San Gabriel on whose lands it infringed; the Spanish concessions, of which 25 were made in California, were unlike the Mexican land grants in that title was not transferred, but were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown.
The Rancho Los Nietos passed to Manuel Nieto's four children upon his death and remained intact until, in 1833, his heirs petitioned Mexican Governor José Figueroa to partition the property. The northwestern portion of the original rancho, comprising the Downey-Norwalk area, was granted as Rancho Santa Gertrudes to Josefa Cota, the widow of Manuel's son, Antonio Nieto. At 21,000 acres, Santa Gertrudes was itself a sizable rancho and contained the old Nietos homestead, a center of social life east of the pueblo of Los Angeles. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, many of the Californio ranchos were obtained by affluent Anglo-Americans who were immigrating west under the United States manifest destiny doctrine, marrying into established Californio Spanish families; this migration was distinct from. Dairy was a major industry in Downey; the Central Milk Agency marketed the milk for "seven hundred dairymen whose dairy herds range from thirty to two thousand head" with the value of the products marketed in excess of $1,000,000 per month.
Some of Downey's settlers came from Ireland. Downey was founded by and named for the former and youngest governor of California, John Gately Downey, born in Ireland. Although he was an Irish Democrat, he supported the Republican Lincoln in his efforts to keep the Union intact during the American Civil War, he pioneered the modern subdivision with land he acquired between the Rio Hondo and the San Gabriel River, in about 1865. Downey was convinced that oranges would flourish in Southern California, so he imported several varieties, therefore set in motion what became one of the state's biggest cash crops. In conjunction with the construction of the Tehachapi Loop, the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in 1873. Farmers in the area grew grain, castor beans and fruit, by 1935 Downey was characterized as an "orange-grove town". Downey was incorporated in 1956, instituted a charter form of government in 1964. Suburban homes and factories replaced the farms after World War II. Vultee Aircraft was Downey's largest employer during World War II, producing 15% of all of America's military aircraft by 1941.
The company was a pioneer in the use of women in manufacturing positions, was the first aircraft company to build airplanes on a powered assembly line. Vultee became a part of North American Aviation, whose facilities were the birthplace of the systems for the Apollo Space Program as well as the Space Shuttle. For over 70 years, Downey's Rockwell NASA plant produced and tested many of the 20th century's greatest aviation and space endeavors. By the early 1970s, the facilities encompassed some 1,700,000 square feet of enclosed area over more than 200 acres. But, by the post-Cold War 1990s, Downey was brutally hit by cutbacks in the defense budget. Rockwell International, who once had over 30,000 employees, had less than 5,000 in 1992; the seventy-year history of airplane and space vehicle manufacturing in Downey came to an end when the Rockwell plant closed in 1999. The former North American Rockwell plant was demolished, the site now features the Columbia Memorial Space Center, Downey Landing shopping center, a Kaiser Permanente hospital, a city recreation fields park, the former movie studio site of Downey Stud
Four Level Interchange
The Four Level Interchange was the first stack interchange in the world. Completed in 1949 and opened in 1953 at the northern edge of Downtown Los Angeles, United States, it connects U. S. Route 101 to State Route 110; the interchange is named in the memory of Los Angeles traffic and weather reporter Bill Keene. The highway is a stack interchange that connects U. S. Route 101 to State Route 110. All movements are possible in this interchange between US 101, which crosses over SR 110, but not with surrounding roads, like Sunset Boulevard, which crosses SR 110 just northeast of the interchange; the interchange is located at Exit 3 of US 101 and Exit 24A of SR 110. The four freeway segments from the Four Level Interchange are: US 101 north – Ventura US 101 south to I-5 south / I-10 east / SR 60 east SR 110 north – Pasadena SR 110 south to I-110 south – San Pedro While the highway oriented east–west at this intersection has been numbered US 101, the numerical designation of road oriented north–south at this interchange has changed over the years.
Designated U. S. Route 66 and U. S. Route 6 and signed as State Route 11, all of these designations were removed from the intersection and replaced with the current designation of Route 110. In July 2006, the freeway interchange was named in honor of Bill Keene, former KNX and KNXT traffic and weather reporter, although the new name is used. Keene referred to the interchange as "The Stacks" and the "4-H Interchange". During the 1960s, Dick Whittinghill on radio station KMPC sometimes called it the Four Letter Interchange; the interchange was constructed as a stack interchange because surrounding buildings and terrain made construction of a cloverleaf interchange impractical. The construction of the interchange displaced over 4000 people from their homes and cost $5.5 million - making it the most expensive half-mile of highway built at the time. The mainline traffic of US 101 is at the top of the interchange, above the ramps, a rarity in stack interchanges, its distinctive architecture has long made it a symbol of Los Angeles' post–World War II development, it appears on numerous postcards from the 1950s and 1960s.
California Roads portal L. A.'s Famous Four-Level Freeway Interchange,'The Stack,' Turns 58
East Los Angeles Interchange
The East Los Angeles Interchange complex is the busiest freeway interchange in the world, with its southern portion handling over 550,000 vehicles per day. The northern portion, called the San Bernardino Split, is considered a separate interchange; the interchange was named the Eugene A. Obregon Memorial Interchange, to honor U. S. Marine Corps Medal of Honor recipient Eugene A. Obregon. At the time of its construction in the early 1960s, the East Los Angeles Interchange was considered a civil engineering marvel. Located along the east bank of the Los Angeles River in the Los Angeles district of Boyle Heights, east of Downtown Los Angeles, the interchange comprises six freeway segments; the actual number of numbered highways intersecting at this interchange is four: I-5 / – Sacramento, Santa Ana I-10 / – San Bernardino, Santa Monica SR 60 east – Pomona US 101 north – Los Angeles Civic CenterThe interchange is so complex because the intersecting freeways shift alignments and directions: Interstate 5 enters the complex from the south as the Santa Ana Freeway, but exits to the north as the Golden State Freeway.
The Santa Ana Freeway continues west as U. S. 101 toward the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles. Interstate 10 is not contiguous through the interchange. Heading west into the complex on the San Bernardino Freeway, the trunk road heads to U. S. 101 at the San Bernardino Split. In order to follow the I-10 alignment, one must exit the trunk road and follow a connector that merges with the alignment of southbound I-5 exit that trunk and follow another connector to the Santa Monica Freeway. Heading west into the complex on the Pomona Freeway, the primary road heads into the Santa Monica Freeway. There is not complete freedom of movement within the interchange. Traffic flowing into it on certain freeways cannot leave it on all of the others. There is no direct connector from the westbound Pomona Freeway to the southbound Santa Ana Freeway. There is no direct connector from the southbound Santa Ana Freeway to the northbound Golden State Freeway. There is no direct connector from the southbound Santa Ana Freeway to the westbound Santa Monica Freeway.
Further complication is caused by the varying designs of each intersecting freeway and their related transition roads. Some have four lanes and are straight and wide, while others have one lane, are narrow, or have curves with tighter radii or cambers. Traffic congestion is thus exacerbated as vehicles moving at high speed on the wider transition roads try to merge with slower moving vehicles coming from the narrow transition roads. Although not called such by residents and other reporters, the freeway intersection was called "Malfunction Junction" by former KNX traffic reporter Bill Keene, because of its complicated interchange structure; the interchange has been referred to as "The Beast" LA Interchange, the "East Delay" Interchange, the "Nickel/Dime" during traffic reports. California Roads portal Pictorial Guide to the Los Angeles Area Highways - East Los Angeles Interchange California @ AA Roads - US-101 North/East Los Angeles Interchange
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Interstate 110 and State Route 110 (California)
Route 110, consisting of State Route 110 and Interstate 110, is a state highway in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, built to freeway standards. The entire route connects San Pedro and the Port of Los Angeles with Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena; the southern segment from San Pedro to Interstate 10 in downtown Los Angeles is signed as I-110, while the northern segment to Pasadena is signed as SR 110. The entire length of I-110, as well as SR 110 south of the Four Level Interchange with US 101, is the Harbor Freeway, SR 110 north from US 101 to Pasadena is the historic Arroyo Seco Parkway, the first freeway in the western United States. I-110 is one of two 3-digit interstate designations to appear on opposite coasts; the Harbor Freeway, signed as Interstate 110, begins at Gaffey Street in San Pedro, where it travels due north to the Santa Monica Freeway at a point south of downtown Los Angeles, where it becomes signed as State Route 110. I-110 is within the city limits of Los Angeles, running right the South Los Angeles region and the Harbor Gateway, a two-mile wide north–south corridor, annexed by the city of Los Angeles to connect San Pedro and the Port of Los Angeles with the rest the city.
In addition, the Harbor Transitway, a grade-separated bus and high-occupancy vehicle corridor in the median of the 110, runs between State Route 91 and the south side of Downtown Los Angeles. The Harbor Freeway, along with the Long Beach Freeway, are the principal means for freight from the port of Los Angeles to rail yards and warehouses further inland, its interchange with the Santa Monica Freeway is notoriously busy and congested, the portions bordering Bunker Hill in northwest Downtown Los Angeles are choked with traffic at peak travel times. Notable landmarks and attractions near the Harbor Freeway include the California State University, Dominguez Hills. A. Live, Los Angeles Harbor College. SR 110 continues north on the Arroyo Seco Parkway to Pasadena; the Harbor Freeway is noted for its elaborate high-occupancy toll lane feature, with the HOT lanes elevated above the rest of traffic in many areas, constructed in 1994 by C. C. Myers, Inc. as HOV lanes and converted to HOT lanes in 2012. Of particular note is the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, which contains the most elaborate network of direct HOV/HOT connectors in Los Angeles County.
It includes a 7-story ramp that connects the Century Freeway's HOV lanes to the Harbor Freeway's northbound HOT lanes and offers splendid views of the entire Los Angeles Basin and the San Gabriel Mountains. The interchange with State Route 91 is fairly large. Route 110 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. In the 1924 Major Street Traffic Plan for Los Angeles, a widening of Figueroa Street to San Pedro as a good road to the Port of Los Angeles was proposed. Progress was slow, in 1933 the state legislature added the entire length to the state highway system as Route 165, an unsigned designation; this route not only extended from San Pedro north to Los Angeles, but continued through the city-built Figueroa Street Tunnels and along the northern extension of Figueroa Street to Eagle Rock, followed Linda Vista Avenue to Route 9 at the Devil's Gate Reservoir.
The entire length of Route 165 became Sign Route 11 in 1934. U. S. Route 6 was assigned to the portion between SR 1 and Avenue 26 in 1937, at about the same time US 66 was moved from Eagle Rock Boulevard to Figueroa Street, overlapping SR 11 between Sunset Boulevard and Colorado Street; the state completed the Arroyo Seco Parkway, added to the state highway system in 1935 as Route 205, in early 1941, providing a faster route between SR 11 at Avenue 26 and Pasadena. US 66 was moved to the new route, while SR 11 remained on Figueroa Street and Linda Vista Avenue, the former becoming a new U. S. Route 66 Alternate. Construction of a freeway to San Pedro was much slower, despite having been in the earliest plans for an integrated system; the Harbor Parkway was to split at the merge with the Venice Parkway northeast of the University of Southern California, with the East By-Pass and West By-Pass straddling the Los Angeles Central Business District and rejoining at the split between the Arroyo Seco Parkway and Riverside Parkway south of Dodger Stadium.
The West By-Pass was soon incorporated into the Harbor Parkway, the first short piece, by renamed the Harbor Freeway, opened on July 30, 1952 from the Four Level Interchange south to 3rd Street. The Harbor Freeway pushed south, opening to Olympic Boulevard on March 23, 1954 and Washington Boulevard on May 14, 1954. On March 27, 1956, the highway was extended to 42nd Street, on April 24, 1957 it reached temporary ramps at 88th Place. Further extensions were made to Century Boulevard on July 31, 1958, 124th Street on September 24, 1958, Alondra Boulevard on May 2
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat