Santa Maria della Salute

Santa Maria della Salute known as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice, Italy. It stands on the narrow finger of Punta della Dogana, between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal, at the Bacino di San Marco, making the church visible when entering the Piazza San Marco from the water; the Salute is part of the parish of the Gesuati and is the most recent of the so-called plague churches. In 1630, Venice experienced an unusually devastating outbreak of the plague; as a votive offering for the city's deliverance from the pestilence, the Republic of Venice vowed to build and dedicate a church to Our Lady of Health. The church was designed in the fashionable baroque style by Baldassare Longhena, who studied under the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi. Construction began in 1631. Most of the objects of art housed in the church bear references to the Black Death; the dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venice skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring artists like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent, the Venetian artist Francesco Guardi.

Beginning in the summer of 1630, a wave of the plague assaulted Venice, until 1631 killed nearly a third of the population. In the city, 46,000 people died whilst in the lagoons the number was far higher, some 94,000. Repeated displays of the sacrament, as well as prayers and processions to churches dedicated to San Rocco and San Lorenzo Giustiniani had failed to stem the epidemic. Echoing the architectural response to a prior assault of the plague, when Palladio was asked to design the Redentore church, the Venetian Senate on October 22, 1630, decreed that a new church would be built, it was not to be dedicated to a mere "plague" or patron saint, but to the Virgin Mary, who for many reasons was thought to be a protector of the Republic. It was decided that the Senate would visit the church each year. On November 21 the Feast of the Presentation of the Virgin, known as the Festa della Madonna della Salute, the city's officials parade from San Marco to the Salute for a service in gratitude for deliverance from the plague is celebrated.

This involved crossing the Grand Canal on a specially constructed pontoon bridge and is still a major event in Venice. The desire to create a suitable monument at a place that allows for easy processional access from Piazza San Marco led senators to select the present site from among eight potential locations; the location was chosen due to its relationship to San Giorgio, San Marco, Il Redentore, with which it forms an arc. The Salute, emblematic of the city's piety, stands adjacent to the rusticated single story customs house or Dogana da Mar, the emblem of its maritime commerce, near the civic center of the city. A dispute with the patriarch, owner of the church and seminary at the site, was resolved, razing of some of the buildings began by 1631; the diplomat Paolo Sarpi and Doge Nicolo Contarini shared the intent to link the church to an order less associated with the patriarchate, the Somascan Fathers, an order founded near Bergamo by a Venetian nobleman Jerome Emiliani, were invited to administer the church.

A competition was held to design the building. Of the eleven submissions, only two were chosen for the final round; the architect Baldassare Longhena was selected to design the new church. It was completed in 1681 the year before Longhena's death; the other design to make it to the final round was by Zambattista Rubertini. Of the proposals still extant, Belli's and Smeraldi's original plans were conventional counter-reformation linear churches, resembling Palladio's Redentore and San Giorgio Maggiore, while Varotari's was a sketchy geometrical abstraction. Longhena's proposal was a concrete architectural plan, detailing costs, he wrote: I have created a church in the form of a rotunda, a work of new invention, not built in Venice, a work worthy and desired by many. This church, having the mystery of its dedication, being dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, made me think, with what little talent God has bestowed upon me of building the church in the... shape of a crown. In a memorandum, he wrote: "Firstly, it is a virgin work, never before seen, curious and beautiful, made in the form of a round monument that has never been seen, nor before invented, neither altogether, nor in part, in other churches in this most serene city, just as my competitor has done for his own advantage, being poor in invention."

The Salute, while novel in many ways, still shows the influence of Palladian classicism and the domes of Venice. The Venetian Senate voted 66 in favor, 29 against with 2 abstentions to authorize the designs of the 26-year-old Longhena. While Longhena saw the structure as crown-like, the decorative circular building makes it seem more like a reliquary, a ciborium, embroidered inverted chalice that shelters the city's piety; the Salute is a vast, octagonal building with two domes and a pair of picturesque bell-towers at the back. Built on a platform made of 1,000,000 wooden piles, it is constructed of Istrian stone and marmorino. At the apex of the pediment stands a statue of the Virgin Mary who presides over the church, erected in her honour; the façade is decorated with figures of Saint George, Saint Theodore, the Evangelists, the Prophets, Judith with the head of Holofernes. The main facade is richly decorated by statues of the four evangelists attributed to Tommaso Rues: While its external decorati

Thomas Wogan

Thomas Wogan was a Welsh Member of Parliament and one of the regicides of King Charles I. Wogan was the son of Sir John Wogan, MP for Pembrokeshire and High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire. In 1646 Thomas Wogan was elected MP for Cardigan Boroughs. During the Second Civil War, he fought on the side of Parliament at the Battle of St Fagans in 1648. After this battle, he was awarded some of his arrears of pay, promoted to Colonel and appointed governor of Aberystwyth Castle. An enthusiastic supporter of the army, he was appointed a commissioner of the High Court of Justice at the trial of King Charles, he attended every day and in January 1649, was 52nd of the 59 signatories on the death warrant of the King. During the interregnum he received the residue of his back pay as a grant of lands in Ireland, but was not an active member of the Rump and as a Commonwealth-man may have opposed the Protectorate. After the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, Wogan was on 6 June 1660 excepted from the Act of Oblivion.

He surrendered on 27 June, although not within the prescribed period for doing so, his surrender was accepted, he was one of the nineteen included in the saving clause of suspension from execution in case of attainder until the passing of a future act. His forfeited lands at Wiston, near Haverfordwest, were granted to Robert Werden in August 1662. On 27 July 1664 he was stated to have escaped from Cliffords Tower, a proclamation was issued for his arrest, he went to the Netherlands were along with Edmund Ludlow and Algernon Sidney, against the English government. It was rumoured that he travelled to England to ferment a rebellion, but there is no evidence of this and he was subsequently seen in Rotterdam; the last reference, discovered of him is dated September 1666, when Aphra Behn stated he was "at Utrecht, plotting". There is no evidence that Wogan was married, the legend of his return and death in Wales may be apocryphal. However, in 1669 a woman was jailed "for attempting to raise money for him in his home county of Pembrokeshire".

Peacey, J. T.. "Wogan, Thomas (b. c.1620, d. in or after 1669". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29825. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Porter, Bertha. "Wogan, Thomas". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 62. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 288. Endnotes: Noble's Lives of the Regicides, p. 337. P.'s, i. 498. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 154. 156, 568, vii. 119, 129, viii. 61, 75, 139. 720, v. 454, vi. 28, 44, 49, 54, 94, 45 n. Plant, David. "Biography of Thomas Wogan". BCW Project. Retrieved 6 September 2015

Mthonjaneni Local Municipality

Mthonjaneni is an administrative area in the uThungulu District of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Mthonjaneni is an isiZulu name meaning "a spring of water". There is a spring found in the vicinity of the municipality where King Dingaan used to send his maidens to collect water for him; the municipality was enlarged at the time of the South African municipal election, 2016 when part of the disbanded Ntambanana Local Municipality was merged into it. The 2001 census divided the municipality into the following main places: The municipal council consists of twenty-five members elected by mixed-member proportional representation. Thirteen councillors are elected by first-past-the-post voting in thirteen wards, while the remaining twelve are chosen from party lists so that the total number of party representatives is proportional to the number of votes received. In the election of 3 August 2016 the Inkatha Freedom Party won a majority of fourteen seats on the council; the following table shows the results of the election.

In a by-election held on 25 July 2018, a ward held by an ANC councillor was won by the IFP candidate. Council composition was reconfigured as seen below: