The Portolà expedition was a Spanish voyage of exploration in 1769–1770, the first recorded European land entry and exploration of the interior of the present-day U. S. state of California. It was led by Gaspar de Portolà, governor of Las Californias, the Spanish colonial province that included California, Baja California, other parts of present-day Mexico and the United States; the expedition led to the founding of Alta California and contributed to the solidification of Spanish territorial claims in the disputed and unexplored regions along the Pacific coast of North America. Although inhabited by Native Americans, the territory, now California was claimed by the Spanish Empire in 1542 by right of discovery when Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the Pacific Coast. Cabrillo's exploration laid claim to the coastline as far north as forty-two degrees north latitude; this northern limit was confirmed by the United States in the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty. A competing claim was established for England in 1579 by the privateer Francis Drake, who followed the trans-Pacific route from the Philippines established by the Manila Galleons and reached the California coast near Cape Mendocino, from which he sailed south along the coast at least as far as Point Reyes.
In 1596, a Portuguese captain sailing for Spain, Sebastião Rodrigues Soromenho explored some of the same coastline, leaving a description of coastal features. The Portolá expedition carried a copy of Cermeño's writings to guide them along the coast. Cermeño was followed in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, whose coastal explorations in 1602 surveyed several California locations for future colonization, including San Diego, the California Channel Islands and Monterey. Vizcaíno sailed north from Mexico, a much more difficult undertaking because of the prevailing winds and ocean currents. After Vizcaíno, the Spanish Empire did little to protect or settle this region for the next 160 years, accomplished no exploration by land. Affairs in Europe took precedence; the little settlement that did occur included the establishment of several missions on the Baja California Peninsula by Spanish Jesuit missionaries. In 1767, Charles III of Spain expelled the Jesuit order from the Spanish kingdom. Gaspar de Portolá, a Catalan military officer and colonial administrator, was appointed governor of the new province of Las Californias and sent to dispossess the Jesuits and replace them with Franciscans, who would set up their own network of missions in the colony.
Gaspar came from a military background and had served as a captain of the dragoons of the Regiment of Spain before being appointed governor. When he first sailed to Baja California as the new governor he brought with him 25 dragoons and 25 infantrymen in order to help him with his expulsion of the Jesuits and the further exploration of the rest of California, his military background would prove helpful during the expedition. By the late 1760s, the Spanish king and a handful of other European rulers began to realize the importance the Pacific coast of North America would have in maritime trade and activity; the Russians had been advancing south from their strongholds in present-day Alaska, the British had been pushing west in Canada and were approaching the Pacific coast. In order to secure Spain’s claims in California, Charles III wanted to explore and settle the coastline so that he could create a buffer zone to protect Spain's territories from the threat of invasion. Upon hearing about the king’s desire to explore Alta California, New Spain's visitador José de Gálvez organized an exploratory expedition and placed Governor Portolá in overall command.
The plan called for a joint land-sea movement up the Pacific coast. The job of the ships was to keep the land contingent supplied with provisions and to carry communications between them and New Spain. Portolá decided to travel by land; the expedition's original assignment was to travel to the "port of Monterey" described by Vizcaíno and establish a settlement there. After that, the explorers were to continue north to locate Cermeño's "Bay of San Francisco", chase away any Russians encountered, claim the area for Spain and determine whether the bay would make a good port; the first leg of the expedition consisted of five groups all departing from Baja California and heading north for San Diego. Three groups traveled by sea. Three galleons, hastily built in San Blas, set sail for San Diego in early 1769: the San Carlos, captained by Vicente Vila, a lieutenant of the royal navy. All three ships, crossing the Gulf of California from San Blas, arrived leaking on the east coast of Baja, requiring repairs there.
On the shore of La Paz on January 9, 1769, friar Junípero Serra blessed the flagship San Carlos and its chaplain, friar Fernando Parrón. José de Gálvez, addressing the men waiting to board, declared their final destination as Monterey and their mission to plant the holy cross among the Indians. Friar Parrón boarded the San Carlos along with captain Vicente Vila, followed by lieutenant Pedro Fages with his 25 Catalan volunteers. Weighing anchor, the San Carlos headed south down the Gulf of California to round Cabo San Lucas and head north along the Pacific coast. On February 15, Gálvez dispatched the San Antonio, captained by Juan Pérez, from Cabo
Interstate 15 in California
Route 15, consisting of the contiguous segments of State Route 15 and Interstate 15, is a major north–south state highway and Interstate Highway in the U. S. state of California, connecting San Bernardino and San Diego Counties. The route consists of the southernmost 289.24 miles of I-15, which extends north through Nevada, Utah and Montana to the Canada–US border. It is a major thoroughfare for traffic between San Diego and the Inland Empire, as well as between Southern California, Las Vegas and points beyond. South of its junction at Interstate 8 in San Diego, the highway becomes SR 15, extending 6.13 miles to Interstate 5, about 12 miles from the Mexican border. This segment was signed as a state route instead of an Interstate, but it is being upgraded to Interstate standards so it would become part of I-15 in the future. Including this segment, the entire length of Route 15 is 295.37 miles in California. Interstate 15 has portions designated as the Escondido Freeway, Avocado Highway, Temecula Valley Freeway, Corona Freeway, Ontario Freeway, Barstow Freeway, CHP Officer Larry L. Wetterling and San Bernardino County Sheriff's Lieutenant Alfred E. Stewart Memorial Highway, or Mojave Freeway.
I-15 and SR 15 are part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, are part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-15 from SR 76 to SR 91 and SR 58 to SR 127 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. SR 15 begins south of I-5 at 32nd Street near Harbor Drive. After this, SR 15 has an interchange with SR 94, cited as not being up to Interstate standards; the route interchanges with I-805. Between the Polk Avenue and Orange Avenue overpasses, the freeway goes under a city park, built on top of the freeway during construction in 2001. Pedestrian bridges were built at Monroe Avenue and Landis Street to reduce the effects of the freeway geographically dividing the community. Between I-8 and I-805, SR 15 follows the former alignment of 40th Street, its former routing as a city street.
It continues seamlessly into the southern terminus of I-15 at I-8 in San Diego. On the northbound conversion to I-15 at I-8, there is no "End SR 15" sign. There are various local names for the highway, such as the Escondido Freeway between San Diego and Escondido. I-15 between SR 163 and Pomerado Road/Miramar Road is known as the Semper Fi Highway in recognition of the nearby Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. I-15 between Scripps Poway Parkway and Camino Del Norte is known as the Tony Gwynn Memorial Freeway in recognition of Tony Gwynn known as Mr. Padre, who played for the San Diego Padres. North of the Escondido city limits, it is known as the Avocado Highway, whose designation ends upon entering Temecula. There are other local names. Heading northward, I-15 begins at I-8, at the same place that its continuation, SR 15, begins its southward journey. I-15 goes through Mission Valley and Kearny Mesa, intersecting with SR 52 just before merging with SR 163. After traversing the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, I-15 comes into Rancho Peñasquitos, where it intersects with the end of SR 56.
Northward, the route crosses Lake Hodges inside the upper San Diego city limits. I-15 continues north into Escondido, where it interchanges with SR 78. North of Escondido, I-15 goes through hilly terrain and farmland, passing under the Lilac Road Bridge and approaching the community of Fallbrook near the SR 76 interchange, it passes the community of Rainbow and crosses the county line into Riverside County and descends into the Inland Empire. In Temecula, SR 79 runs concurrently with I-15 for. In Murrieta, I-15 splits from its only spur route in California, I-215, which retains the Escondido Freeway designation and runs through the two largest cities in the Inland Empire, San Bernardino and Riverside. I-15 continues north as the Temecula Valley Freeway. I-15 runs along the eastern edge of the Santa Ana Mountains, passing through the cities of Wildomar and Lake Elsinore. In the city of Lake Elsinore, I-15 intersects SR 74, an important surface route connecting the Coachella Valley with the communities of Idyllwild, Perris, Lake Elsinore and San Juan Capistrano.
It continues through the suburban areas in the western Inland Empire as the Corona Freeway, passing Corona. During this stretch of the highway, I-15 intersects a major east-west highway. North of SR 91, I-15 continues through the bedroom communities of Norco and Eastvale, while skirting the western edge of the city of Jurupa Valley. I-15 enters San Bernardino County just past its intersection with SR 60, another major east-west highway, which connects I-15 with the city of Ontario and the Chino Valley. I-15 passes through the city of Ontario on its way to I-10, the main east-west artery though Southern California. North of I-10, I-15 passes through the major suburban communities of Rancho Cucamonga and Fontana as the highway intersects SR 210, an east-west highway skirting the San Bernardino Mountain Range. SR 210 connects I-15 to major foothill communities, such as Pasadena and San Bernardino. I-15 crosses old US Route 66 during this stretch of highway, signed as
Chinese Americans are Americans who are descendants of Chinese ancestry, which includes American-born Chinese persons. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and a subgroup of East Asian Americans, a further subgroup of Asian Americans. Many Chinese Americans are immigrants along with their descendants from mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, as well as from other regions that include large populations of the Chinese diaspora Southeast Asia and some Western countries like Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and France; the Chinese American community is the largest overseas Chinese community outside Asia. It is the third largest community in the Chinese diaspora, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand and Malaysia; the 2016 Community Survey of the US Census estimates a population of Chinese Americans of one or more races to be 5,081,682. The Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25.9% of the Asian American population as of 2010.
Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1.5% of the total U. S. population as of 2017. According to the 2010 census, the Chinese American population numbered 3.8 million. In 2010, half of Chinese-born people living in the United States resided in the states of California and New York; the first Chinese immigrants arrived in 1820, according to U. S. government records. 325 men are known to have arrived before the 1849 California Gold Rush, which drew the first significant number of laborers from China who mined for gold and performed menial labor. There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast, they formed over a tenth of California's population. Nearly all of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from six districts in Guangdong Province. In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but to take agricultural jobs, factory work in the garment industry.
Chinese immigrants were instrumental in building railroads in the American west, as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right. As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the American economy; this resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China. The Chinese laborers worked out well and thousands more were recruited until the railroad's completion in 1869. Chinese labor provided the massive workforce needed to build the majority of the Central Pacific's difficult route through the Sierra Nevada mountains and across Nevada. American objections to Chinese immigration took many forms, stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination. Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back to China to support their families there.
At the same time, they had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to America. These financial pressures left them little choice. Non-Chinese laborers required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, generally had a stronger political standing to bargain for higher wages. Therefore, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble; some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society. Others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition.
To address these rising social tensions, from the 1850s through the 1870s the California state government passed a series of measures aimed at Chinese residents, ranging from requiring special licenses for Chinese businesses or workers to preventing naturalization. Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the 1868 Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the federal government was able to negate much of this legislation; the Chinese population rose from 2,716 in 1851 to 63,000 by 1871. In the decade 1861-70, 64,301 were recorded as arriving, followed by 123,201 in 1871-80 and 61,711 in 1881-1890. 77% were located in California, with the rest scattered across the West, the South, New England. Most came from Southern China looking for a better life, escaping a high rate of poverty left after the Taiping Rebellion. In 1879, advocates of immigration restriction succeeded in introducing and passing legislation in Congress to limit the number of Chinese arriving to fifteen per ship or vessel.
Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U. S. treaty agreements with China. It was still an important victory for advocates of exclusion. Democrats, led by supporters in the West, advocated for all-out exclusion of Chinese
North American beaver
The North American beaver is one of two extant beaver species. It is native to North America and introduced to Patagonia in South America and some European countries. In the United States and Canada, the species is referred to as "beaver", though this causes some confusion because another distantly related rodent, Aplodontia rufa, is called the "mountain beaver". Other vernacular names, including American beaver and Canadian beaver, distinguish this species from the other extant beaver species, Castor fiber, native to Eurasia; the North American beaver is an official animal symbol of Canada and is the official state mammal of Oregon. This beaver is the largest rodent in North America and competes with its Eurasian counterpart, the European beaver, for being the second-largest in the world, both following the South American capybara; the European species is larger on average but the American has a larger known maximum size. Adults weigh from 11 to 32 kg, with 20 kg being typical. In New York, the average weight of adult male beavers was 18.9 kg, while non-native females in Finland averaged 18.1 kg.
However, adults of both sexes averaged 16.8 kg in Ohio. The species seems to conform to Bergmann's rule. In the Northwest Territory, adults weighed a median of 20.5 kg. The American beaver is smaller in average body mass than the Eurasian species; the head-and-body length of adult North American beavers is 74–90 cm, with the tail adding a further 20–35 cm. Old individuals can exceptionally exceed normal sizes, weighing more than 40 kg or as much as 50 kg. Like the capybara, the beaver is semiaquatic; the beaver has many traits suited to this lifestyle. It has a large, paddle-shaped tail and large, webbed hind feet; the unwebbed front paws are smaller, with claws. The eyes are covered by a nictitating membrane; the nostrils and ears are sealed. A thick layer of fat under its skin insulates the beaver from its coldwater environment; the beaver's fur consists of short, fine inner hairs. The fur has a range of colors, but is dark brown. Scent glands near the genitals secrete an oily substance known as castoreum, which the beaver uses to waterproof its fur.
Before their near-extirpation by trapping in North America, beavers were ubiquitous and lived from the arctic tundra to the deserts of northern Mexico, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. Physician naturalist Edgar Alexander Mearns' 1907 report of beaver on the Sonora River may be the earliest report on the southernmost range of this North American aquatic mammal. However, beavers have been reported both and contemporaneously in Mexico on the Colorado River, Bavispe River, San Bernardino River in the states of Sonora and Chihuahua. Beavers are active at night, they are excellent may remain submerged up to 15 minutes. More vulnerable on land, they tend to remain in the water, they use their flat, scaly tail both to signal danger by slapping the surface of the water and as a location for fat storage. They construct their homes, or "lodges", out of sticks, twigs and mud in lakes and tidal river deltas; these lodges may be surrounded by water. Beavers are well known for building dams across streams and constructing their lodges in the artificial ponds which form.
When building in a pond, the beavers first make a pile of sticks and eat out one or more underwater entrances and two platforms above the water surface inside the pile. The first is used for drying off. Towards winter, the lodge is plastered with mud which, when it freezes, has the consistency of concrete. A small air hole is left in the top of the lodge; the purpose of the dam is to create deepwater refugia enabling the beaver to escape from predators. When deep water is present in lakes, rivers, or larger streams, the beaver may dwell in a bank burrow and bank lodge with an underwater entrance; the beaver dam is constructed using branches from trees the beavers cut down, as well as rocks and mud. The inner bark, twigs and leaves of such trees are an important part of the beaver's diet; the trees are cut down using their strong incisor teeth. Their front paws are used for digging and carrying and placing materials; the sound of running water dictates where a beaver builds its dam. Besides providing a safe home for the beaver, beaver ponds provide habitat for waterfowl and other aquatic animals.
Their dams can help reduce flooding. However, beaver dams are not permanent and depend on the beavers' continued presence for their maintenance. Beavers concentrate on building and repairing dams in the fall in preparation for the coming winter. In northern areas, they do not repair breaches in the dam made by otters, sometimes breach the dam themselves and lower the water level in the pond to create more breathing space under the ice or get easier access to trees below the dam. In a 1988 study in Alberta, Canada, no beavers repaired "sites of water loss" during the winter. Of 178 sites of water loss, beavers repaired 78 when water was opened, did not repair 68; the rest were repaired. Beavers are best known for their dam-building, they maintain their pond-habitat by reacting to the sound of running water, damming it up with tree branches and mud. Early ecologists believed that this dam-building was an amazi
An endangered species is a species, categorized as likely to become extinct. Endangered, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered worldwide; the figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population; the conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood. Many factors are considered; the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species.
In the United States, such plans are called Species Recovery Plans. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process; those species of "Near Threatened" and "Least Concern" status have been assessed and found to have robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" species lie between "Vulnerable" and "Critically Endangered" species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; the IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct no remaining individuals of the species Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Critically endangered Faces an high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future. Vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future. Least concern No immediate threat to species' survival. A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1.
A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. An observed, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer, where the time period must include both the past and the future, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1. B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 OR B2 OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, OR A continuing decline, projected
Oceanside is a coastal city located on California's South Coast. It is the third-largest city in California; the city had a population of 167,086 at the 2010 census. Together with Carlsbad and Vista, it forms a tri-city area. Oceanside is located just south of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. Inhabited by Native Americans, the first European explorers arrived in 1769. Spanish missionaries under Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Luis Rey de Francia on a former site of a Luiseño Indian village on the banks of the San Luis Rey River. In the early 19th century, the introduction of farming and grazing changed the landscape of what would become Oceanside; the area—like all of California—was under Spanish rule in 1821 under Mexican rule, the U. S. in 1848. In the late 1850s, Andrew Jackson Myers lived in San Joaquin County. A native of LaSalle County, Illinois, he lived in San Luis Rey. In 1882 Myers moved on the land, the original town site for Oceanside. A patent for the land was issued in 1883 by the federal government.
It was incorporated on July 3, 1888. The city hall as of the early 21st century stands on the former Myers homestead; the town post office contains Air Mail, painted in 1937 by Elsie Seeds. Federally commissioned murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department. In the 20th century, Oceanside was a beach town devoted to activities on a 6-mile stretch of beaches. Residential areas like downtown, South Oceanside, developments east of Interstate 5 are preserved and remodeled when these houses are considered to have historical value. Since the establishment of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in 1942, Oceanside has been home to U. S. armed forces personnel, the wartime industry of WWII and the 1950s had an ammunition manufacturing facility in the city. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 91.0 % 5.1 % black and 1.7 % Asian. After 1970, the main focus of Oceanside was suburban development and a choice for newcomers to move into relatively affordable housing.
Oceanside continues to be known for the appreciation as a vacation home market. Oceanside is at 33°12′42″N 117°19′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 42.2 square miles, of which 41.2 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. Traveling north on Interstate 5, Oceanside is the last city before Orange County; as the crow flies, it is the same distance from Aliso Viejo as it is to downtown San Diego. Oceanside experiences a semi-arid climate, tempered by maritime winds and the cool currents off the shoreline; the average high temperatures range from 64 °F to 77 °F, while the average low temperatures range from 45 °F to 64 °F. The 2010 United States Census reported that Oceanside had a population of 167,086; the population density was 3,961.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Oceanside was 109,020 White, 7,873 African American, 1,385 Native American, 11,081 Asian, 2,144 Pacific Islander, 25,886 from other races, 9,697 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 59,947 persons. The Census reported that 166,150 people lived in households, 802 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 134 were institutionalized. There were 59,238 households, out of which 20,486 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 30,201 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,947 had a female householder with no husband present, 3,111 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 3,504 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 472 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 14,117 households were made up of individuals and 6,161 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80. There were 40,259 families; the population was spread out with 39,817 people under the age of 18, 19,028 people aged 18 to 24, 45,797 people aged 25 to 44, 40,943 people aged 45 to 64, 21,501 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. There were 64,435 housing units at an average density of 1,527.8 per square mile, of which 34,986 were owner-occupied, 24,252 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%. 97,645 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 68,505 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 161,029 people, 56,488 households, 39,259 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,967.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 59,581 housing units at an average density of 1,467.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.4% White, 6.3% African American, 5.5% Asian, 1.2% Pacific Islander, 0.4% Native American or Alaskan Native, 0.1% from another race alone, 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 30.2%. In 2000, there were 56,488 households out of which 35.0%
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman