click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Santa Fe de Nuevo México

Santa Fe de Nuevo México was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, a territory of independent Mexico. The first capital was San Juan de los Caballeros from 1598 until 1610, from 1610 onward the capital was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the naming, the Palace of the Governors, rule of law were retained as the New Mexico Territory, the subsequent U. S. State of New Mexico, became a part of the United States; the New Mexican citizenry consisting of Hispano, Navajo and Comanche peoples, became citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Nuevo México is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. However, it was named by Spanish explorers who believed the area contained wealthy Amerindian cultures similar to those of the Aztec Empire, called the land the "Santa Fe de Nuevo México". Nuevo México was centered on the upper valley of the Rio Grande: from the crossing point of Oñate on the river south of Ciudad Juárez, it extended north, encompassing an area that included most of the present-day U.

S. state of New Mexico. It had variably defined borders, included sections of present-day U. S. states: western Texas, southern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, the Oklahoma panhandle. Actual Spanish settlements were centered at Santa Fe, extended north to Taos pueblo and south to Albuquerque. Except for the first decade of the province's existence, its capital was in the foothills of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains at the ancient city of La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. 16th centuryThe Nuevo México Province was created by Philip II of Spain and was settled during the 1598 expedition by Juan de Oñate, governor. The expedition had been authorized by Philip II to survey the region. Though the Spanish believed that cities of gold such as the ones of the Aztecs, whom they had conquered, lay to the north in the unexplored territory, the major goal was to spread Catholicism. Other expeditions had taken place before Oñate's 1598 expedition, he was unable to find any riches, however.

As governor, he mingled with the Pueblo people and was responsible for the establishment of Spanish rule in the area. Oñate served as the first governor of the Nuevo México Province from 1598 to 1610, he hoped to make it a separate viceroyalty from New Spain in an original agreement made in 1595, but the terms failed when the Viceroy changed hands in 1596. After a two-year delay and lengthy vetting by the new viceroy, Oñate was allowed to cross the Rio Grande River into modern day Texas and New Mexico. 17th centuryMost of the Spanish missions in Nuevo México were established during the early 17th century with varying degrees of success and failure, oftentimes building directly atop ancient pueblo ruins, in the centers of pueblos. Some pueblos were friendly to the foreigners, but after cultural differences and the banishment of local religions tensions against the Spanish rose significantly. After compounding misdeeds and overbearing taxes by the Spanish invaders, the indigenous communities rebelled in what is now referred to as the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.

This rebellion saw the Spanish expelled from Nuevo México for a period of 12 years and the pueblo people were able to regain lost lands. They returned to battle against the Spanish who sought restoration in 1692 of the conquered holdings; the reoccupation of Santa Fe was accomplished by Diego de Vargas. The province came under the jurisdiction of the Real Audiencia of Guadalajara, with oversight by the Viceroy of New Spain at Mexico City. 18th centuryIn 1777, with the creation of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas, the Nuevo México Province was removed from the oversight of the Viceroy and placed in the jurisdiction of the Commandant General of the Provincias Internas. The province remained in Spanish control until Mexico's declaration of independence in 1821. Under the 1824 Constitution of Mexico, it became the federally administered Territory of New Mexico; the part of the former province east of the Rio Grande was claimed by the Republic of Texas which won its independence in 1836.

This claim was disputed by Mexico. In 1841, the Texans sent the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, ostensibly for trade but with hopes of occupying the claimed area, but the expedition was captured by Mexican troops; the United States inherited the unenforced claim to the east bank with the Texas Annexation in 1845. The U. S. Army under Stephen Kearny occupied the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War, a provisional government was established, Mexico recognized its loss to the United States in 1848 with the Mexican Cession in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Texas continued to claim the eastern part, but never succeeded in establishing control except in El Paso. However, in the Compromise of 1850 Texas accepted $10 million in exchange for its claim to areas within and north of the present boundaries of New Mexico and the Texas panhandle. President Zachary Taylor and Abraham Lincoln both proposed that New Mexico become a state to sidestep political conflict over slavery in the territories.

New Mexico did not become a state until January 1912

Zellers v. Huff

The Dixon School Case was a lawsuit started in 1948 in New Mexico contesting the use of nuns, religious brothers and priests as teachers in publicly supported schools under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The case involved thirty schools in eleven New Mexico counties, twenty-eight plaintiffs, two hundred defendants, public expenditures to the schools of over $600,000 annually. Following on the heels of the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in Everson v. Board of Education, which applied First Amendment freedoms to state as well as federal law, the Dixon School Case was the first state case to implement separation of church and state in public schools, was watched with interest nationally. In Dixon, New Mexico in 1941, the school board closed the public school and recognized the parochial St. Joseph's Catholic School as the only public school in the jurisdiction. Protestant parents complained to no avail, formed the Dixon Free Schools Committee under the leadership of one Lydia Zellers.

After getting nowhere with state and local officials, the group filed suit in April 1948. The dispute had become broader than just the Dixon school district and included twenty-nine other schools across the state; the first named defendant was the chairman of the New Mexico Board of Education. The defendants included Governor Thomas J. Mabry, as well as 145 priests and brothers of Catholic religious orders; the initial trial was held on September 27 to October 7, 1948, in the district court in Santa Fe, New Mexico, before Judge E. Turner Hensley of Portales. Judge Hensley ruled that the teachers and administrators had failed to uphold the separation of church and state and that the religious teachings and settings had significant indoctrinating influence on the students. After additional hearings in spring 1949 he granted an injunction against the Roman Catholic Church prohibiting 139 named religious members from teaching in state schools; the church appealed to the New Mexico Supreme Court which upheld Judge Hensley's rulings in September 1951, but broadened the ruling to include a prohibition against wearing religious garb as a teacher, doctrinaire textbooks in public schools, public transport to parochial schools, publicly provided textbooks in parochial schools.

Both the Catholic Church and the state of New Mexico declined to take an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States. Holscher, Kathleen A. Habits in the classroom: A court case regarding Catholic sisters in New Mexico Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Religion, Princeton University and Introduction from Scribd Note "Religious Garb in the Public Schools: A Study in Conflicting Liberties" The University of Chicago Law Review 22: pp. 888-895

Laurence Andretto

Laurence Andretto is a former professional tennis player from France. Andretto was born in the city of Revin in the Ardennes, near the Belgian border, the daughter of parents who were both teachers. A right-handed player, she competed in the main draw of the French Open every year from 1997 to 2002. On two occasions she reached the second round, the first time in the 1998 edition when she overcame world number 33 María Vento-Kabchi again in 2001 against the same opponent, she was a regular competitor in the qualifying draws of grand slam tournaments and made it into the 2001 Australian Open, where she lost in the first round to 16th seed Amy Frazier. Her WTA main draw appearances included the 2000 Paris Indoor, where she had a win in qualifying over Elena Dementieva, she reached a highest ranking of 132 in the world and won six singles titles on the ITF circuit

Mattress Performance (Carry That Weight)

Mattress Performance was a work of endurance/performance art which Emma Sulkowicz conducted as a senior thesis during the final year of a visual arts degree at Columbia University in New York City. Begun in September 2014, the piece involved Sulkowicz carrying a 50-pound mattress, of the kind that Columbia uses in its dorms, around campus. Sulkowicz, non-binary and uses both she/her and they/them pronouns, said the piece would end when a student Sulkowicz alleged raped her in her dorm room in 2012 was expelled or otherwise left the university. Sulkowicz carried the mattress until the end of the spring semester, as well as to the graduation ceremony in May 2015. Paul Nungesser, the student who Sulkowicz accused, was found not responsible by a university inquiry into the allegations, police declined to pursue a criminal complaint against him, citing a lack of reasonable suspicion. Nungesser called Sulkowicz's accusation "untrue and unfounded" and called Mattress Performance an act of bullying.

In 2015, Nungesser filed a lawsuit against the university and several administrators alleging that the school exposed him to gender-based harassment by allowing Mattress Performance to go forward. In 2017, the university settled the suit for undisclosed terms, pledged to reform its disciplinary policies; the piece stirred controversy with praise from art critics and criticism from some commentators. Art critic Jerry Saltz called Mattress Performance "pure radical vulnerability" and one of the best art shows of 2014. Journalist Emily Bazelon described the work and events surrounding it as "a triumph" for the survivor movement and "a nightmare" for the student Sulkowicz accused. Caught between defending and enabling Sulkowicz's freedom of expression and Nungesser's right to due process and the university's written policies regarding confidentiality, the university was criticized by both parties and their parents for its handling of the issue. Emma Sulkowicz attended Dalton School on the Upper East Side, in 2011 began a visual arts degree at Columbia University.

Sulkowicz alleges that she was slapped and anally raped by Nungesser in Sulkowicz's dorm room, on the first day of her second year in August 2012, during what began as a consensual sexual encounter. Nungesser denies the allegation, insisting that the encounter was consensual. In April 2013, 8 months after the encounter, Sulkowicz filed a complaint with the university. Sulkowicz says she filed a complaint after encountering two female students who said they had been victimized by Nungesser. One was a former girlfriend who said she was abused during their long-term relationship, stated that she recognized their sexual relations as having been non-consensual; the other said that on one occasion Nungesser had moved toward her aggressively, grabbed her arms, attempted to kiss her. Shortly after Sulkowicz filed a complaint, the two other students with whom she was acquainted filed complaints with the university against the same student. Columbia cleared him of responsibility in all three cases; the case attracted wider attention when the three female students who filed complaints gave interviews to the New York Post, which broke the story on December 11, 2013, without naming those involved.

In April 2014 Sulkowicz appeared with Senator Kirsten Gillibrand at a press conference about campus sexual assault. On April 24, 2014, 23 students filed a federal complaint against Columbia and Barnard College, alleging violations of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, a law upholding gender equality in federally-funded institutions. Among other issues, the complaint alleged that the institutions discourage students from reporting sexual assault, that alleged perpetrators are not removed from campus, that sanctions are too lenient; the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights opened an investigation in January 2015. On May 14, 2014, Sulkowicz filed a complaint with the New York Police Department; the district attorney's office interviewed Sulkowicz and Nungesser in August, but did not pursue charges, citing lack of reasonable suspicion. Sulkowicz devised Mattress Performance in the summer of 2014 as a senior thesis while at Yale University Summer School of Art and Music, her first effort was a video of herself moving a bed out of a room, accompanied by the audio of her filing the police report, which she had recorded on a cellphone.

The mattress became the focus of the piece. Sulkowicz's thesis was supervised by a professor at Columbia; as the idea for Mattress Performance developed and Sulkowicz discussed the nature of endurance art and the work of Tehching Hsieh, Marina Abramović, Ulay and Chris Burden. Sulkowicz described the work as "an endurance performance art piece". Sulkowicz told the Columbia Daily Spectator: "I do think that nowadays art pieces can include whatever the artist desires and in this performance art piece it utilizes the elements of protest..."Purchased online from Tall Paul's Tall Mall, the 50-lb, dark-blue, extra-long twin mattress is of the kind Columbia places in its dorms, similar to the one on which Sulkowicz said that she was raped. Sulkowicz spent the summer of 2014 creating the rules of engagement, which defined the parameters of the project. Written on the walls of her studio in the university's Watson Hall, these included that Sulkowicz had to carry the mattress when on university property.

In early September 2014 Sulkowicz began carrying the mattress on campus. A homeless man was one of the first to help. Sulkowicz told New York magazine: "He was the first person who helped witho

Mira River Provincial Park

Mira River Provincial Park is a provincial park situated on the Mira River in Cape Breton County, 22 kilometres from Sydney and 17 kilometres kilometres from the Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada. Opened in 1967, the 87.49 hectares property offers camping sites and a range opportunities for outdoor recreation including picnicking, canoeing, biking, front-country hiking, boat ramp, cross-country skiing and geocaching. Lands were acquired for the park in 1962, with major acquisitions occurring in 1968 and 1973; the property was designated under the Provincial Parks Act by Order in Council on 12 June 1984. In an area of exclusively private properties, this park provides one of the few public access points to the Mira River; the Mira River Valley is a dominant topographical feature of southeastern Cape Breton Island, extending from Framboise Cove northwards to about Marion Bridge and sweeping eastwards to exit at Mira Bay. The river lies between 320 million year old Carboniferous formations to the north and 500 million year old Cambrian and Precambrian formations to the south.

The eroded bedrock is covered by a thick layer of glacial till and gravels deposited during the retreat of the last ice age some 15,000 years ago. Lying in a long narrow valley along an old fault line, the lower reaches of the river have been dammed by glacial gravels to form a long lake. Along the lower two-thirds of the river, these glacial deposits formed numerous peninsulas such as the one Mira River Provincial Park occupies. About three kilometres from the mouth of the Mira, the river narrows and cuts a valley through bedrock to reach the Atlantic Ocean. Here the valley is less than 50 metres wide, with banks 20 metres high; the carboniferous bedrock to the north of the Mira includes numerous coal seams - evidence of the area's environment 300 million years ago. At that time shallow lakes, bays and coastal flood plains covered much of the region. Abundant fossils can be found in this coal; these coal seams supported the region's long history of coal mining. South of the Mira, fossils are imbedded in the Cambrian sandstones and shales.

The Mira River has a drainage area of 648 square kilometres, with the Gaspereau and Trout rivers, along with Black Brook, as its main tributaries. Along the southern part of its course, glacial deposits have interrupted the flow to form a chain of small lakes which are all less than 15 metres above sea level. Tidal waters move back and forth in the eastern portion of the river, although the influx of salt water any distance beyond the river mouth is limited; the waters of the Mira River support a variety of fish species including sea trout, perch, American eels, striped bass, herring, brook trout, speckled trout and smelts. The river is popular for fishing; the forest cover of Mira River Provincial Park consists of tolerant hardwoods, predominantly sugar maple, on the western-most portion near Joes Point, with a larger portion of mixed woods through the central portion and softwood stands along the western shoreline, around the maintenance yard and south of the northern-most walk-in campsites.

Large areas of non-forested areas are associated with the campground. A six hectare wetland is located along the northern-most shoreline. Portions of the park remain undisturbed and in a region with a long history of human development provide an opportunity to explore and appreciate the area's natural heritage. Due to its small size, long history of human development and use and island-like setting, Mira River Provincial Park is home to a limited number of mammals, including snowshoe hare, red squirrels, moles, field mice and porcupine. Common birds which inhabit the park and surrounding woods and waters include bald eagles, blue heron, Canada goose and a variety of owls and other waterfowl. Although having limited wildlife values, the park does provide some natural habitat in an area of increasing human development and use; the first inhabitants of the area were the Mi' kmaq. In the early 1700s, French settlers arrived and soon began clearing the land and exporting timber white pine prized for ship masts, to France.

The settlers farmed as evidenced by the old orchards still found within the park. In 1727 the French established a brick yard here at what is now known as Brickyard Point in Mira River Provincial Park, to access the high quality of clay found along the river banks; the bricks were used to build the nearby Fortress of Louisbourg which had begun in 1719. Today, a walk along the shore of the river will reveal hundreds of bricks that fell off the ships transporting them from the kiln to the Louisbourg construction site. By 1763 the English gained control of Cape Breton Island. While some French settlers returned to France, many others remained. Large numbers of United Empire Loyalists and Scottish immigrants settled in Cape Breton; the park provides an authentic setting to present the story of aboriginal use of the Mira River. As well, there are visible remnants of early French, English, occupation of what is now Mira River Provincial Park. A cemetery owned by a third party is located within the park.

Mira River Provincial Park offers a range of opportunities for outdoor recreation activities. Situated on the 55 kilometre-long Mira River, within a short drive from the greater Sydney area, the provincial park is popular for pleasure boating and other recreational activities including fishing and swimming; the park offers one of only a limited number of freshwater s

Livia Acosta Noguera

Livia Acosta Noguera was a Venezuelan diplomat to the United States in Miami and is a lead member of SEBIN. She was declared persona non grata by the United States Department of State following an inquiry by the FBI of allegations of planning cyberattacks on government facilities and nuclear power plants in the United States. Before the presidency of Hugo Chávez, Acosta worked at the Baptist Seminary of Venezuela. In 2000, she became the head of Special Projects Microfinance Development Fund, focusing on the promotion of microcredit for the underprivileged. In 2001 and 2002 Acosta helped organize the Bolivarian Circles that were used to promote Chavez's ideology in Venezuela and internationally. In 2003, she began working at the embassy in Dominican Republic until 2006. In 2007 she became the second secretary at the embassy in Mexico in charge of cultural affairs, working for cultural and political advocacy and created relationships with groups such as the Mexican leftist party, Democratic Revolution.

In 2010, Acosta moved to the embassy in Peru until March 2011, when she was appointed as consul of Venezuela in Miami. According to a Univision investigative report titled The Iranian Threat, while Acosta was a cultural attaché in Mexico, she met with Mexican hackers who were planning to launch cyberattacks on the White House, the FBI, The Pentagon and several nuclear plants. In 2008, Acosta associated with activists and leaders from the embassies of Cuba and Iran in Mexico, with the group of students and professors at the National Autonomous University of Mexico; the plan was discovered after students at UNAM, posing as hackers, reported on a leftist teacher that encouraged the students to commit acts of sabotage and recorded conversations with diplomats after deciding not to carry out sabotage. In one of the recorded conversations, Acosta asked hackers for access to computer system of nuclear plants in the United States and stated that she would give the information to Hugo Chávez. Acosta asked the supposed hackers to monitor banking operations and transport of critics of the Venezuelan government and additional monitoring of Venezuelan military personnel in Mexico.

Following the Univision report, members of the United States congress wrote a letter to the Department of State to investigate the allegation and if they were found to be true, they told them to "declare her a persona non grata and require her immediate departure from the United States". The Department of State called the report "very disturbing" and the FBI began an investigation. Following the investigation, the FBI delivered an inquiry to the Department of State which led to Acosta being declared persona non grata