Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain. The city has its origin in the shrine of Saint James the Great, now the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, as the destination of the Way of St. James, a leading Catholic pilgrimage route since the 9th century. In 1985, the city's Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Santiago is the local Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctus Iacobus "Saint James". According to legend, Compostela derives from the Latin Campus Stellae. Other etymologies derive the name from Latin compositum, local Vulgar Latin Composita Tella, meaning "burial ground", or from Latin compositella, meaning "the well-composed one". Other sites in Galicia share this toponym, akin to Compostilla in the province of León; the cathedral borders the main plaza of the well-preserved city. According to medieval legend, the remains of the apostle James were brought to Galicia for burial; this site was called Mount Libredon and its physical topography leads prevalent sea borne winds to clear the cloud deck overhead.
The shepherd reported his discovery to the bishop of Iria, Bishop Teodomiro. The bishop declared that the remains were those of the apostle James and notified King Alfonso II in Oviedo. To honour St. James, the cathedral was built on the spot where his remains were said to have been found; the legend, which included numerous miraculous events, enabled the Catholic faithful to bolster support for their stronghold in northern Spain during the Christian crusades against the Moors, but led to the growth and development of the city. Along the western side of the Praza do Obradoiro is the elegant 18th-century Pazo de Raxoi, now the city hall. Across the square is the Pazo de Raxoi, the town hall, on the right from the cathedral steps is the Hostal dos Reis Católicos, founded in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a pilgrims' hospice; the Obradoiro façade of the cathedral, the best known, is depicted on the Spanish euro coins of 1 cent, 2 cents, 5 cents.
Santiago is the site of the University of Santiago de Compostela, established in the early 16th century. The main campus can be seen best from an alcove in the large municipal park in the centre of the city. Within the old town there are many narrow winding streets full of historic buildings; the new town all around it has less character though some of the older parts of the new town have some big flats in them. Santiago de Compostela has a substantial nightlife. Both in the new town and the old town, a mix of middle-aged residents and younger students maintain a lively presence until the early hours of the morning. Radiating from the centre of the city, the historic cathedral is surrounded by paved granite streets, tucked away in the old town, separated from the newer part of the city by the largest of many parks throughout the city, Parque da Alameda. Santiago gives its name to one of the four military orders of Spain: Santiago, Alcántara and Montesa. One of the most important economic centres in Galicia, Santiago is the seat for organisations like Association for Equal and Fair Trade Pangaea.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Santiago de Compostela has a temperate oceanic climate, with mild to warm and somewhat dry summers and mild, wet winters. The prevailing winds from the Atlantic and the surrounding mountains combine to give Santiago some of Spain's highest rainfall: about 1,550 millimetres annually; the climate is mild: frosts are common only in December and February, with an average of just 8 days per year, while snow is rare. The city is governed by a mayor–council form of government. Following the May 24, 2015 municipal elections the mayor of Santiago is Martiño Noriega Sánchez of Compostela Aberta. No party has a majority in the city council; the population of the city in 2019 was 96,260 inhabitants, while the metropolitan area reaches 178,695. In 2010 there were 4,111 foreigners living in the city; the main nationalities are Brazilians and Colombians. By language, according to 2008 data, 21.17% of the population always speak in Galician, 15% always speak in Spanish, 31% in Galician and the 32.17% in Spanish.
According to a Xunta de Galicia 2010 study the 38.5% of the city primary and secondary education students had Galician as their mother tongue. The area of Santiago de Compostela was a Roman cemetery by the 4th century and was occupied by the Suebi in the early 5th century, when they settled in Galicia and Portugal during the initial collapse of the Roman Empire; the area was attributed to the bishopric of Iria Flavia in the 6th century, in the partition known as Parochiale Suevorum, ordered by King Theodemar. In 585, the settlement was annexed along with the rest of Suebi Kingdom by Leovigild as the sixth province of the Visigothic Kingdom. Raided from 711 to 739 by the Arabs, the bishopric of Iria was incorporated into the Kingdom of Asturias c. 750. At some point between 818 and 842, during the reign of Alfonso II of Asturias, bishop Theodemar of Iria
Evangelos "Vangelis" Ziagkos is a Greek professional basketball coach. Ziagkos played youth club basketball with Attalos Nea Filadelfeia, played in the Greek minor leagues with the same club's men's team. Ziagkos became the head coach the Greek basketball club AEK Athens, prior to the 2012–13 season, he led AEK to gain a league promotion that season, from the Greek 3rd Division, to the Greek 2nd Division. In the following 2013–14 season, he led AEK to the Greek 2nd Division championship, he was named the Greek 2nd Division's Coach of the Year that season. He worked as the head coach of the Greek clubs Doxa Lefkadas and Panionios. On November 20, 2018, he was appointed head coach of the Rethymno Cretan Kings. Euroleague.net Coach Profile FIBA Coach Profile AsiaBasket.com Coach Profile AEK Athens Coach Profile
Chief Allison "Tootie" Montana, a lather by trade, was a New Orleans cultural icon who acted as the Mardi Gras Indian "chief of chiefs" for over 50 years. Tootie is revered in the Mardi Gras Indian culture as the Big Chief, responsible for changing the violent way of the Indians' culture. Tootie was Big Chief of the Yellow Pocahontas Tribe and made the culture of the Mardi Gras Indians about pageantry rather than violence; the history of the Mardi Gras Indians can be traced back to the time of slavery in New Orleans. When slaves would escape from the city, many would find shelter with the Indigenous people of America. Traditions of the Mardi Gras Indians stemmed from what was observed while under the care of the indigenous people; the art of masking in Indian suits at Carnival is a way to pay respect to the people who looked after escaped slaves. The Mardi Gras Indians were a violent group of people fighting over lands and wards surrounding the parishes. Tribes from different sections of town would engage in fights called humbugs in parts of New Orleans called the battlefield.
Carnival was the day. An angry Indian would blend into the Carnival crowd; the cross-dressing Indian would approach the person they are seeking revenge upon and attack them in the middle of Carnival. The attacker would escape to change clothes in a local bar. In an interview, Tootie said that all day during Carnival, discarded dresses could be found in bars across New Orleans. Tootie was outraged by the Mardi Gras Indians' violence, disrespecting the culture their ancestors had died for. Many nights after Carnival, Tootie would come home in a battered suit, covered in blood and bruises from the night’s events. Tootie spoke out against Indian gang violence and turned to music and dance as a way to express competitive showmanship. In the words of Tootie’s widow, Joyce Montana, Tootie was the first to say, “stop fighting with your guns, begin fighting with your suits and minds". Tootie is the great nephew of the first creole to mask with the Indians. Becate went on to form his own Mardi Gras Indian tribe called the Creole Wild West given he was part Indian and part creole.
Tootie’s father Alfred Montana masked with the Mardi Gras Indians, which provided Tootie with the opportunity to observe the culture. His parents divorced when Tootie was eight years old, but the bond over masking kept Alfred and Tootie close. Alfred helped. Alfred helped Tootie construct his crown the first 2 years, his father delivered the crown the night before Carnival. The late arrival pushed to avoid having to suit without one. Before WWII Tootie became known as Big Chief of the Yellow Creole Pocahontas tribe. In 1947, he became Big Chief of a tribe he founded with local friends. During the time of his work as Big Chief, Tootie changed the nature of masking. On his climb to becoming the most well renowned Chief of the Mardi Gras Indians, Tootie changed the images of the Indian suits from ones of bland colors, to a show of aesthetically pleasing beads and sequences. Tootie would use vibrant colors and ostrich feathers to display his pride to be a Mardi Gras Indian, he became known for his geometric beadwork.
Many Indians patches. Tootie removed the violent nature of Mardi Gras Indians by replacing it with a competition of beauty, of love and sightseeing, he believed that if an Indian spent months working on an elaborate suit, they would avoid violent scenes to prevent tarnishing the suit. In the late 1950s, Tootie regained his title of Big Chief for the Yellow Creole Pocahontas tribe; the start of Carnival involves the Chief marching in the back of his tribe, while non-costumed followers trail behind the Indians, known as a second line. Ahead of the tribe is a "Spyboy", a block or two ahead, he will motion to the "Flagboy". The "Flagboy" will alert the chief; the chief will make the decision as to what road to take. Because of the ambiguous nature of the Indians, there is no telling what path they make take around New Orleans; this makes finding their exact location difficult to pinpoint each year. When two tribes meet each other on the same path, they will have a battle; this battle no longer involves bloodshed and weapons, but chanting and dancing, as well as an informal competition as to which chief has the "prettiest" suit.
The chants are in a native language, can tell a story, shared experience or taunt the opposing tribe. The relationships between the tribes have become calm since the work that Tootie did with changing the traditions of the Mardi Gras Indians. In 1982 Tootie is quoted to have said. Montana is a recipient of a 1987 National Heritage Fellowship awarded by the National Endowment for the Arts, the United States government's highest honor in the folk and traditional arts. Tootie continued to mask as Chief until 1998, when his son Darryl took over as Chief of The Yellow Pocahontas Tribe. At the age of 78, Tootie was the oldest continuously masking Mardi Gras Indian. In 1995 he stated, "I am the oldest, I am the best, I am the prettiest". There was one year during his career starting in 1947 and ending in 2005 that he did not mask, and, for Mardi Gras of 1986. After handing down the Yellow Pocahontas Tribe to his son, Tootie continued to work on suits and would mask during Carnival until he was 82 years old, totaling 52 years of masking.
He wasn’t able to walk as and had a cart pull