Jemez Springs, New Mexico
Jemez Springs is a village in Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 375 at the 2000 census. Named for the nearby Pueblo of Jemez, the village is the site of Jemez State Monument and the headquarters of the Jemez Ranger District; the village and nearby locations in the Jemez Valley are the site of hot springs and several religious retreats. Situated in the Jemez Mountains, Jemez Springs is located within the Santa Fe National Forest; the village is sited on the Jemez River in the red rock San Diego Canyon. State Highway 4 passes through the settlement on the east bank of the Rio Grande tributary. Geothermal springs in and near the village feed the Jemez River; the village has a total area of all of it land. The Jemez Valley is thought to have been inhabited for the last 4500 years; the Spaniards who visited the area beginning in 1540 reported multiple Native American pueblos, in the valley. The Franciscan mission church San José de los Jemez was built just to the north of the current village in 1621 but was abandoned around the 1640s.
Today the ruins are the site of Jemez State Monument. Following the Pueblo Revolt the Jemez people began converging at the current Pueblo of Jemez. In the nineteenth century the valley was given over to agrarian and pastoral uses. Jemez Springs' post office opened in 1907; the village is named for the Pueblo of Jemez twelve miles to the south. The 1907 post office was preceded by one established in 1884 named Archuleta; the village's current main bathhouse originates from this period. In 1942, Jemez Springs was the second choice for the location of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the proposed Manhattan Project research laboratory, but Los Alamos was chosen instead. In 1947 two Roman Catholic retreats were founded nearby, the Congregation of the Servants of the Paraclete and the Handmaids of the Precious Blood; the village was incorporated in 1955. Following enthusiasm from supporters of Kyozan Joshu Sasaki in 1972, the Bodhi Manda Zen Center, a Rinzai training academy, was founded. Jemez Springs is in the Albuquerque Metropolitan Statistical Area.
As of the census of 2000, there were 375 people, 113 households, 82 families residing in the village. The population density was 78.1 people per square mile. There were 149 housing units at an average density of 31.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 78.40% White, 2.40% Native American, 1.87% Asian, 12.80% from other races, 4.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.47% of the population. There were 113 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.4% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.09. In the village, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 3.2% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 32.3% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 68.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $36,818, the median income for a family was $36,042. Males had a median income of $36,964 versus $4,960 for females; the per capita income for the village was $19,522. About 13.5% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Jemez Valley Public Schools serves the village of Jemez Springs as well as the surrounding Jemez Mountain Region. Rudolfo Anaya, has a house there. Gerald Fitzgerald, Roman Catholic priest, founder of the religious order The Congregation of the Servants of the Paraclete lived in Jemez Springs. N. Scott Momaday had a retirement home there until 2011. J. Shannon Webster - Retired Presbyterian minister and musician. Village website Jemez Springs Public Library Jemez Valley Public Schools
Mora County, New Mexico
Mora County is a county in the US state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,881, its county seat is the census-designated place Mora. The county has another CDP, Watrous, a village, Wagon Mound, New Mexico, 12 smaller unincorporated settlements. Mora became a formal county in the US, in what was the New Mexico Territory, on February 1, 1860. Ecclesiastically, the county is within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santa Fe. County population peaked at about 14,000 around 1920, declining to about 4,000 to 5,000 since the 1970s. Prior to Spanish conquest, the Mora area was Native American country. Although not an area of heavy settlement by stationary tribes such as the Puebloans, the Mora Valley was used by nomadic nations, including the Ute and Apache. Hispano settlers had occupied lands within the Mora Valley without legal title since Governor Juan Bautista de Anza of Nuevo México made peace with the Comanches in the late 18th century, opening up the east side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains for settlement.
The Mora Valley became a travel-way for various Spanish explorers and others. It was not permanently inhabited by colonists until the early 19th century; the written history of the settlement of Mora dates to Christian missionary church-building in 1818, three years before Mexican independence from Spain. Mora valley was more formally and broadly settled in 1835; the settlers came from Las Trampas, but from Picuris and Embudo from Santa Cruz de La Cañada and the Ojo Caliente area, still from the southern part of New Mexico, moving on from the San Miguel del Vado Land Grant, coming in via Las Vegas, New Mexico. The families each received a strip of property by a September 28, 1835, land grant of Centralist Republic of Mexico Governor of New Mexico Albino Pérez; the grant gave land title for over 800,000 acres in Mora Valley to various families willing to relocate. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico on March 2, 1836, it claimed but did not control western New Mexico, including what is now Mora County.
The town of Mora was raided unsuccessfully in 1843 by a group of freebooters from the more narrowly defined Republic of Texas, on the pretext of stopping cattle rustling but with a clear intent of horse theft and taking the local women and children as slaves). The annexation of Texas by the United States in February 19, 1846, US General Stephen W. Kearny's taking of Santa Fe, New Mexico in August of that year, made these lands subject to American control under the Kearny Code and the US provisional government of New Mexico, but the area remained in the minds of many long-term residents part of the Republic of Mexico under President Santa Ana. During the Mexican–American War, beginning on April 25, 1846, much of New Mexico including Mora County was subject to the military occupation of United States under martial law. During the Taos Revolt of the war, Mexican-nationalist Hispano and Puebloan militia fought the United States Army, repelling a small force in the First Battle of Mora on January 24, 1847, only to endure the village and surrounding ranches and crops being burned to the ground in the Second Battle of Mora on February 1 ending active rebellion in the area.
The provisional government's first legislature met in December 6, 1847, beginning American civil government in the region. The Mexican–American War ended February 3, 1848, with Mora Valley and rest of the region under formal US control, as the Mexican Cession of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo relinquished all claims by Mexico to lands north of the Rio Grande. Still claimed by state of Texas until the Compromise of 1850, the New Mexico Territory, with smaller boundaries, was formalized on September 9 of that year. A US Army installation, Fort Union, was built in 1851 in Mora Valley, it encroached on 8 square miles of private lands of the Mora Grant for its entire span of operation, without permission of or compensation to the local land owners. This led to a protracted legal controversy, reaching all the way to the General Land Office, the Secretary of War, the US Congress; the US county of Mora was established in the territory on February 1, 1860. A church was built in the Mora Valley village of Chacon in 1864, reflecting additional settlement into the area.
The Mora Grant / Fort Union land dispute was exacerbated in 1868 by an order of President Andrew Johnson that established a government timber reservation that encompassed 53 more square miles the private grant land. After being rebuilt twice, the fort closed in 1891, still without restitution to land-owners, despite the Kearny Code, Hidalgo Treaty, other agreements guaranteeing continuity of Spanish and Mexican land-grant rights. New Mexico became the 47th US state on January 6, 1912, despite concerns in Congress that the population was insufficiently assimilated into American culture after an influx of Mexican refugees from 1910 onward, fleeing the Mexican Revolution; these newcomers settled far south of Mora County, though it remained Spanish-speaking, as it was still populated by the same, now-expanded, families who had settled area three-quarters of a century earlier). On February
Rio Arriba County, New Mexico
Rio Arriba County is a county in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,246, its county seat is Tierra Amarilla. Its northern border is the Colorado state line. Rio Arriba County comprises the Española, NM Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Albuquerque-Santa Fe-Las Vegas, NM Combined Statistical Area; the county was one of nine created for the Territory of New Mexico in 1852. Extending west to the California line, it included the site of present-day Las Vegas, Nevada; the county seat was sited at San Pedro de Chamita, shortly afterwards at Los Luceros. In 1860 the seat was moved to Plaza del Alcalde. Since 1880 Tierra Amarilla has been the county seat; the Battle of Embudo Pass took place in the southern part of the county during the American invasion in January 1847. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,896 square miles, of which 5,861 square miles are land and 35 square miles are water, it is the fifth-largest county in New Mexico by area.
The highest point in the county is the summit of Truchas Peak at 13,102 feet. The county acquired its present proportions after the creation of San Juan County and other adjustments. Carson National Forest El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Santa Fe National Forest Valles Caldera National Preserve As of the 2000 census, there were 41,190 people, 15,044 households, 10,816 families residing in the county; the population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 18,016 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.62% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 13.88% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 25.62% from other races, 3.28% from two or more races. 72.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,044 households out of which 36.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.80% were married couples living together, 15.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families.
23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.60% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,429, the median income for a family was $32,901. Males had a median income of $26,897 versus $22,223 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,263. About 16.60% of families and 20.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.30% of those under age 18 and 22.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 40,246 people, 15,768 households, 10,477 families residing in the county; the population density was 6.9 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 19,638 housing units at an average density of 3.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 51.6% white, 16.0% American Indian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 28.0% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 71.3% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: 20.6% Mexican15.5% Spanish4.5% German3.2% English2.7% Irish1.7% French 1.5% Navajo1.2% ScottishOf the 15,768 households, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age was 39.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,437 and the median income for a family was $47,840. Males had a median income of $39,757 versus $31,657 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,913.
About 15.7% of families and 19.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.6% of those under age 18 and 18.3% of those age 65 or over. From New Mexico’s statehood to the early 1940s Rio Arriba was a traditional Republican county; that would change and the county would become a Democratic stronghold from the 1960s to the present day. The last Republican Presidential candidate to carry the county was Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956. No Republican candidate for governor has won the county since at least 1966, it is located in New Mexico's 3rd congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index rating of D+7 and is represented by Democrat Ben R. Luján. In the New Mexico legislature it is represented by Representative Nick Salazar, Representative Debbie Rodella and Senator Richard Martinez. Current commissioners are: Rio Arriba County has 6 public school districts. Española Public Schools is the largest. Chama Valley Independent Schools Jemez Mountain Public Schools Dulce Independent Schools Mesa Vista Consolidated Schools Espanola Public Schools Penasco Independent Schools Northern New Mexico College with campuses in Española and El Rito New Mexico Highlands University campus in Española Abiquiu Lake Chama River Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad Echo Amphitheater Jicarilla Apache Reservation Puye Cliff Dwellings Ghost Ranch Monastery of Christ in the Desert & Abbey Brewing Company Project Gasbuggy Tierra Amarilla & Brazos Cliffs Española Dulce Chama Hopewell Riverside Santa Rosa de Lima Sublette National Register of Historic Places li
Valles Caldera National Preserve
Valles Caldera National Preserve is a national preserve in New Mexico located in northeastern Sandoval County and southern Rio Arriba County, just west of Los Alamos. It protects a large portion of the Valles Caldera, an area of significant geological and cultural interest, it has a land area of 89,216 acres and until 2015 was administered by the Valles Caldera Trust with offices in Jemez Springs. In 2014 legislation attached to the National Defense Authorization Act authorized the transfer of the preserve to the National Park Service and termination of the Valles Caldera Trust; the transfer to NPS management took place on October 1, 2015. The Valles Caldera Preservation Act of 2000 signed by President Bill Clinton on July 25, 2000, created Valles Caldera National Preserve; the legislation provided for the federal purchase of the land the privately-held Baca Ranch. The surface estate of 95,000 acres and seven-eighths of the geothermal mineral estate were purchased by the federal government for $101 million.
Funds for the purchase were obtained through the Land and Water Conservation Fund from federal government royalties received from offshore petroleum and natural gas drilling. Some areas of the Baca Ranch are of cultural significance to Native Americans. Accordingly, 5,000 acres of the purchase were obtained by the Pueblo of Santa Clara, which borders the property to the northeast; these include the headwaters of Santa Clara Creek, considered sacred by the Pueblo. On the southwest corner of the land 300 acres were to be ceded to Bandelier National Monument; the Baca Ranch known as Baca Location No. 1, had possessed a mixed range of significant biodiversity. At the time of the purchase, the ranch was home to 40 miles of "pristine" trout streams, 66,118 acres of conifer forest, 17 endangered plant and animal species and 25,000 acres of grassland grazed by 8,000 elk, New Mexico's largest herd; the preserve is encircled by federal lands, including the Santa Fe National Forest, the Jemez National Recreation Area and Bandelier National Monument.
The Valles Caldera Preservation Act of 2000 created the Valles Caldera Trust, an experimental management organization consisting of nine board members including seven appointed by the President of the United States. The Trust combined private-sector practices with federal land management protocol. Under the terms of the Valles Caldera Preservation Act, the preserve was to become financially self-sustaining by 2015; the experiment was controversial. In 2010 the Trust admitted that it would be unable to achieve financial self-sustainability, having raised only about $850,000 of the $3 million needed to manage the property each year. Environmentalists had lobbied for the more inclusive protections of National Park status instead of the Trust model, but then-Senator Pete Domenici insisted on the experimental approach as a condition for his support for public purchase. Beginning in 2010, US Senator Jeff Bingaman introduced legislation that would transfer the property to the National Park Service as a National Preserve.
The 2011 bill was supported by the VCNP trustees and a majority of New Mexico's Congressional delegation. On December 19, 2014, President Barack Obama signed the Carl Levin and Howard P. ‘‘Buck’’ McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015, which transferred administrative jurisdiction of the preserve from the Valles Caldera Trust to the National Park Service. After a brief transition period, the National Park Service assumed day-to-day management on October 1, 2015. On October 10, the preserve held an official dedication with dignitaries including U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell, U. S. Senator Tom Udall, U. S. Senator Martin Heinrich, former-U. S. Senator Jeff Bingaman, National Park Service Intermountain Region Director Sue Masica, the first National Park Service Superintendent of Valles Caldera National Preserve, Jorge Silva-Bañuelos
Bandelier National Monument
Bandelier National Monument is a 33,677-acre United States National Monument near Los Alamos in Sandoval and Los Alamos Counties, New Mexico. The monument preserves the homes and territory of the Ancestral Puebloans of a era in the Southwest. Most of the pueblo structures date to two eras, dating between 1150 and 1600 AD; the Monument is 50 square miles of the Pajarito Plateau, on the slopes of the Jemez Volcanic field in the Jemez Mountains. Over 70% of the Monument is wilderness, with over one mile elevation change, from about 5,000 feet along the Rio Grande to over 10,000 feet at the peak of Cerro Grande on the rim of the Valles Caldera, providing for a wide range of life zones and wildlife habitats. There are three miles of road, more than 70 miles of hiking trails; the Monument protects Ancestral Pueblo archeological sites, a diverse and scenic landscape, the country's largest National Park Service Civilian Conservation Corps National Landmark District. Bandelier was designated by President Woodrow Wilson as a National Monument on February 11, 1916, named for Adolph Bandelier, a Swiss-American anthropologist who researched the cultures of the area and supported preservation of the sites.
The park infrastructure was developed in the 1930s by crews of the Civilian Conservation Corps and is a National Historic Landmark for its well-preserved architecture. The National Park Service cooperates with surrounding Pueblos, other federal agencies, state agencies to manage the park. In October 1976 70 percent of the monument, 23,267 acres, was included within the National Wilderness Preservation System; the park's elevations range from about 5,000 feet at the Rio Grande to over 10,200 feet at the summit of Cerro Grande. The Valles Caldera National Preserve adjoins the monument on the north and west, extending into the Jemez Mountains. Much of the area was covered with volcanic ash from an eruption of the Valles Caldera volcano 1.14 million years ago. The tuff overlays shales and sandstones deposited during the Permian Period and limestone of Pennsylvanian age; the volcanic outflow varied in hardness. Human presence in the area has been dated to over 10,000 years before present. Permanent settlements by ancestors of the Puebloan peoples have been dated to 1150 CE.
The distribution of basalt and obsidian artifacts from the area, along with other traded goods, rock markings, construction techniques, indicate that its inhabitants were part of a regional trade network that included what is now Mexico. Spanish colonial settlers arrived in the 18th century; the Pueblo Jose Montoya brought Adolph Bandelier to visit the area in 1880. Looking over the cliff dwellings, Bandelier said, "It is the grandest thing I saw."Based on documentation and research by Bandelier, there was support for preserving the area and President Woodrow Wilson signed the legislation creating the monument in 1916. Supporting infrastructure, including a lodge, was built during the 1930s; the structures at the monument built during the Great Depression by the Civilian Conservation Corps constitute the largest assembly of CCC-built structures in a National Park area that has not been altered by new structures in the district. This group of 31 buildings illustrates the guiding principles of National Park Service Rustic architecture, being based on local materials and styles.
It has been designated as a National Landmark District. During World War II the monument area was closed to the public for several years, since the lodge was being used to house personnel working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos to develop an atom bomb. Frijoles Canyon contains a number of ancestral pueblo homes, rock paintings, petroglyphs; some of the dwellings were rock structures built on the canyon floor. A 1.2-mile, predominantly paved, "Main Loop Trail" from the visitor center affords access to these features. A trail extending beyond this loop leads to Alcove House, a shelter cave produced by erosion of the soft rock and containing a small, reconstructed kiva that hikers may enter via ladder. One site of archaeological interest in the canyon is Tyuonyi pueblo and nearby building sites, such as Long House. Tyuonyi is a circular pueblo site. Long House is adjacent to Tyounyi, supported by the walls of the canyon. A reconstructed Talus House is found along the Main Loop Trail; these sites date from the Pueblo III Era to the Pueblo IV Era.
The age of the Tyuonyi construction has been well established by the tree-ring method of dating and used by archeologists in the Southwest. Ceiling-beam fragments recovered from various rooms have been dated between 1383 and 1466; this general period seems to have been a time of much building in Frijoles Canyon. The last construction anywhere in Frijoles Canyon occurred close to 1500, with a peak of population reached near that time or shortly thereafter; the century before Tyuonyi's construction is thought to have been characterized by intense change and migration in the Ancestral Puebloan culture. The period of highest population density in Frijoles Canyon corresponds to a period contemporane