Valencian is the variety of Catalan as spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered a language from Catalan by a slight majority of the people from the Valencian Community, however. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect, Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language has been established as its regulator, the AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages, important works include Joanot Martorells chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs Marchs poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety, the earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs damor.
The official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution, article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that, The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, and receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language, special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language, Valencian is not one of the recognized languages of the European Union. Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community, roughly a quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, the survey simply collects the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification.
The statistics hide the fact that in the areas where the language is still strong, according to a survey in 2008, there is a downward trend in everyday Valencian users. The lowest numbers are in the cities of Valencia and Alicante. All in all, in the 1993–2006 period, the number of speakers fell by 10 per cent, some children of Valencian speakers go to private schools run by the church where the curriculum is in Castilian and consequently this becomes their preferred language. For more general information on the features of Valencian, see Catalan language, note that there is a great deal of variety within the Valencian Community, and by no means do the features below apply to every local version. Valencian has a system of seven stressed vowels /a/, /e/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /ɔ/, the vowel /e/ is retracted and /o/ is advanced both in stressed and unstressed syllables
The Generalitat Valenciana is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia is politically organized. It consists of seven including the Corts Valencianes, the President of the Generalitat. Its functions are regulated by the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, there is an office in Brussels appointed by the Generalitat Valenciana lobbying before the European Union. The current President of the Generalitat is Alberto Fabra, who was born in Castellón and he assumed presidency in July 2011 and took office in Les Corts in the same month. The Generalitat Valenciana was created in 1418 and it acted, along with the Monarch shared with the other territories of the Crown of Aragon, as the ruling body of the Kingdom of Valencia. Originally its posts were designated for three year terms, in 1510, the process of designating posts was reorganized, becoming more automatic and less elective. This re-organization stayed the same until 1709, when it was abolished as a consequence of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Generalitat Valenciana was not re-established until 1982, after the corresponding Valencian Statute of Autonomy was approved.
El Consell consists of eight members, each the leader of an institution, the Department of Treasury and Public Administrations is responsible for finance, the Valencian business sector, public service, and information technology and management communication. The Department of Health is responsible for services and public health. The Department of Social Welfare is responsible for policies affecting social services, the disabled, children, youth, women and it represents the people of Valencia via the members of parliament. These members are elected using a universal, free and it is made up of 75-100 members, which are determined by the Statute of Autonomy and through the voting process. The Statute of Autonomy requires any candidate running for a Seat must stand for a party or coalition that obtains more than 5% of the votes in all the Autonomous Community. The D’Hondt method is used to distribute Seats, in the VIII Term,35 members of Parliament were elected in the Alicante district,24 members in the Castellon district, and 40 in the Valencia district.
The Valencian Parliament Regulations were developed in addition to the Statute of Autonomy to govern the organization, on March 4,1983, the first draft of the Valencian Parliament Regulations was approved during the Transitional Phase. Since then, it has several modifications, which were approved by the Valencian Parliament on December 18,2006. The contemporary Corts Valencianes differs from its counterpart of the same name. The former Corts Valencianes was organized into three arms – Ecclesiastic and Royal – which had different duties than the Corts today, the Consell Valencia de Cultura is a consultation and advisory institution for the Generalitat Valenciana for affairs related to Valencian culture. It defends and promotes the cultural and linguistic values
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Crevillent is a town and municipality located in the Alicante province, part of the Valencian Community, Spain. It is situated in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó, and lies at the foot of the range known locally as Serra de Crevillent. As of 2009, it has a population of 28,609 inhabitants. The terrain is dry, and its vegetation is composed by carob trees, almond trees, olive trees. Crevillent is a producer and exporter of carpets and pomegranates. The town was settled by Romans. In 1263, during the known as Reconquista, James I of Aragon captured the city from the Moors. The most important tourist places of the city is a museum with works of Mariano Benlliure, remarkable is its Moros i Cristians festival. Many of the areas, particularly El Realengo, contain ruins of prisons and torture houses used during Francisco Francos reign. Francisco Mas Magro, Médico y candidato al premio Nobel en 1953 Cristian López, footballer born 1989 Juanfran, football player Manolo Galván, songwriter Crevillente Deportivo Official website
Its translation into Arabic in the 9th century and Latin in 1406 was highly influential on the geographical knowledge and cartographic traditions of the medieval Caliphate and Renaissance Europe. Versions of Ptolemys work in antiquity were probably proper atlases with attached maps, no Greek manuscript of the Geography survives from earlier than the 13th century. In Europe, maps were sometimes made using the coordinates provided by the text. Later scribes and publishers could copy these new maps, as Athanasius did for the emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus, the three earliest surviving texts with maps are those from Constantinople based on Planudess work. The first Latin translation of texts was made in 1406 or 1407 by Jacobus Angelus in Florence, Italy. It is not thought that his edition had maps, although Manuel Chrysoloras had given Palla Strozzi a Greek copy of Planudess maps in Florence in 1397, the Geography consists of three sections, divided among 8 books. Book I is a treatise on cartography, describing the methods used to assemble, from Book II through the beginning of Book VII, a gazetteer provides longitude and latitude values for the world known to the ancient Romans.
The rest of Book VII provides details on three projections to be used for the construction of a map of the world, varying in complexity and fidelity, Book VIII constitutes an atlas of regional maps. The maps include a recapitulation of some of the values given earlier in the work, Maps based on scientific principles had been made in Europe since the time of Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC. Ptolemy improved the treatment of map projections and he provided instructions on how to create his maps in the first section of the work. The gazetteer section of Ptolemys work provided latitude and longitude coördinates for all the places and his Prime Meridian ran through the Fortunate Isles, the westernmost land recorded, at around the position of El Hierro in the Canary Islands. The maps spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Fortunate Isles in the Atlantic to China, Ptolemy was aware that Europe knew only about a quarter of the globe. Ptolemys work included a large and less detailed world map and separate.
As early as the 1420s, these maps were complemented by extra-Ptolemaic regional maps depicting. The original treatise by Marinus of Tyre that formed the basis of Ptolemys Geography has been completely lost, a world map based on Ptolemy was displayed in Augustodunum in late Roman times. Pappus, writing at Alexandria in the 4th century, produced a commentary on Ptolemys Geography, for instance, Grant Parker argues that it would be highly implausible for them to have constructed the Bay of Bengal as precisely as they did without the accounts of sailors. Muslim cartographers were using copies of Ptolemys Almagest and Geography by the 9th century, a 1037 copy of these are the earliest extant maps from Islamic lands. Nallino suggests that the work was not based on Ptolemy but on a world map
Alcoy or Alcoi is a city and municipality located in the province of Alicante, Spain. The Serpis river crosses the boundary of Alcoi. The local authority reported 95.526 residents in 2010, the first traces of human presence in the area date to c.60,000 years ago, when Neandertal hunters settled here. A site with rock paintings, dating to c,10, 000/6,500 years ago, has been discovered near la Sarga. From around the mid-3rd millennium BC people started to move from the caves to the plain where cereals were grown, after the Roman conquest of the Iberians, several rural villas were built in the area, as well as a necropolis. In 1291 the town was donated by King James II of Aragon to the Sicilian admiral Roger of Lauria, it will not return a royal possession until 1430. During the War of Spanish Succession, Alcoi sided for the cause of archduke Charles, and was besieged and stripped of numerous privileges. In 1873 the workers of Alcoy revolted in the Petroleum Revolution, many outdoor rock paintings exist in Alcoi, and there are some ruins of an Iberian settlement with fragments of Greco-Roman pottery.
Buildings with artistic or historical interest in the city include, Barchell Castle and it has a rectangular keep and a court with a rainwater tank. Hermitage of St. Furthermore, it had many factories which manufacture matches, Alcoi is the financial and cultural center in the surrounding area. Alcoy hosts the oldest Cavalcade of Magi in the world, the Jesuset del Miracle is commemorated on the last day of January. The most important touristic celebration is Moros i Cristians, in April, the local football club CD Alcoyano is famous across Spain for a proverbial match in which they were facing a very adverse score. When the referee was about to close, the Alcoyano players kept asking for time to score back. Thus the phrase tener más moral que el Alcoyano ponders an undefatigable person, currently they play in the Segunda División B. The city is home to PAS Alcoy, a Spanish roller hockey club, which plays in the OK Liga. Petroleum Revolution Jesuset del Miracle Iglesia arciprestal de Santa María Alcoi Foto Pictures of Alcoi, christians & Moors Festival Images and a video
Agres is a town in the comarca of Comtat, in the province of Alicante, Valencian Community, Spain. It is situated between the Serra de Mariola and the Serra dAgullent and it is bordered by Agullent and Albaida to the north, Muro dAlcoi and Cocentaina to the east, Alfafara to the west and Alcoi to the south. Índice de Estadística Municipal del municipio de Agres, unidad de Documentación de la Diputación de Alicante Datos y cifras de los municipios de la provincia de Alicante. Unidad de Documentación de la Diputación de Alicante Web de la Diputación Provincial de Alicante
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek writer, known as a mathematician, geographer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in a statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is a very late attestation and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria. Ptolemy wrote several treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning Four Books or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen, the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemys family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius who was responsible for granting citizenship, if, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD41 and 68. The astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown and it occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. All the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were Ptolemies, abu Mashar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy. The correct answer is not known”, Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data. He was a Roman citizen, but most scholars conclude that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek and he was often known in Arabic sources as the Upper Egyptian, suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt.
Later Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic, Ptolemys Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy presented his models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. The Almagest contains a catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populousautonomous community after Andalusia, Catalonia and it is often homonymously identified with its capital Valencia, which is Spains third largest city. It is located along the Mediterranean coast to the east of the Iberian peninsula and it borders with Catalonia to the north and Castile–La Mancha to the west, and Murcia to the south. The Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Castellón, Valencia and Alicante, according to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality. Their origins date back to the Catalan-Aragonese colonization of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, the newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon with the promulgation of its Furs in 1261. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century, becoming the economic and cultural capital of the Crown, self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was eventually suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was finally reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy, the Valencian people speak a variety of Catalan called Valencian, accounting for a third of all Catalan speakers. Valencian is a language that has been historically repressed in favour of Spanish. Since it regained status in 1982, Valencian has been implemented in public administration. However, its use continues to be threatened by Spanish due to migration from other parts of Spain, especially in the cities of València. Furthermore, the conflict continues to be pressing, with some groups opposing the official standard based on Catalan orthography. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of Valentia Edetanorum, with the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which eventually became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
Valencian Community is the translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in administration, tourism. On one hand, Valencian Country represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century and it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the Catalan Countries. This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed Former Kingdom of Valencia instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia, blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be identified with its capital Valencia