San Diego River
The San Diego River is a river in San Diego County, California. It originates in the Cuyamaca Mountains northwest of the town of Julian flows to the southwest until it reaches the El Capitan Reservoir, the largest reservoir in the river's watershed at 112,800 acre feet. Below El Capitan Dam, the river runs west through San Diego. While passing through Tierrasanta it goes through Mission Trails Regional Park, one of the largest urban parks in America; the river discharges into the Pacific Ocean near the entrance to Mission Bay. The river has changed its course several times in recorded history; when the first European settlers arrived in the late 18th century it emptied into False Bay, the present day Mission Bay. At some point in the 1820s it altered course and began to empty into San Diego Bay, which continued for nearly 50 years; because of fears that the harbor would silt up, the river was diverted to its present course in 1877 by a dam and the straightening of the channel to the ocean. The river travels 52 miles from its headwaters to the ocean.
The river's tributaries include: Oak Canyon Creek Spring Canyon Creek Forester Creek Los Coches Creek San Vicente Creek Wildcat Canyon Creek Chocolate Creek Conejos Creek Sand Creek Isham Creek Boulder Creek Cedar Creek Ritchie Creek Dye Canyon Creek Iron Springs Canyon Creek Temescal Creek Sentenac Creek Coleman Creek Baily Creek Jim Green Creek Boring Creek Marriette Creek Eastwood CreekFour additional reservoirs lie in the river's watershed. Cuyamaca Reservoir is located on Boulder Creek and San Vicente Reservoir is fed by San Vicente Creek. Lake Jennings and Lake Murray are formed by the damming of canyons; the San Diego River Park Foundation was founded in 2001 and is dedicated to conserving the water, recreation and community involved with the San Diego River. The San Diego River Conservancy was established by an act of the California Legislature to preserve and enhance the San Diego River area; the Conservancy is a non-regulatory agency of the state government with an independent nine-member governing board.
It is tasked to acquire and conserve land and to protect or provide recreational opportunities, open space, wildlife species and habitat, water quality, natural flood conveyance, historical/cultural resources, educational opportunities. One important goal is to help create a river-long park and hiking trail, stretching the full length of the river from its headwaters in the Cuyamaca Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. From mouth to source: San Diego River Watershed Management Plan Lakeside's River Park Conservancy
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, they give rise to different biomes. A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates as intermediates between desert climates and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are dominated by either grasses or shrubs. To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20 adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS. Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid". Hot semi-arid climates tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate; these climates tend to have hot, sometimes hot and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most found in Africa and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.
In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can be found in Europe, parts of North America, such as in Mexico, areas of the Southwestern United States, sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with rainless summers and wetter winters. Cold semi-arid climates tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate, they are found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters.
These areas see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C or more in that time frame; these large diurnal temperature variations are seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers wet winters, wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most found in Asia and North America. However, they can be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month, the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side.
As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean but mild winters. Continental climate Dust Bowl Goyder's Line Köppen climate classification Palliser's Triangle Ustic Wave height
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
San Diego Metropolitan Transit System
The San Diego Metropolitan Transit System is the public transit service provider for Central, South and Southeast San Diego County, in the United States. MTS operating subsidiaries include the San Diego Trolley and San Diego Transit Corporation. Average daily ridership among all public transit services provided by MTS was 271,500 in the Fourth Quarter of 2017. MTS is one of the oldest transit systems in Southern California, dating back as early as the 1880s. Although the d/b/a names have changed over the years, the two modes of transportation – buses and light rail – have remained consistent over most of the past 125 years. MTS owns Arizona Eastern Railway. MTS licenses and regulates taxicabs and other private for-hire passenger transportation services provided by contract for the cities of San Diego, El Cajon, Imperial Beach, La Mesa, Lemon Grove and Santee. MTS is a joint powers authority agency, or JPA. Member cities include San Diego, Chula Vista, Coronado, El Cajon, Imperial Beach, La Mesa, Lemon Grove, National City, Poway and San Diego County.
Elected officials from each jurisdiction, including San Diego County, serve as the Board of Directors. The city of San Diego has the most representation with four members. A county resident is elected by the Board of Directors to serve as the Chairman. A system of horse- or mule-drawn street cars was established in Downtown San Diego in 1886. In 1887 electric street car service was begun, serving a more widespread area including Old Town and University Heights; the direct ancestor of MTS, the San Diego Electric Railway Company, was founded in 1891 by John D. Spreckels. Spreckels converted them all to electric operation. In the 1920s and 1930s the rail lines began to be replaced by motor buses. In 1949 the last rail service was discontinued, making San Diego the first major city in California to convert to an all-bus system. In 1948 Jesse Haugh renamed it the San Diego Transit System; the system was purchased by the City of San Diego in 1967. MTDB was formed in 1976 and launched the San Diego Trolley in 1981.
The San Diego Transit system of bus lines was transferred from the city to MTDB in 1985. MTDB changed its logo to Metropolitan Transit System in 1986. Today, the agency is one of two child agencies of SANDAG, the county-level MPO that zones land and sets the transit fares. More recent developments at MTS are summarized below. MTS adopts its current logo and livery, first applied to buses entering service that summer. MTS assumes control over National City Transit from the City of National City, amid the City's reluctance to implement findings of the COA, retires its 600-series bus route numbers, replaces them with the current 960-series numbers. MTS is named the Outstanding Public Transit System for 2009 by the American Public Transportation Association. In fiscal year 2009, MTS set a record for ridership with over 92 million rides from July 1, 2008, to June 31, 2009. September 24: San Diego Trolley places an order for 57 Ultra Short Low Floor Model S70 LRVs, at a total cost of $205 million. San Diego Trolley beings construction on the "Trolley Renewal Project".
The project is expected to last five years and renovates all stations and existing infrastructure to handle the new Low Floor S70 LRVs purchased the previous year. MTS begins work on a study to evaluate the feasibility of reconnecting Balboa Park, the San Diego Zoo and Downtown San Diego through a fixed-guideway, electrified streetcar line. MTS begins weekend and holiday service of the Silver Line, which operates around Downtown San Diego and features renovated PCC streetcars with a partnership with the San Diego historic streetcar society. MTS receives first two shipments of 4th generation trolley vehicles and begins operating new LRVs on the Green Line MTS realigns trolley system so all three lines terminate in downtown, eliminating the need for the special event line; the green line now serves special events. Low floor trains operate on the Orange Line for the first time, marking the end of the first phase of the trolley renewal project. First of the next-gemeration Gillig Low Floor buses arrive and are placed into service First buses for the BRT network arrive The first line in the Rapid BRT network goes into operation.
Low floor trains operate on the Blue Line for the first time in January, after new station platforms, advanced electronic signage, overhead catenary wires, larger shelters and track replacements are implemented. The Transit Optimization Plan is adopted Additional Low floor trolley cars Arrive at shop. Numbered in the 5000-series, 9 of the cars are set to start testing for Blue and Orange Lines as early as Spring 2019; the other 36 will be set to run for the mid-coast extension releasing in 2021. The South Bay Rapid entered the Otay Mesa Port of Entry. New trolley cars, the 5000-series, due to enter service in the Summer. August:Electric buses to enter service MTS administers several public transportation services, including the San Diego Trolley's three daily Light rail lines, 93 fixed-route bus services, paratransit service. About half of its fixed-route bus services are contracted out to Transdev, First Transit, with First Transit providing paratransit services. Light rail service is operated by Incorporated.
It is referred to as "The Trolley". Three daily lines are operated, are designated by their colors: the Blue Line, the Green Line, the Orange Line.
Santana High School
Santana High School, located in Santee, California, is part of the Grossmont Union High School District. On March 5, 2001, fifteen-year-old Charles Andrew Williams killed two, wounded thirteen at Santana High School. Bryan Zuckor, a fellow student, was the first killed, as he and another student, Trevor Edwards, were shot in the bathroom where Williams began. Williams exited the bathroom and headed for the Santana High School quad, where he opened fire on surrounding students and faculty. There, he fatally shot another student, Randy Gordon, wounded twelve others. Williams returned to the bathroom where he continued shooting at students surrendering to the police. Personal accounts of the events relate the initial confusion during the incident, describing the sound of the shots as "like firecrackers". Panic followed. Witnesses describe Williams as "smiling" during the shooting. Referring to the chaos after the shooting, one parent remarked, "They just don't have a system to handle this." Students and faculty were evacuated to a nearby shopping center, local businesses and churches helped to handle students and parents.
Others said that they heard him saying, weeks before the shootings, that he was "going to pull a Columbine". He was apprehended by police in the same bathroom, he was sentenced 50 years to life and will be eligible for parole in 2052. Leon Bender, 1993, Professional Football Defensive Lineman, Oakland Raiders Alex Bowen, 2011, member of United States men's national water polo team Sharon Davis, 1972, former First Lady of California Terry Forster, 1970, retired Major League Baseball Relief Pitcher, Chicago White Sox, Los Angeles Dodgers, Atlanta Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates, Los Angeles Angels Lon Hinkle, 1967, Professional golfer on the PGA Tour Hayden Penn, 2002, former Major League Baseball Pitcher, Baltimore Orioles, Florida Marlins, Pittsburgh Pirates Joe Price, 1974, former Major League Baseball pitcher, Cincinnati Reds, San Francisco Giants, Boston Red Sox, Baltimore Orioles Jim Tatum, 1985, former Major League Baseball Infielder, Milwaukee Brewers, Colorado Rockies, Boston Red Sox, San Diego Padres, New York Mets Grossmont Union High School District - school mascots and colors List of California Distinguished Schools in San Diego County LA Times: Often Ridiculed, the Suspect Said,'I'll Show You One Day' Keys to Safer Schools: 2 Dead at Santana High School, 13 others injured Santana High School School Shooting
San Diego County, California
San Diego County the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. Making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States, its county seat is the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the 17th most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 18th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas. San Diego County has more than 70 miles of coastline; this forms the most densely populated region of the county, which has a mild Mediterranean to semiarid climate and extensive chaparral vegetation, similar to the rest of the western portion of southern California.
Precipitation and temperature extremes increase to the east, with mountains that receive frost and snow in the winter. These lushly forested mountains receive more rainfall than average in southern California, while the desert region of the county lies in a rain shadow to the east, which extends into the Desert Southwest region of North America. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, the U. S. Coast Guard in San Diego County; these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Naval Air Station North Island. From north to south, San Diego County extends from the southern borders of Orange and Riverside Counties to the Mexico-U. S. Border and Baja California. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County; the area, now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians and their local predecessors.
In 1542, the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who may have been born in Portugal but sailed on behalf of Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and clerics in 1769; this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence. From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico. San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the Mexican–American War; this treaty designated the new border as terminating at a point on the Pacific Ocean coast which would result in the border passing one Spanish league south of the southernmost portion of San Diego Bay, thus ensuring that the United States received all of this natural harbor.
San Diego County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of California statehood in 1850. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was large, included all of southernmost California south and east of Los Angeles County, it included areas of what are now Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, as well as all of what are now Riverside and Imperial Counties. During the part of the 19th century, there were numerous changes in the boundaries of San Diego County, when various areas were separated to make up the counties mentioned above; the most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893 and Imperial County in 1907. Imperial County was the last county to be established in California, after this division, San Diego no longer extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River, it no longer covered the entire border between California and Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water.
The county is larger in area than the combined states of Rhode Delaware. San Diego County has a varied topography. On its western side is more than 70 miles of coastline. Most of San Diego between the coast and the Laguna Mountains consists of hills and small canyons. Snow-capped mountains rise with the Sonoran Desert farther to the east. Cleveland National Forest is spread across the central portion of the county, while the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park occupies most of the northeast. Although the county's western third is urban, the mountains and deserts in the eastern two-thirds are undeveloped backcountry. Most of these backcountry areas are home to a native plant community known as chaparral. San Diego County contains more than a million acres of chaparral, twice as much as any other California county. North San Diego County is known as North County; the eastern suburbs are collectively known as East County, though most still lie in the western third of the county. The southern suburbs and southern detached portion of the city of San Diego, extending to the Mexican border, are collectively referred to as South Bay.
Periodically the area has been subject to wildfires th
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820