Santa Clara County, California
Santa Clara County the County of Santa Clara, is California's 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 census. The county seat and largest city is San Jose, the 10th most populous city in the United States and California's 3rd most populous city. Home to Silicon Valley, Santa Clara County is an economic center for high technology and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution; the county's concentration of wealth due to the tech industry, has made it the most affluent county on the West Coast of the United States and one of the most affluent places in America. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area and in Northern California, is one of the most affluent counties in the United States.
Santa Clara County is named for Mission Santa Clara, established in 1777 and was in turn named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood; the original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Calaveras Creek. Part of the county's territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries; the result was the U. S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, 118 U. S. 394, in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities. In the early 20th Century, the area was promoted as the "Valley of the Heart's Delight" due to its natural beauty, including a significant number of orchards; the first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943.
Varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, other early innovators were located in the county by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U. S. Navy had a large presence in the area and began giving large contracts to Silicon Valley electronics companies; the term "Silicon Valley" was coined in 1971. The trend accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, agriculture has since been nearly eliminated from the northern part of the county. Today, Santa Clara County is the headquarters for 6500 high technology companies, including many of the largest tech companies in the world, among them hardware manufacturers AMD, Cisco Systems and Intel and consumer electronics companies Apple Inc. and Hewlett-Packard, internet companies eBay and Yahoo!. Most of what is considered to be Silicon Valley is located within the county, although some adjoining tech regions in San Mateo and Santa Cruz counties are considered a part of Silicon Valley. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,304 square miles, of which 1,290 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water.
Counties which border with Santa Clara County are, Santa Cruz County, San Mateo County, San Joaquin, Stanislaus and San Benito. Santa Clara County shared borders with Contra Costa, Monterey, Turlock counties until 1853, 1874, 1854 respectively; the San Andreas Fault runs along the Santa Cruz Mountains in the west of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge In 1978, California Department of Fish and Game warden Henry Coletto urged the department to choose the Mount Hamilton area as one of California's relocation sites under a new statewide effort to restore tule elk. While other ranchers refused, tech pioneers Bill Hewlett and David Packard allowed Coletto and state biologists to translocate 32 tule elk from the Owens Valley in the eastern Sierra onto the 28,000-acre San Felipe Ranch, which the families jointly own, in the hills east of Morgan Hill. From the three original 1978–1981 translocations to the Mount Hamilton region of the Diablo Range, there are multiple herds in different locations including the Isabel Valley, San Antonio Valley, Livermore area, San Felipe Ranch, Metcalf Canyon, Coyote Ridge, Anderson Lake, surrounding areas.
As of 2012, an estimated 400 tule elk roam 1,875 square kilometres in northeastern Santa Clara County and southeastern Alameda County. As of 2017 there are four herds in the Coyote Ridge area visible from U. S. Highway 101, according to Craige Edgerton retired executive director of the Silicon Valley Land Conservancy and local naturalist Michael Hundt; the Nature Conservancy "Mount Hamilton Project" has acquired or put under conservation easement 100,000 acres of land towards its 500,000 acres goal for habitat conservation within a 1,200,000 acres area encompassing much of eastern Santa Clara County as well as portions of southern Alameda County, western Merced and Stanislaus Counties, northern San Benito County. Acquisitions to date include the 1,756-acre Rancho Cañada de Pala, straddling the Alameda Creek and Coyote Creek watersheds for California tiger salamander habitat.
San Mateo, California
San Mateo is a city in San Mateo County, California 20 miles south of San Francisco, 31 miles northwest of San Jose. San Mateo had an estimated 2017 population of 104,748. Documented by Spanish colonists as part of the Rancho de las Pulgas and the Rancho San Mateo, the earliest history is held in the archives of Mission Dolores. In 1789 the Spanish missionaries had named a Native American village along Laurel Creek as Los Laureles or the Laurels. At the time of Mexican Independence, there were 30 native Californians at San Mateo, most from the Salson tribelet. Captain Fredrick W. Beechey in 1827 traveling with the hills on their right, known in that part as the Sierra del Sur, began to approach the road, which passing over a small eminence, opened out upon "a wide country of meadow land, with clusters of fine oak free from underwood… It resembled a nobleman's park: herds of cattle and horses were grazing upon the rich pasture, numerous fallow‑deer, startled at the approach of strangers, bounded off to seek protection among the hills… This spot is named San Matheo, belongs to the mission of San Francisco."
An 1835 sketch map of the Rancho refers to the creek as Arroyo de Los Laureles. In the 21st century, most of the laurels are gone. In 1810 Coyote Point was an early recorded feature of San Mateo. Beginning in the 1850s, some wealthy San Franciscans began building summer or permanent homes in the milder mid-peninsula. While most of this early settlement occurred in adjacent Hillsborough and Burlingame, a number of important mansions and buildings were constructed in San Mateo. A. P. Giannini, founder of the Bank of Italy, lived here most of his life, his mansion, Seven Oaks, is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Located at 20 El Cerrito Drive, it has been deteriorating as it has not been preserved or occupied for years. In 1858 Sun Water Station, a stage station of the Butterfield Overland Mail route, was established in San Mateo, it was located 9 miles south of Clarks Station in what is now San Bruno and 9 miles north of the next station at Redwood City. The Howard Estate was built in 1859 on the hill accessed by Crystal Springs Road.
The Parrott Estate was erected in 1860 in the same area, giving rise to two conflicting names for the hill, Howard Hill and Parrot Hill. After use of the automobile changed traffic patterns, neither historic name was applied to that hill; the Borel Estate was developed near Borel Creek in 1874. It has been redeveloped since the late 20th century for use as modern shops; the property is owned by Borel Place Associates and the Borel Estate Company. Hayward Park, the 1880 American Queen Anne-style residence of Alvinza Hayward, was built on an 800-acre estate in San Mateo which included a deer park and racetrack bounded by present-day El Camino Real, 9th Avenue, B Street and 16th Avenue. A smaller portion of the property and the mansion, was converted into The Peninsula Hotel in 1908, following Hayward's death in 1904; the Hotel burned down in a spectacular fire on 25 June 1920. In the early 20th century, Japanese immigrants came to San Mateo to work in the salt ponds and flower industry. Although Japanese-Americans only account for 2.2% of the population today, they continue to be a major cultural influence and a draw for the rest of the region.
The Eugene J. De Sabla Japanese Teahouse and Garden was established in 1894 at 70 De Sabla Road, designed by Makoto Hagiwara, designer of the Japanese garden in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, he arranged for Japanese artisans to be brought to the United States for its teahouse construction. The parcel was purchased in 1988 by San Francisco businessman Achille Paladini and wife Joan, who have restored it; the garden features hundreds of varieties of several rare trees. A large koi pond surrounds an island; the property was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. In December 1967, Sgt. Joe Artavia serving in Vietnam with Alpha Company, 1st Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division wrote to his sister, Linda Giese, a resident of San Carlos working in San Mateo, asking if San Mateo or San Francisco could adopt the Company, saying that it would bring "the morale of the guys up as high as the clouds". San Mateo passed a resolution on March 4, 1968 adopting Alpha Company and letters and gifts began arriving from the citizens of San Mateo.
Joe would be killed in action on March 24, 1968, less than three weeks after the resolution. Linda would travel to Vietnam to meet with the men of Alpha Company for Christmas in 1968 and deliver personalized medallions from the City of San Mateo. In 1972, San Mateo requested and received permission to have Alpha Company visit the city when they left Vietnam holding a parade in January 1972, believed to be the only parade honoring the military during the Vietnam War. In 1988, Joseph Brazan wrote a screenplay entitled A Dove Among Eagles chronicling the adoption of Alpha Company by San Mateo and the real-life romance between Linda and Artavia's commander, Lt. Stephen Patterson; the city expanded its support to the entire 1st Battalion in 1991, when they were deployed to Kuwait under Operation Desert Storm. The best-known natural area is Coyote Point Park, a rock outcropped peninsula that juts out into the San Francisco Bay; the early Spanish navigators named it la punta de San Mateo. Crews of American carg
Redwood City, California
Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area 27 miles south of San Francisco, 24 miles northwest of San Jose. Redwood City's history spans its earliest inhabitation by the Ohlone people to being a port for lumber and other goods; the county seat of San Mateo County in the heart of Silicon Valley, Redwood City is home to several global technology companies including Oracle, Electronic Arts, Evernote and Informatica. The city had an estimated population of 86,685 in 2017; the Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port on San Francisco Bay south of San Francisco. Redwood City is the location of the San Mateo County Jail, for both men; the Hetch Hetchy water pipeline runs through Redwood City and supplies a vast majority of the surrounding area with low grain rated water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 34.7 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 15.2 square miles is water. A major watercourse draining much of Redwood City is Redwood Creek, to which several significant river deltas connect, the largest of, Westpoint Slough.
Redwood City stretches from the San Francisco Bay towards the Santa Cruz Mountains between San Carlos to the northwest and Atherton to the southeast with Woodside to the southwest. It is divided by Highway 101 and further inland El Camino Real on the northwest/southeast axis and Woodside Road on the north-northeast/south-southwest axis. Locally, the former two are regarded as north/south and the latter east/west, as 101 and El Camino connects Redwood City to San Francisco and San Jose and Woodside Road runs from San Francisco Bay to the Santa Cruz Mountains. Neighborhoods include Bair Island to the northeast of Highway 101; the northern neighborhood of Redwood Shores to the northeast of Highway 101 is part of Redwood City, although it is not possible to travel by road from one to the other without passing through the neighboring city of San Carlos, or through Belmont via unincorporated San Mateo County. Stretching along Highway 101 to the southeast of Woodside Road is Friendly Acres, further inland and still to the southeast of Woodside Road are Redwood Village and Redwood Oaks.
Most neighborhoods are to the northwest of Woodside Ride and southwest of Highway 101. Centennial and Stambaugh Heller are adjacent to 101. Next inland are Edgewood, Mt. Carmel and Palm Canyon, Eagle Hill and Woodside Plaza. Furthest inland is Farm Hills. Neighborhoods associated with Redwood City but not part of the incorporated city include Emerald Lake Hills and Kensington Square inland and to the north and North Fair Oaks to the southeast. Palomar Park, just north of Emerald Hills and east of San Carlos' Crestview area, is another Redwood City neighborhood, formally part of unincorporated San Mateo County. Although Redwood City has a large middle class, the south eastern section of Redwood City resembles working class North Fair Oaks in demographic make-up and income level. Redwood City, along with most of the Bay Area, enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cool wet winters; the National Weather Service, which maintains both a forecast center and a cooperative office in Redwood City, reports that December is the coolest month and July is the warmest month.
The record highest temperature of 110 °F was recorded on both July 14 and 15, 1972. The record lowest temperature of 16 °F was recorded on January 11, 1949. Annually, there are an average of 21.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 2.8 days with highs of 100 °F or higher. The normal annual precipitation is 20.56 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.42 inches in February 1998. The record 24-hour rainfall of 4.88 inches was on October 13, 1962. There are an average of 62.1 days with measurable precipitation. Snow flurries have been observed on rare occasions. Redwood City incorporated in 1867, the first city to do so in San Mateo County, it has been the county seat since the county was formed in 1856; the land had been part of the Rancho de las Pulgas granted to the Arguello family in 1835 by the Mexican government. Their control was challenged after the Mexican–American War when California became part of the United States; the family lawyer, Simon M. Mezes, in 1854 defended the claim somewhat and was allowed to buy the part of the estate, now Redwood City.
Mezes sold some of the land to people squatting on it along the banks of Redwood Creek and named the settlement, Mezesville. Though the city did not keep that name, Mezes Park still exists on land Mezes had given for open space. In 1907 Eikichi and Sadakusi Enomoto, Japanese immigrant brothers, grew the first chrysanthemums commercially in the United States in Redwood City. In 1926 the chamber of commerce proclaimed the city the "Chrysanthemum Center of the World" though the internment of Japanese Americans in 1941 and other factors removed flower growing as a major industry in the city; the 2010 United States Census reported that Redwood City had a population of 76,815. The population density was 3,955.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Redwood City was 46,255 White, 1,881 African American, 511 Native American, 8,216 Asian, 795 Pacific Islander, 14,967 from other races, 4,190 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29,810 persons. Non-Hispanic Whites n
Pacific Coast Ranges
The Pacific Coast Ranges, are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the West Coast of North America from Alaska south to Northern and Central Mexico. The Pacific Coast Ranges are part of the North American Cordillera, which includes the Rocky Mountains, Columbia Mountains, Interior Mountains, the Interior Plateau, Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Great Basin mountain ranges, other ranges and various plateaus and basins; the Pacific Coast Ranges designation, only applies to the Western System of the Western Cordillera, which comprises the Saint Elias Mountains, Coast Mountains, Insular Mountains, Olympic Mountains, Cascade Range, Oregon Coast Range, California Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, the Sierra Madre Occidental. The term Coast Range is not used by the United States Geological Survey to refer only to the ranges east from the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington to the California-Mexico border. I.e. the Pacific Border province. The same term is used informally in Canada to refer to the Coast Mountains and adjoining inland ranges such as the Hazelton Mountains, sometimes the Saint Elias Mountains.
The character of the ranges varies from the record-setting tidewater glaciers in the ranges of Alaska, to the rugged Central and Southern California ranges, the Transverse Ranges and Peninsular Ranges, in the chaparral and woodlands ecoregion with Oak Woodland, Chaparral shrub forest or Coastal sage scrub-covering them. The coastline is dropping steeply into the sea with photogenic views. Along the British Columbia and Alaska coast, the mountains intermix with the sea in a complex maze of fjords, with thousands of islands. Off the Southern California coast the Channel Islands archipelago of the Santa Monica Mountains extends for 160 miles. There are coastal plains at the mouths of rivers that have punched through the mountains spreading sediments, most notably at the Copper River in Alaska, the Fraser River in British Columbia, the Columbia River between Washington and Oregon. In California: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers' San Francisco Bay, the Santa Clara River's Oxnard Plain, the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, Santa Ana Rivers' Los Angeles Basin - a coastal sediment-filled plain between the peninsular and transverse ranges with sediment in the basin up to 6 miles deep, the San Diego River's Mission Bay.
From the vicinity of San Francisco Bay north, it is common in winter for cool unstable air masses from the Gulf of Alaska to make landfall in one of the Coast Ranges, resulting in heavy precipitation, both as rain and snow on their western slopes. The same Winter weather occurs with less frequency and precipitation in Southern California, with the mountains' western faces and peaks causing an eastward rainshadow that produces the arid desert regions. Omitted from the list below, but included is the Sierra Nevada, a major mountain range of eastern California, separated by the Central Valley over much of its length from the California Coast Ranges and the Transverse Ranges. On the West coast of North America, the coast ranges and the coastal plain form the margin. Most of the land is made of terranes. In the north, the insular belt is an accreted terrane; this belt extends from the Wrangellia Terrane in Alaska to the Chilliwack group of Canada. A rupture in Rodinia 750 million years ago formed a passive margin in the eastern Pacific Northwest.
The breakup of Pangea 200 million years ago began the westward movement of the North American plate, creating an active margin on the western continent. As the continent drifted West, terranes were accreted onto the west coast; the timing of the accretion of the insular belt is uncertain, although the closure did not occur until at least 115 million years ago. Other Mesozoic terranes that accreted onto the continent include the Klamath Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, the Guerrero super-terrane of western Mexico. 80 to 90 million years ago the subducting Farallon plate split and formed the Kula Plate to the North. This formed an area in what is now Northern California, where the plates converged forming a Mélange. North of this was the Columbia Embayment, where the continental margin was east of the surrounding areas. Many of the major batholiths date from the late Cretaceous; as the Laramide Orogeny ended around 48 million years ago, the accretion of the Siletzia terrane began in the Pacific Northwest.
This began the volcanic activity in the Cascadia subduction zone, forming the modern Cascade Range, lasted into the Miocene. Events here may relate to the ignimbrite flare-up of Range; as extension in the Basin and Range Province slowed by a change in North American Plate movement circa 7 to 8 Million years ago, rifting began on the Gulf of California. Although many of the ranges do share a common geologic history, the Pacific Coast Ranges province is not defined by geology, but rather by geography. Many of the various ranges are composed of distinct forms of rock from many different periods of geological time from the Precambrian in parts of the Little San Bernardino Mountains to 10,000-year-old rock in the Cascade Range. For one example, the Peninsular Ranges, composed of Mesozoic batholitic rock, are geologically extr
Northern California is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area, the Greater Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Fresno area. Northern California contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions; the 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and even much earlier, successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California.
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties; because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region, distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are placed in northern California; the state is considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Northern California is the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models, northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, the cradle of the international environmental movement, the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now in use around the world.
Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis; the 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California; the state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts.
Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are of historical, inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are rural or otherwise isolated. Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish
Santa Cruz County, California
Santa Cruz County, California the County of Santa Cruz, is a county on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 262,382; the county seat is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz County comprises the Santa Cruz–Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; the county is on the California Central Coast, south of the San Francisco Bay Area region. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay, with Monterey County forming the southern coast. Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of "Branciforte" after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797. A major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, still bears this name. Less than two months on April 5, 1850, the name was changed to "Santa Cruz". Mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 607 square miles, of which 445 square miles is land and 162 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in California by land third-smallest by total area. Of California's counties, only San Francisco is physically smaller; the county is situated on a wide coastline with over 29 miles of beaches. It is a strip of about 10 miles wide between the coast and the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains at the northern end of the Monterey Bay, it can be divided into four regions: the rugged "north coast". Agriculture is concentrated in the coastal lowlands of the county's southern ends. Most of the coastline is flanked by cliffs. Santa Cruz County is home to the following threatened or endangered species: California clapper rail – endangered California red-legged frog – threatened California tiger salamander – Central California DPS, threatened Coho salmon – Central California Coast ESU is endangered Marbled murrelet – threatened Mount Hermon June beetle – endangered Ohlone tiger beetle – endangered San Francisco garter snake – endangered Santa Cruz long-toed salamander – endangered Santa Cruz tarweed – threatened Smith's blue butterfly – endangered Southern sea otter – threatened Steelhead – Central California Coast DPS is threatened Tidewater goby – endangered Western snowy plover – threatened Yellow-billed cuckoo – threatened Zayante band-winged grasshopper – endangered Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area, Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area and Natural Bridges State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas off the coast of Santa Cruz County.
Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. The county of Santa Cruz has experienced demographic fluctuations in recent history. Between 1990 and 2000, population increased 11.3%. This is not because of immigration or migration, but because of new births. In 1980, Santa Cruz county was 21% Latino, which rose to 28% in 1990 and 39% in 2000; the area between Watsonville in south Santa Cruz County and Salinas Valley of northern Monterey County is Latino. The 2010 United States Census reported Santa Cruz County had a population of 262,382; the racial makeup of Santa Cruz County was 190,208 White, 2,766 African American, 2,253 Native American, 11,112 Asian, 349 Pacific Islander, 43,376 from other races, 12,318 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 84,092 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 255,602 people, 91,139 households, 57,144 families residing in the county. The population density was 574 people per square mile.
There were 98,873 housing units at an average density of 222 per square mile. There were 91,139 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $53,998, the median income for a family was $61,941. Males had a median income of $46,291 versus $33,514 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,396.
About 6.7% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over. Santa Cruz county residents tend to be well-educated. 38.3% of residents age 25 and older hold a bachelor's degree at least higher than the national average of 27.2% and the state average of 29.5%. Santa Cruz County was a Republican stronghold for most of the 20th centuries.
California State Route 1
California State Route 1 is a major north–south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U. S. state of California. At a total of just over 659 miles, it is the longest state route in California. SR 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway, Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway, or Coast Highway, its southern terminus is at Interstate 5 near Dana Point in Orange County and its northern terminus is at U. S. Route 101 near Leggett in Mendocino County. SR 1 at times runs concurrently with US 101, most notably through a 54-mile stretch in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, across the Golden Gate Bridge; the highway is designated as an All-American Road. In addition to providing a scenic route to numerous attractions along the coast, the route serves as a major thoroughfare in the Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, several other coastal urban areas. SR 1 was built piecemeal in various stages, with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s.
However, portions of the route had several numbers over the years as more segments opened. It was not until the 1964 state highway renumbering that the entire route was designated as SR 1. Although SR 1 is a popular route for its scenic beauty, frequent landslides and erosion along the coast have caused several segments to be either closed for lengthy periods for repairs, or re-routed inland. SR 1 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, through the Los Angeles metro area, Santa Cruz, San Francisco metro area, Leggett is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 1 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System; the Big Sur section from San Luis Obispo to Carmel is an official National Scenic Byway. The entire route is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway to recognize those in the United States armed forces. In Southern California, the California State Legislature has designated the segment between Interstate 5 in Dana Point and US 101 near Oxnard as the Pacific Coast Highway.
Between US 101 at the Las Cruces junction and US 101 in Pismo Beach, between US 101 in San Luis Obispo and Interstate 280 in San Francisco, the legislature has designated SR 1 as the Cabrillo Highway, after the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo who sailed along the coast line. The legislature has designated the route as the Shoreline Highway between the Manzanita Junction near Marin City and Leggett. Smaller segments of the highway have been assigned several other names by the state and municipal governments; the legislature has relinquished state control of segments within Dana Point, Newport Beach, Santa Monica, Oxnard. In addition to connecting the coastal cities and communities along its path, SR 1 provides access to beaches and other attractions along the coast, making it a popular route for tourists; the route annually helps bring several billion dollars to the state's tourism industry. The route runs right besides the coastline, or close to it, for the most part, it turns several miles inland to avoid several federally controlled or protected areas such as Vandenberg Air Force Base, Diablo Canyon Power Plant and Point Reyes National Seashore.
Segments of SR 1 range from a rural two-lane road to an urban freeway. Because of the former, long distance thru traffic traveling between the coastal metropolitan areas are instead advised to use faster routes such as US 101 or I-5. At its southernmost end in Orange County, SR 1 terminates at I-5 in Capistrano Beach in Dana Point, it travels west into the city center. After leaving Dana Point, Pacific Coast Highway becomes "Coast Highway" while at the same time continues northwest along the coast through Laguna Beach and Crystal Cove State Park. SR 1 enters Newport Beach and passes through several affluent neighborhoods, including Newport Coast and Corona Del Mar, spans the entrance to the Upper Newport Bay, which marks the boundary between East Coast Highway and West Coast Highway, crosses California State Route 55 near its southern terminus. Upon entering Huntington Beach, SR 1 regains the Pacific Coast Highway designation, it passes Huntington State Beach and the southern terminus of California State Route 39 before reaching Bolsa Chica State Beach and the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve.
PCH continues along the coast into Seal Beach, the final city on its journey in Orange County. PCH enters the city of Long Beach after crossing the San Gabriel River. SR 1 continues northwest through the city to its junction with Lakewood Boulevard and Los Coyotes Diagonal at the Los Alamitos Circle, more than 2 miles from the coast. From the traffic circle, it continues inland west through Long Beach, including one mile adjacent to the southern boundary of Signal Hill. PCH is marked as such in Long Beach, but bore the name of Hathaway Avenue east of the traffic circle and State Street west of there. PCH passes through the Los Angeles districts of Wilmington and Harbor City. While bypassing the immediate coastline of Palos Verdes, SR 1 continues to head west