In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world, it has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art, ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are divided into three forms: petroglyphs, which are carved into the rock surface, which are painted onto the surface, earth figures, formed on the ground; the oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having been found in Europe, Australia and Africa. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they had magico-religious significance; the archaeological sub-discipline of rock art studies first developed in the late-19th century among Francophone scholars studying the Upper Palaeolithic rock art found in the cave systems of Western Europe. Rock art continues to be of importance to indigenous peoples in various parts of the world, who view them as both sacred items and significant components of their cultural patrimony.
Such archaeological sites are significant sources of cultural tourism, have been utilised in popular culture for their aesthetic qualities. Found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone, they are a category of rock art, sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, which concentrate on engravings and paintings by prehistoric peoples. A few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, were important in the art of the Ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are fairly large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, in many the figures are multiples of life-size. Stylistically they relate to other types of sculpture from the culture and period concerned, except for Hittite and Persian examples they are discussed as part of that wider subject.
The vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on horizontal surfaces are found. The term excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, which are found in India. Natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded. Reliefs on large boulders left in their natural location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are to be included, but smaller boulders may be called stelae or carved orthostats; the term rock art appears in the published literature as early as the 1940s. It has been described as "rock carvings", "rock drawings", "rock engravings", "rock inscriptions", "rock paintings", "rock pictures", "rock records" "rock sculptures; the defining characteristic of rock art is. As such, rock art is a form of landscape art, includes designs that have been placed on boulder and cliff faces, cave walls and ceilings, on the ground surface. Rock art is a global phenomenon, being found in many different regions of the world.
There are various forms of rock art. These include pictographs, which were painted or drawn onto the panel, which were carved or engraved onto the panel, earth figures such as earthforms and geoglyphs; some archaeologists consider pits and grooves in the rock, known as cups, rings or cupules, as a form of rock art. Although there are exceptions, the majority of rock art whose creation was ethnographically recorded had been produced during rituals; as such, the study of rock art is a component of the archaeology of religion. Rock art serves multiple purposes in the contemporary world. In several regions, it remains spiritually important to indigenous peoples, who view it as a significant component of their cultural patrimony, it serves as an important source of cultural tourism, hence as economic revenue in certain parts of the world. As such, images taken from cave art have appeared on memorabilia and other artefacts sold as a part of the tourist industry. Pictographs are drawings that have been placed onto the rock face.
Such artworks have been made with mineral earths and other natural compounds found across much of the world. The predominantly used colours are red and white. Red paint is attained through the use of ground ochre, while black paint is composed of charcoal, or sometimes from minerals such as manganese. White paint is created from natural chalk, kaolinite clay or diatomaceous earth. Once the pigments had been obtained, they would be ground and mixed with a liquid, such as water, urine, or egg yolk, applied to the stone as paint using a brush, fingers, or a stamp. Alternately, the pigment could have been applied on dry, such as with a stick of charcoal. In some societies, the paint itself has religious meaning. One unusual form of pictograph, found in many, although not all rock-art producing cultures, is the hand print. There are three forms of this; the s
Umbellularia californica is a large hardwood tree native to coastal forests of California, as well as to coastal forests extending into Oregon. It is endemic to the California Floristic Province, it is the sole species in the genus Umbellularia. The tree was known as Oreodaphne californica. In Oregon, this tree is known as Oregon myrtle, while in California it is called California bay laurel, which may be shortened to California bay or California laurel, it has been called pepperwood, cinnamon bush, peppernut tree, headache tree, mountain laurel, balm of heaven. The tree's pungent leaves have a similar flavor to bay leaves, though stronger, it may be mistaken for bay laurel; the dry wood has a color range from blonde to brown. It is sought after by luthiers and woodworkers; the tree is a host of the pathogen. This tree inhabits redwood forests, California mixed woods, yellow pine forest, oak woodlands. Bays occur in oak woodlands only close to the coast, or in extreme northern California where moisture is sufficient.
During the Miocene, oak-laurel forests were found in Southern California. Typical tree species included oaks ancestral to present-day California oaks, an assemblage of trees from the laurel family, including Nectandra, Ocotea and Umbellularia. Only one native species from the laurel family, Umbellularia californica, remains in California today. In the north, it reaches its distributional limit through southwest Oregon to Newport, Lincoln County, Oregon, on the coast, extending from there south through California to San Diego County, it is found in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. It occurs at altitudes from sea level up to 1600 m. An isolated, more northern occurrence of the species can be found in Tacoma, around Snake Lake near the Tacoma Nature Center. There are two recorded instances of trees growing in coastal British Columbia, it is an evergreen tree growing to 30 m tall with a trunk up to 80 cm thick. The largest recorded tree is in Mendocino County and measured 108 feet in height and 119 feet in spread.
The fragrant leaves are smooth-edged and lance-shaped, 3–10 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, similar to the related bay laurel, though narrower, without the crinkled margin of that species. The flowers are yellow or yellowish-green, produced in small umbels. Unlike other "bay laurels" of the genus Laurus, Umbellularia has perfect flowers; the fruit known as "California bay nut", is a round and green berry 2–2.5 cm long and 2 cm broad spotted with yellow, maturing purple. Under the thin, leathery skin, it consists of an oily, fleshy covering over a single hard, thin-shelled pit, resembles a miniature avocado. Umbellularia is in fact related to the avocado's genus Persea, within the Lauraceae family; the fruit ripens around October–November in the native range. Umbellularia has long been valued for its many uses by Native Americans throughout the tree's range, including the Cahuilla, Pomo, Yuki and Salinan people; the Concow tribe call the plant sō-ē’-bä. The leaf has been used as a cure for headache and earache—though the volatile oils in the leaves may cause headaches.
Poultices of Umbellularia leaves were used to treat rheumatism and neuralgias. A tea was made from the leaves to treat stomach aches, sore throats, to clear up mucus in the lungs; the leaves were steeped in hot water to make an infusion, used to wash sores. The Pomo and Yuki tribes of Mendocino County treated headaches by placing a single leaf in the nostril or bathing the head with a laurel leaf infusion; the chemical responsible for the headache-inducing effects of Umbellularia is known as umbellulone. Both the flesh and the inner kernel of the fruit have been used as food by Native Americans; the fatty outer flesh of the fruit, or mesocarp, is palatable raw for only a brief time. Native Americans dried the fruits in the sun and ate only the lower third of the dried mesocarp, less pungent; the hard inner seed underneath the fleshy mesocarp, like the pit of an avocado, cleaves in two when its thin shell is cracked. The pit itself was traditionally roasted to a dark chocolate-brown color, removing much of the pungency and leaving a spicy flavor.
Roasted, shelled "bay nuts" were eaten whole, or ground into powder and prepared as a drink which resembles unsweetened chocolate. The flavor, depending on roast level, has been described variously as "roast coffee," "dark chocolate" or "burnt popcorn"; the powder might be used in cooking or pressed into cakes and dried for winter storage. It has been speculated; the leaf can be used in cooking, but is spicier and "headier" than the Mediterranean bay leaf, should be used in smaller quantity. Umbellularia leaf imparts a somewhat stronger camphor/cinnamon flavor compared to the Mediterranean bay; some modern-day foragers and wild food enthusiasts have revived Native American practices regarding the edible roasted fruit, the bay nut. Umbellularia californica is used in woodworking, it is considered a tonewood, used to construct the sides of acoustic guitars. The wood is hard and fine, is made into bowls and other small items and sold as "myrtlewood", it is grown as an ornamental tre
Arbutus is a genus of 12 accepted species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae, native to warm temperate regions of the Mediterranean, western Europe, the Canary Islands and North America. The name Arbutus was taken from Latin. Arbutus are small shrubs with red flaking bark and edible red berries. Fruit development is delayed for about five months after pollination, so that flowers appear while the previous year's fruit are ripening. Peak flowering for the genus is in April with peak fruiting in October. Members of the genus are called madrones or madronas in the United States, from the Spanish name madroño. In British Columbia, where the species is common, arbutus is used or and locally, tick tree. All refer to the same species, Arbutus menziesii, native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern and Central California regions, it is Canada's only native broadleaved evergreen tree. Some species in the genera Epigaea and Gaultheria were classified in Arbutus; as a result of its past classification, Epigaea repens has an alternative common name of "trailing arbutus".
A study published in 2001 which analyzed ribosomal DNA from Arbutus and related genera suggests that Arbutus is paraphyletic and the Mediterranean Basin species of Arbutus are more related to Arctostaphylos, Comarostaphylis and Xylococcus than to the western North American species of Arbutus, that the split between the two groups of species occurred at the Paleogene/Neogene boundary. The 12 species are as follows: Arbutus andrachne L. – Greek strawberry tree Arbutus canariensis Duhamel – Canary madrone Arbutus pavarii Pampan. Arbutus unedo L. – Strawberry tree Arbutus arizonica Sarg. – Arizona madrone Arbutus bicolor S. González, M. González et P. D. Sørensen Arbutus madrensis M. González - western Mexico Arbutus menziesii Pursh – Pacific madrone Arbutus mollis Kunth Arbutus occidentalis McVaugh & Rosatti - western Mexico Arbutus tessellata Arbutus xalapensis Kunth – Texas madrone Arbutus × andrachnoides Link: this hybrid has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.
Arbutus ×androsterilis Canary Islands Arbutus × thuretiana Demoly Arbutus × reyorum Arctostaphylos tomentosa Lindl. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng. Comarostaphylis discolor Diggs Gaultheria phillyreifolia Sleumer Arbutus species are used as food plants by some Lepidoptera species including emperor moth, Pavonia pavonia and the madrone butterfly; the distribution of the latter species is in fact affected by the distribution of the madrone. Several species are cultivated as ornamental plants outside of their natural ranges, though cultivation is difficult due to their intolerance of root disturbance; the hybrid Arbutus ` Marina' thrives under garden conditions. The Arbutus unedo tree makes up part of the coat of arms of the city of Spain. A statue of a bear eating the fruit of the madroño tree stands in the center of the city; the image appears on city crests, taxi cabs, man-hole covers, other city infrastructure. The Arbutus was important to the Straits Salish people of Vancouver Island, who used arbutus bark and leaves to create medicines for colds, stomach problems, tuberculosis, as the basis for contraceptives.
The tree figured into certain myths of the Straits Salish. The fruit is edible but has minimal flavour and is not eaten. In Portugal, the fruit is sometimes distilled into a potent brandy known as medronho. In Madrid, the fruit is distilled into a sweet, fruity liqueur. Arbutus is a great fuelwood tree since it burns long. Many Pacific Northwest states in the United States use the wood of A. menziesii as a heat source, as the wood holds no value in the production of homes since it doesn't grow in straight timbers. My love's an arbutus is the title of a poem by the Irish writer Alfred Perceval Graves, set to music by his compatriot Charles Villiers Stanford The Canadian songwriter and painter, Joni Mitchell, includes a reference to the “the arbutus rustling” in her song, For The Roses, it sounded like applause. She calls the arbutus tree her “favorite all-time tree.” She had one outside her door in a house. According to the Straits Salish, an anthropomorphic form of pitch would go fishing, but return to shore before it got too hot.
One day he was too late getting back to shore and melted from the heat and several anthropomorphic trees rushed to get him - the first was Douglas fir, who took most of the pitch, the grand fir received a small portion, the madrone received none -, why they say it still has no pitch. According to the Great Flood legends of several bands in the northwest, the madrone helped people survive by providing an anchor on top of a mountain; because of this the Saanich people do not burn madrone out of thanks for saving them. Hileman, Lena C..
Pacific Coast Ranges
The Pacific Coast Ranges, are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the West Coast of North America from Alaska south to Northern and Central Mexico. The Pacific Coast Ranges are part of the North American Cordillera, which includes the Rocky Mountains, Columbia Mountains, Interior Mountains, the Interior Plateau, Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Great Basin mountain ranges, other ranges and various plateaus and basins; the Pacific Coast Ranges designation, only applies to the Western System of the Western Cordillera, which comprises the Saint Elias Mountains, Coast Mountains, Insular Mountains, Olympic Mountains, Cascade Range, Oregon Coast Range, California Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, the Sierra Madre Occidental. The term Coast Range is not used by the United States Geological Survey to refer only to the ranges east from the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington to the California-Mexico border. I.e. the Pacific Border province. The same term is used informally in Canada to refer to the Coast Mountains and adjoining inland ranges such as the Hazelton Mountains, sometimes the Saint Elias Mountains.
The character of the ranges varies from the record-setting tidewater glaciers in the ranges of Alaska, to the rugged Central and Southern California ranges, the Transverse Ranges and Peninsular Ranges, in the chaparral and woodlands ecoregion with Oak Woodland, Chaparral shrub forest or Coastal sage scrub-covering them. The coastline is dropping steeply into the sea with photogenic views. Along the British Columbia and Alaska coast, the mountains intermix with the sea in a complex maze of fjords, with thousands of islands. Off the Southern California coast the Channel Islands archipelago of the Santa Monica Mountains extends for 160 miles. There are coastal plains at the mouths of rivers that have punched through the mountains spreading sediments, most notably at the Copper River in Alaska, the Fraser River in British Columbia, the Columbia River between Washington and Oregon. In California: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers' San Francisco Bay, the Santa Clara River's Oxnard Plain, the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, Santa Ana Rivers' Los Angeles Basin - a coastal sediment-filled plain between the peninsular and transverse ranges with sediment in the basin up to 6 miles deep, the San Diego River's Mission Bay.
From the vicinity of San Francisco Bay north, it is common in winter for cool unstable air masses from the Gulf of Alaska to make landfall in one of the Coast Ranges, resulting in heavy precipitation, both as rain and snow on their western slopes. The same Winter weather occurs with less frequency and precipitation in Southern California, with the mountains' western faces and peaks causing an eastward rainshadow that produces the arid desert regions. Omitted from the list below, but included is the Sierra Nevada, a major mountain range of eastern California, separated by the Central Valley over much of its length from the California Coast Ranges and the Transverse Ranges. On the West coast of North America, the coast ranges and the coastal plain form the margin. Most of the land is made of terranes. In the north, the insular belt is an accreted terrane; this belt extends from the Wrangellia Terrane in Alaska to the Chilliwack group of Canada. A rupture in Rodinia 750 million years ago formed a passive margin in the eastern Pacific Northwest.
The breakup of Pangea 200 million years ago began the westward movement of the North American plate, creating an active margin on the western continent. As the continent drifted West, terranes were accreted onto the west coast; the timing of the accretion of the insular belt is uncertain, although the closure did not occur until at least 115 million years ago. Other Mesozoic terranes that accreted onto the continent include the Klamath Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, the Guerrero super-terrane of western Mexico. 80 to 90 million years ago the subducting Farallon plate split and formed the Kula Plate to the North. This formed an area in what is now Northern California, where the plates converged forming a Mélange. North of this was the Columbia Embayment, where the continental margin was east of the surrounding areas. Many of the major batholiths date from the late Cretaceous; as the Laramide Orogeny ended around 48 million years ago, the accretion of the Siletzia terrane began in the Pacific Northwest.
This began the volcanic activity in the Cascadia subduction zone, forming the modern Cascade Range, lasted into the Miocene. Events here may relate to the ignimbrite flare-up of Range; as extension in the Basin and Range Province slowed by a change in North American Plate movement circa 7 to 8 Million years ago, rifting began on the Gulf of California. Although many of the ranges do share a common geologic history, the Pacific Coast Ranges province is not defined by geology, but rather by geography. Many of the various ranges are composed of distinct forms of rock from many different periods of geological time from the Precambrian in parts of the Little San Bernardino Mountains to 10,000-year-old rock in the Cascade Range. For one example, the Peninsular Ranges, composed of Mesozoic batholitic rock, are geologically extr
Chumash Painted Cave State Historic Park
Chumash Painted Cave State Historic Park is a unit in the state park system of California, preserving a small sandstone cave adorned with rock art attributed to the Chumash people. Adjoining the small community of Painted Cave, the site is located about 2 miles north of California State Route 154 and 11 miles northwest of Santa Barbara; the 7.5-acre park was established in 1976. The smooth and irregularly shaped shallow sandstone cave contains numerous drawings depicting the Chumash cosmology and other subjects created in mineral pigments and other media over a long period ranging from about 200 up to 1000 years or more. There is evidence of graffiti beginning with early white settlers, which led to creation of a protective physical barrier and State Historic Park status. In 1972 it was added as Site #72000256 on the National Register of Historical Places. Access is from State Route 154 about 5 miles north of U. S. Route 101 in the San Marcos Pass on Painted Cave Road; the cave is adjacent to the left side of this narrow one-lane mountain road, with a widened shoulder that provides parking for one or two vehicles.
The drive is not appropriate for trailers and RVs, due to some tight turns and steep sections. This park is one of the few providing open access for viewing original rock art of the Chumash people in person. Flash photographs are prohibited. Burro Flats Painted Cave Chumash people Painted Rock Shalawa Meadow, California List of California state parks Official website
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List