Jon Adams Jerde, was an American architect based in Venice, Los Angeles, California and chairman of The Jerde Partnership, a design architecture and urban planning firm specializing in the design of shopping malls that has created a number of commercial developments around the globe. Jerde became well known as an innovator in the design of related spaces, his firm has grown into a multi-disciplinary firm with offices in Los Angeles, Orange County, CA, Hong Kong, Shanghai. Born in Alton, Jerde was a graduate of the School of Architecture at the University of Southern California. After early years working at Charles Kober Associates on multiple retail projects, including Plaza Pasadena, Jerde was commissioned by developer Ernie Hahn to design the Horton Plaza shopping center in downtown San Diego; the project was a five-story outdoor retail complex, with the main passage being diagonally oriented to the street grid and at the time anchored by Nordstrom, The Broadway, J. W. Robinson's department stores.
It featured long one-way ramps and sudden drop-offs, shadowy colonnades and cul-de-sacs. Its design broke many traditional mall-design rules such as lowering ambient arousal levels and protecting the maximal lines-of-sight to merchandise, its fragmented spaces were finished in a variety of bright colors. The project was completed in 1985. Jerde's Horton Plaza brought 25 million visitors in its first year, as of 2004 continued to generate San Diego's highest sales per unit area. Jerde claimed that the project sparked nearly $2.4 billion in redevelopment to the surrounding area and downtown core. The mall would lose business to centers in nearby Mission Valley as they renovated and to big box retailers, from a limited ability to capitalize on the resurgence of foot traffic on the adjacent Gaslamp District streets due to its physically being cut off behind parking garages, from the 2010s retail apocalypse, so that by 2019 it was set to close and be converted to a workplace for the tech industry.
The Jerde Partnership was involved in the planning of the Los Angeles 1984 Olympics. Based on the success of both Horton and the Olympics, the firm designed Fashion Island in Newport Beach, CA in 1989, the Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota in 1992, the Urban Entertainment Center Universal CityWalk in Los Angeles, the pirate show and facade of the Treasure Island Casino in Vegas in 1993, the Las Vegas Fremont Street Experience in 1995 and the Bellagio in Las Vegas in 1998; the firm has developed into a major international company with key urban regeneration projects overseas, including Beursplein in Rotterdam and Canal City Hakata in Fukuoka, both in 1996, as well as other projects in Japan and Europe. Jerde is responsible for a string of landmark urban mixed-use developments, including: Namba Parks in Osaka, awarded the Urban Land Institute Awards of Excellence: Asia Pacific, 2009. More the firm has designed: The Vermont, a multifamily development in Los Angeles's Koreatown, the Grand Hyatt Sanya Haitang Bay Resort and Spa in Hainan, China.
Jerde was named the first recipient of the USC School of Architecture's Distinguished Alumnus award, in 1985, became a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1990. Jerde died on February 2015 at his home in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, he was 75. The Jerde Partnership
Steve & Barry's
Steve & Barry's was an American retail clothing chain, featuring casual clothing and accessories. By mid-2008, the chain operated 276 stores in 39 states; the company was headquartered in New York. The company liquidated all of its stores throughout 2008 and 2009; the chain's origin was based on various university campuses across the United States. Until 2007, it was called Steve & Barry's University Sportswear, the chain specialized in college-related clothing and private-label casual clothing; the chain dropped the "University Sportswear" tagline after securing licensing agreements with several celebrities to develop and distribute private-label lines of clothing designed or inspired by each of them, in an attempt to expand the chain's customer base. Founded by Steven Shore and Barry Prevor at the University of Pennsylvania in 1985 while Prevor was an undergraduate student, Steve & Barry's became a local popular destination due to its low prices compared to other university bookstores and gift stores.
The success of the original store led to the opening of locations on university campuses, including Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, the University of Illinois, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Indiana University, Rutgers University, the University of Colorado at Boulder, Purdue University. In 1998, Steve & Barry's opened its first large mall-based store at Great Lakes Crossing in Auburn Hills, Michigan; the new line of products included denim, business casual, active wear, footwear and T-shirts. In addition, the company began marketing "All-American" brands such as Hershey's, Marvel Comics, Ford, WWE, My Little Pony and General Mills cereals, amongst others; the continuing product line expansion and store growth allowed the company to achieve a 50% annual growth rate over more than two decades. The International Council of Shopping Centers named Steve & Barry’s as the “Hot Retailer of the Year” in 2005, along with Apple Computer and Williams-Sonoma, for generating the most mall traffic and cachet.
Brandweek named Barry's 2007 Marketer of the Year. The Company’s in-house video productions won a 2007 Silver Telly Award for distinction in creative work. By 2007, Steve & Barry’s was ranked in the 400 largest private companies in America by Forbes Magazine. Founders Steve Shore and Barry Prevor were awarded the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award for 2006 in a metropolitan New York Area 20th anniversary event with more than 500 people in attendance. For several years the company was the fastest growing specialty retailer in the United States, adding 3,200,000 square feet of new retail space in 2005, 6,000,000 square feet of new retail space in 2006, 5,250,000 square feet of new retail space in 2007. Steve & Barry's was among the top 10 builders of new square footage among all retailers in the United States when including big-box chains like Wal-Mart, Home Depot, Costco, etc. In 2006, private equity firm TA Associates closed a minority investment in the company for an undisclosed amount.
A group of investment firms led by Bay Harbour Management, former owner of Barney’s New York luxury department store chain purchased the company for $168 million. In early 2008, GE Commercial Finance Corporate Lending provided a $197 million asset-based credit facility to the company, for working capital to replace Steve & Barry's credit facility from the CIT Group. On July 9, 2008, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization, citing a liquidity squeeze and the economic downturn, while in discussions with potential strategic and financial partners for a stronger Steve & Barry's to emerge. While initial results were promising, reorganization efforts failed, successor parent company BH S&B Holdings announced the liquidation of its 173 remaining stores at the height of the credit crisis on November 27, 2008, which converted the Chapter 11 reorganization into a Chapter 7 liquidation. In 2006, the chain announced its partnership with NBA point guard Stephon Marbury, a joint venture in which the chain would produce Marbury's Starbury Collection, a 50-item line of discount clothing, athletic clothing, sneakers.
The centerpiece of the line was the Starbury One, a basketball sneaker that retailed for $14.98. The low price point for an authentic on-court NBA shoe was positioned as a social statement, including donations of thousands of pairs to public school basketball players, with publicity that caused lines and sold-out conditions at many Steve & Barry’s stores. Marbury liked the high-quality, low price-point promise, which, as he said, meant "we can help teach kids to be responsible, earn their own money and buy these shoes without asking their parents for money." When the collection was unveiled in August 2006, Marbury committed his time and energy by handing out Starburys to high school athletes at basketball camps, on playground courts and in barber shops. He wore on-court the same shoes that consumers got off the shelves. In March 2007, the company announced that Chicago Bulls center, 4-time NBA Defensive Player of the Year, Ben Wallace, would endorse the Starbury brand, wearing Starbury's during all his games and debuting his own Big Ben Starbury sneaker in the 2007-08 NBA season.
Sarah Jessica Parker introduced her own clothing line, BITTEN, on June 7, 2007. The brand was leaked to the press during an early fashion show in March 2007; the Bitten name came from the phrase that one who becomes an actor has been "Bitten" by the acting bug. After an appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show, the brand launc
Giorgio Armani S.p. A. is an Italian luxury fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, watches, accessories, eyewear and home interiors. The brand markets these products under several labels: Giorgio Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani, Armani Collezioni, Emporio Armani, Armani Jeans, Armani Junior, Armani Exchange; the brand utilizes the association of the Armani name with high-fashion, benefiting from its prestige in the fashion industry. In 2016, estimated sales of the company were around $2.65 billion. In 2017, Giorgio Armani announced that his company will close two of its fashion labels, Armani Collezioni and Armani Jeans, as part of the restructuring process for his company. While Armani Collezioni will merge back into the "Giorgio Armani" line, Armani Jeans will be mixed with the Emporio Armani line due to their similarities in styles and the use of the same brand logo. Giorgio Armani is in collaboration with Emaar Properties, a chain of luxury hotels and resorts in several big cities including Milan, New York, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Shanghai, Dubai.
The company operates a range of cafés worldwide, in addition to a bar and nightclub. Giorgio Armani is a high-end label specializing in men's and women's ready-to-wear, glasses and perfumes, it is available only in Giorgio Armani boutiques, specialty clothiers and select high-end department stores. The logo is a curved "G" completing a curved "A". In 2016, the fashion house stopped using animal fur in all of its collections, citing the availability of "valid alternatives at our disposition that render the use of cruel practices unnecessary as regards animals."According to The Wall Street Journal and other influential sources, in addition to couture line Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani and Emporio Armani are company's ready-to-wear lines that show at Milan fashion week. In addition, selling at lower prices are Armani Exchange and Armani Jeans. Emporio Armani is the second brand of Armani family, features ready-to-wear and runway collections. Emporio Armani focuses on modern traits. Emporio Armani along with Giorgio Armani are the only two ready-to-wear brands that are designed by Giorgio Armani himself, has a spotlight at Milan Fashion Week every year while Armani Collezioni, Armani Jeans, Armani Exchange do not.
Emporio Armani is only sold in freestanding Emporio Armani boutiques and its official website. Apollo Minerva starred in four Emporio Armani underwear campaigns from Spring/Summer 2008 to Fall/Winter 2009-2010. David Beckham appeared with his wife, former Spice Girl Victoria, in the campaigns twice in 2009. All campaigns were photographed by Marcus Piggott. In January 2010, football star Cristiano Ronaldo and Hollywood movie star Megan Fox became the male and female face and body of Emporio Armani. In 2011, Megan Fox was replaced with Rihanna and Ronaldo was replaced by tennis athlete Rafael Nadal. Emporio Armani has teamed up with Reebok to create fashion shoes under the label EA7. In 2019, Emporio Armani released a new series centered around Shawn Mendes; the black-and-white advertisement featured an instrumental version of his song, "In My Blood". Emporio Armani has boutiques in Oslo, Amman, Jeddah, Bogotá, Tokyo, Madrid, Paris, Glasgow, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Kuala Lumpur, Buenos Aires, Tel Aviv, Dubai, Lima, Singapore, New York, São Paulo, New Delhi, many other cities around the world.
Armani Collezioni is the diffusion line of Giorgio Armani that retails at a lower price than Giorgio Armani and the haute couture line, Armani Privé. The logo is displayed black written on a white label, but varies. "Armani" being larger and "Collezioni" underneath it. It provides made-to-measure tailored shirts where every element can be chosen. In addition to being sold in the two freestanding boutiques in Milan and Paris, Armani Collezioni sold in department stores and outlets while Giorgio Armani and Emporio Armani only sold in freestanding boutiques. Last year, a sporty line of this label has appeared named "Armani Collezioni Active" in the same way as the EA7 line from Emporio Armani line. Armani Jeans is a diffusion line collection of denim-related clothing, created in 1981, by Giorgio Armani. Armani Jeans is sold in department stores, although there are many freestanding Armani Jeans stores in the world, in addition to an Armani Jeans Cafe in Milan; some Armani Jeans items are sold in Emporio Armani Stores.
This line does not feature Giorgio Armani's signature simplicity. The colors used are more diverse. A|X Armani Exchange was launched in 1991 in the U. S, it retails fashion and lifestyle products and is known for its provocative ad campaigns. Inspired by street-chic culture and dance music, it is targeted as the more accessible Armani brand. To accelerate development of the nascent line, Giorgio Armani co-established the joint venture company Presidio Holdings Ltd in 2005 alongside Como Holdings, the company owned by the Singaporean tycoon Ong Beng Seng that, since 1994, has held the production and distribution license for A/X Armani Exchange in the United States, Canada and South America and Asia-Pacific; the Italian company held 25% of Presidio Holdings, the remaining 75% in the hands of Como Holdings. In 2008, Giorgio Armani acquired an additional 25% stake. In 2014, it acqui
The Broadway was a mid-level department store chain headquartered in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1896 by English born Arthur Letts, Sr. who went on to develop Holmby Hills, the Broadway became one of the dominant retailers in Southern California and the Southwest. In 1950, the company merged with Sacramento-based Hale Brothers to form Broadway-Hale Stores; the Broadway bought out competitors in Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix. In years the Broadway opened stores in Nevada, New Mexico, Colorado. In 1979, it was split into two divisions: The Broadway Southern California, based in Los Angeles; the Broadway's parent Carter Hawley Hale Stores ran into financial difficulties which resulted from poor management decisions and hostile takeover attempts. In 1996 the chain was acquired by Federated Department Stores and the majority of locations were converted to the Macy's nameplate. Several stores in affluent areas where Macy's had locations were closed and reopened as Bloomingdale's, while Federated sold many of the remaining stores to Sears.
Though the chain had been closed for over seven years, The Broadway Building in Hollywood, including its iconic "The Broadway" sign was featured in the climactic final scenes of the 2003 film Hollywood Homicide starring Harrison Ford. Letts started the Broadway Department Store on February 24, 1896, by purchasing the name, assets and the building lease from the bankrupted firm of J. A. Williams and Co. for a sum of $8377. The previous owners had a good location in a constructed building at the corner of Broadway and Fourth Streets, but had all of its assets seized by their creditors for failure to pay its bills after just four short months of operations. In contrast, Letts was able to pay off all of his creditors in a short period of time after acquiring the assets for the failed store by the quick sale of the same assets and by watching his expenses. In a short period of time, the business was doing so well, that it had to expand into adjacent store fronts. A decade it had outgrown its home in the Hallett & Pirtle building and required a new home.
It was decided to have a new nine-story building with nearly 11 acres of floor space to be built in several phases at the same location with construction starting in 1913 while the current store remained in business. List of defunct department stores of the United States
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Robinsons-May was a chain of department stores operating in Southern California and Las Vegas, Nevada with headquarters in North Hollywood, California. It was a subsidiary of The May Department Stores Company, having been acquired with Federated's takeover of The May Department Stores Company on August 30, 2005. Robinsons-May had 45 stores; the double-barreled Robinsons-May name was created in 1993 when the former May Company California was consolidated with their corporate sibling JW Robinson's. May Department Stores had acquired Robinson's with its 1986 acquisition of Associated Dry Goods Corp. JW Robinson's had been acquired by Associated Dry Goods in 1957, while May Company California had been established in 1923 when May acquired the then-named A. Hamburger & Sons. Both chains had operated in Southern California until 1989 when May Department Stores had dissolved its Goldwaters division, based in Scottsdale and apportioned its Phoenix metropolitan and Las Vegas, stores between the still separate JW Robinson's and May Company California.
In 1993 Robinsons-May absorbed the Tucson-area locations of sister division Foley's, which were themselves the remains of the former Levy's stores. Robinsons-May was further consolidated with Portland, Oregon-based Meier & Frank in 2002, which retained its individual nameplate, but merged its primary headquarters into Robinsons-May's in North Hollywood. On August 30, 2005, operational control of the Robinsons-May stores was assumed by Macy's West. Fifteen of its California stores were offered for sale under an agreement with the California State Attorney General, though Federated has retained several of the stores covered by the agreement since satisfactory offers from competitors were not received. During 2006, the majority of the Robinsons-May stores were converted to the Macy's or Bloomingdale's nameplate, either as replacements for existing stores, new locations or as expansions of existing locations. Prime locations at South Coast Plaza, Costa Mesa and Fashion Valley Mall, San Diego where Macy's had stores were shuttered in early 2006 and refurbished as Bloomingdale's locations.
The change of store signs occurred on September 9, 2006
Frank Owen Gehry, FAIA is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles. A number of his buildings, including his private residence, have become world-renowned attractions, his works are cited as being among the most important works of contemporary architecture in the 2010 World Architecture Survey, which led Vanity Fair to label him as "the most important architect of our age". Gehry's best-known works include the titanium-clad Guggenheim Museum in Spain, it was his private residence in Santa Monica, that jump-started his career. Gehry is the designer of the future National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial. Gehry was born Frank Owen Goldberg on February 28, 1929, in Toronto, Ontario, to parents Sadie Thelma and Irving Goldberg, his father was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Russian Jewish parents, his mother was a Polish Jewish immigrant born in Łódź. A creative child, he was encouraged by his grandmother, Leah Caplan, with whom he would build little cities out of scraps of wood. With these scraps from her husband's hardware store, she entertained him for hours, building imaginary houses and futuristic cities on the living room floor.
His use of corrugated steel, chain-link fencing, unpainted plywood and other utilitarian or "everyday" materials was inspired by spending Saturday mornings at his grandfather's hardware store. He would spend time drawing with his father. "So the creative genes were there", Gehry says. "But my father thought I was a dreamer, I wasn't gonna amount to anything. It was my mother, she would push me."He was given the Hebrew name "Ephraim" by his grandfather, but only used it at his bar mitzvah. In 1947, his family immigrated to the United States settling in California. Gehry got a job driving a delivery truck, studied at Los Angeles City College to graduate from the University of Southern California's School of Architecture. During that time, he became a member of Alpha Epsilon Pi. According to Gehry, "I was a truck driver in L. A. going to City College, I tried radio announcing, which I wasn't good at. I tried chemical engineering, which I wasn't good at and didn't like, I remembered. You know, somehow I just started wracking my brain about,'What do I like?'
Where was I? What made me excited? And I remembered art, that I loved going to museums and I loved looking at paintings, loved listening to music; those things came from my mother, who took me to museums. I remembered Grandma and the blocks, just on a hunch, I tried some architecture classes." Gehry graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture degree from USC in 1954. After graduating from college, he spent time away from the field of architecture in numerous other jobs, including service in the United States Army. In the fall of 1956, he moved his family to Cambridge, where he studied city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, he left before completing the program and underwhelmed. Gehry's left-wing ideas about responsible architecture were under-realized, the final straw occurred when he sat in on a discussion of one professor's "secret project in progress"—a palace that he was designing for right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Gehry returned to Los Angeles to work for Victor Gruen Associates, to whom he had been apprenticed while at the USC School of Architecture.
In 1957 he was given the chance to design his first private residence at the age of 28, with friend and old classmate Greg Walsh. Construction was done by another neighbor across the street from Charlie Sockler. Built in Idyllwild, for his wife Anita's family neighbor Melvin David, "The David Cabin", shows features that were to become synonymous with work; the over 2,000 sq ft mountain retreat has unique design features with strong Asian influences, stemming from his earliest inspirations at the time like Shosoin Treasure House in Nara, among others. Beams protrude from the exterior sides, vertical grain douglas fir detail, exposed, unfinished ceiling beams are prominent features. In 1961, he moved to Paris. In 1962, Gehry established a practice in Los Angeles which became Frank Gehry and Associates in 1967 and Gehry Partners in 2001. Gehry's earliest commissions were all in Southern California, where he designed a number of innovative commercial structures such as Santa Monica Place and residential buildings such as the eccentric Norton House in Venice, California.
Among these works, Gehry's most notable design may be the renovation of his own Santa Monica residence. Built in 1920 and purchased by Gehry in 1977, the house features a metallic exterior wrapped around the original building that leaves many of the original details visible. Gehry still resides there. Other completed buildings designed by Gehry during the 1980s include the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium in San Pedro and the California Aerospace Museum at the California Museum of Science and Industry in Los Angeles. In 1989, Gehry was awarded the