Catamarca is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. The province had a population of 334,568 as per the 2001 census, covers an area of 102,602 km2, its literacy rate is 95.5%. Neighbouring provinces are: Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Córdoba, La Rioja. To the west it borders the country of Chile; the capital is San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca shortened to Catamarca. Other important cities include Andalgalá, Belén. Most of Catamarca’s territory of 102,602 square kilometers, is covered by mountains, which can be grouped into four differentiated systems: the Pampean sierras, in the east and center. Located in an arid and semi-arid climate zone, the scarce water resources determine the human settlement pattern. Agricultural activities are concentrated in the valleys between the mountains. In the east the population is concentrated around a number of water courses, water being distributed by canals and irrigation ditches; the province is located with the semi–arid region of Argentina.
Mean annual precipitation of the province is around 400 to 500 millimetres which decreases to the west. The province is characterized by the presence of different microclimates based on variations in altitude. In general, there are three different climatic zones found within the province; the northeastern parts of the province has a subtropical highland climate, characterized by abundant rainfall and high temperatures. Summers are hot. At the highest peaks of Sierra del Aconquija, snow cover is permanent. Most of the province and its intermontane valleys have an arid climate. Within these valleys which includes the provincial capital, the climate is characterized by its extreme aridity, large thermal amplitudes and strong northeastern winds; the region is characterized by abundant sunshine with winds predominantly coming from the northeast and southeast. Nonetheless, there is large variation between different locations owing to differences in altitude and differences in the relief and altitudes of the surrounding mountains that enclose the valleys.
Mean annual precipitation ranges from 500 to 700 millimetres in the eastern parts of the region to less than 150 millimetres in the west. In the arid valleys, mean annual precipitation is around 160 millimetres. Most of the precipitation occurs during summer, falling as short but heavy bursts with the rest of the year being dry. Mean annual temperatures range between 16 to 18 °C with eastern and central parts having mean annual temperatures of 20 °C. In summer, the mean temperature is 25 °C although they can reach up to 45 °C. Winters, with a mean temperature of 10 °C are characterized by frequent frosts. Locations in the west experience colder winters due to their higher altitudes with temperatures that can decrease to −30 °C. During winter, the Zonda wind occurs, leading to dry conditions that can lead to dust storms. In the extreme west of the province is the Puna region located in the Antofagasta de la Sierra Department; the region has a desert climate with low precipitation. This is due to the mountains.
Mean annual precipitation decreases from north to south and from east to west. Owing to its high altitude, the climate is characterized by low temperatures; the thermal amplitude is large, reaching up to 40 °C due to the combination of low humidity and high solar radiation. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquest, most of today's Catamarca was inhabited by the Diaguitas indigenous people, including the fierce Calchaquí tribe. In 1558 Juan Pérez de Zurita founded San Juan de la Ribera de Londres, but since it was under attack by indigenous people its population remained small; the sixth foundation was by Fernando de Mendoza Mate de Luna on July 5, 1683, with the name San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca. When the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in 1776, Catamarca obtained the title of Subintendencia under the Salta intendency. In 1821, the province claimed its autonomy, Nicolás Avellaneda y Tula was elected as the first governor of the province; the name is believed to come either from Quechua cata'slope' and marca'fortress', or from Aymara catán'small' and marca'town'.
Catamarca remained isolated from the rest of Argentina by its mountains until 1888, when the expanding railways first appeared in the province. Attracting immigrants with its spacious, fertile valleys and dry, agreeable weather, Catamarca was soon favored by immigrants from Lebanon and Iran, who found Catamarca reminiscent of the fertile, orchard-lined mountain valleys of the homes they left behind. One such family, the Saadis, became prominent in local commerce and politics. In 1949, the newly designated province elected Vicente Saadi as governor. Saadi, a Peronist, would become indispensable to local politics, exerting influence by proxy. Passing away in 1988, he was succeeded by his son Ramon. In 1990, close friends of the Saadis were involved in the
Francisco de Aguirre (conquistador)
Francisco de Aguirre was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the conquest of Peru, Bolivia and Argentina. Francisco de Aguirre was the son of Hernando de la Rúa and of Constanza de Meneses, he joined the army of Carlos I, participating in the Battle of Pavia and the assault on Rome in 1527. While in Rome as an Alférez in 1517, he was charged with the protection of a convent and as a reward, the Pope allowed him to marry his cousin, María de Torres y Meneses, while the King appointed him Corregidor of Talavera de la Reina, he moved to Peru with a large retinue that included slaves and servants. He was part of the relief expedition that saved Gonzalo Pizarro, under siege in Cochabamba, between 1538 and 1539 he participated in the conquest of the province of Charcas, in present-day Bolivia, under the command of Diego de Rojas; when he heard that Pedro de Valdivia was on his way to conquer Chile in 1540, he moved his troops to Tarapacá, where he waited for two months in order to join him.
Aguirre became a close confidant of Valdivia and achieved a premier place in the new colony, being named one of the Alcaldes of the first settlement of Santiago and being injured in the defense of the city on September 11, 1541, when local Indians led by Michimalonco destroyed it. On June 20, 1549, Aguirre was appointed lieutenant governor of the zone between the Atacama Desert and the Choapa River, charged with the reconstruction of La Serena, destroyed by Indians from the north, he was chosen for this task since he had demonstrated a strong hand in the war against the Indians and their resulting punishment. On August 29, 1549, Aguirre refounded the city, he led his troops out in persecution of the Indians. The north of Chile would remain free of danger from on, although somewhat depopulated and deficient in labor. In 1552 the Lieutenant General of La Serena, Aguirre took possession of Tucumán, on the other side of the Andes, after disputing the claim of Juan Núñez de Prado, who did not recognize the authority of Valdivia.
There, after a series of exploratory expeditions, he founded the city of Santiago del Estero del Nuevo Maestrazgo on July 25, 1553. When Valdivia died in the Battle of Tucapel, his will was opened and found to designate Aguirre in the absence of Jerónimo de Alderete; when he received the news, he was in Tucumán, Francisco de Villagra had managed to be acknowledged as governor, due to the death of Alderete and the absence of Aguirre. Apprised of the situation by his friends in La Serena, he returned there, where he was welcomed as Captain General and Governor of Chile, he communicated his arrival to the Cabildo of Santiago, letting it be known that the troops under his command were prepared to maintain his position, his by right of Valdivia's will. The Cabildo of Santiago, refused to acknowledge the declaration, disarming the contingent of troops under Aguirre's brother Hernando, sent to deliver it; the conflict was resolved when a petition was sent to the Audiencia in Lima, which determined that the council had to submit to the command for six months, after which the viceroy Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Cañete would designate a new governor.
If the term expired, Villagra would be the governor, in command of the army of the south. Aguirre wanted to ignore the verdict, but his forces were too small to match Villagra's if there was a confrontation, so he accepted it bitterly. In 1557 the viceroy's son García Hurtado de Mendoza arrived as the newly designated governor. One of his first actions was to have Aguirre and Villagra arrested, despite their courteous behavior in front of him. Aguirre's imprisonment in Peru was not appreciated by the King and his advisers, in 1562 the Viceroy of Peru Diego López de Zúñiga appointed him as Governor of the province of Tucumán, at the point of being lost to a general uprising of the local population. In 1564, when the conquest of this region was at the point of being reversed, Aguirre returned it again to Spanish domination. During his mandate, a rebellion was fomented by Jerónimo de Holguín, which concluded with the capture of Aguirre. Freed he was indicted by the ecclesiastical authority of Charcas for having made heretical statements.
The constant turmoils of his administration motivated the viceroy to remove Aguirre from his post, naming in his place Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. In 1576, Aguirre returned to Chile and settled modestly in La Serena, where he was held in respect until his death in 1581
University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria. Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school; each subject is of one semester duration. If someone passes all 6 subjects in their respective semester, the CBC will take only one year. Potential students of economics, take a 2-year common cycle, the "CBG", comprising 12 subjects; the UBA has no central campus. A centralized Ciudad Universitaria was started in the 1960s, but contains only two schools, with the others at different locations in Buenos Aires.
Access to the university is free of charge including foreigners. However, the postgraduate programs charge tuition fees that can be covered with research scholarships for those students with outstanding academic performance; the university has produced four Nobel Prize laureates, one of the most prolific institutions in the Spanish-speaking world. According to the QS World University Rankings the University of Buenos Aires ranked number 75 in the world, making it the highest ranked university in Ibero-America; the schools that comprise the university are: Ciclo Básico Común Facultad de Psicología Facultad de Ingeniería Facultad de Odontología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Facultad de Derecho Facultad de Medicina Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Facultad de Veterinaria Facultad de Agronomía Facultad de Ciencias Económicas Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo Of these, only the last two have their buildings located in Ciudad Universitaria, a campus-like location in Núñez, in northern Buenos Aires along the banks of the Río de la Plata.
The others are scattered around the city in buildings of various sizes, with some having more than one building. There are projects to move more schools to Ciudad Universitaria, the first one in order of importance is the School of Psychology, whose building is designed to be placed on this Campus. There are no existing Argentinian or Latin-American university ranking systems, but several international rankings have ranked the University of Buenos Aires; the reputed Academic Ranking of World Universities known as the Shanghai Ranking ranked UBA not only above all other Argentinian universities but all other Latin-American ones. The QS World University Rankings ranks UBA in the 75th place, above all other Spanish or Portuguese speaking universities in its worldwide ranking but relegates it to the 11th place in its Latin-American ranking. Luis Agote, physician Diana Agrest, Argentine born American architect and theorist Viviana Alder, marine microbiologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Teodosio Cesar Brea and founder of Allende & Brea Alejandro Bulgheroni, oil billionaire Juan Cabral, film director Luis Caffarelli, mathematician Alberto Calderón, mathematician Primarosa Chieri, geneticist Julio Cortázar, writer Augusto Claudio Cuello and Charles E. Frosst/Merck Chair in Pharmacology and Therapeutics at McGill University Che Guevara, revolutionary leader and physician Esther Hermitte, anthropologist Salvador Maciá, physician and politician Jose Pedro Montero De Candia, 27th President of Paraguay Luis Moreno-Ocampo, lawyer and Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Patricio Pouchulu and educator Alberto Prebisch, architect Raul Prebisch, economist Teresa Ratto, physician Juan Rosai, Italian-born American surgical pathologist José Luis Murature, foreign minister of Argentina Irene Schloss, plankton biologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Clorindo Testa and painter Richard Tomlinson, former British spy Claudio Vekstein, architect specialized in public architecture Rafael Viñoly, Uruguayan architect Inés Mónica Weinberg de Roca, former Judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for RwandaThe following former students and professors of the university have received the Nobel Prize: Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Peace, 1936.
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Peace, 1980. Bernardo Houssay, Physiology, 1947. Luis Federico Leloir, Chemistry, 1970. César Milstein, Medicine, 1984; the following Presidents of Argentina have earned their degrees at the university: Carlos Pellegrini, lawyer. Luis Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Manuel Quintana, lawyer. Roque Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Victorino de la Plaza, lawyer. Hipólito Yrigoyen (1916–1922 and 1928–1930, Radical Civic U
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Viceroyalty of Peru
The Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that contained modern-day Peru and most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima. The Viceroyalty of Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries; the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal; the creation during the 18th century of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Río de la Plata reduced the importance of Lima and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish Empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century; these movements led to the formation of the modern-day countries of Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Argentina and Venezuela in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.
After the Spanish conquest of Peru, the first Audiencia was constituted by Lope García de Castro, a Spanish colonial administrator who served as a member of the Council of the Indies and of the Audiencias of Panama and Lima. From September 2, 1564, to November 26, 1569, he was interim viceroy of Peru. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, which shortly afterward would be called the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1544, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V named Blasco Núñez Vela Peru's first viceroy, but the viceroyalty was not organized until the arrival of Viceroy Francisco Álvarez de Toledo, who made an extensive tour of inspection of the colony. Francisco de Toledo, "one of the great administrators of human times", established the Inquisition in the viceroyalty and promulgated laws that applied to Indians and Spanish alike, breaking the power of the encomenderos and reducing the old system of mita, he improved the defensibility of the viceroyalty with fortifications, la Armada del Mar del Sur against pirates.
He ended the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, executing the Inca Túpac Amaru, promoted economic development from the commercial monopoly and mineral extraction from silver mines in Potosí. The Amazon Basin and some large adjoining regions had been considered Spanish territory since the Treaty of Tordesillas and explorations such as that by Francisco de Orellana, but Portugal fell under Spanish control between 1580 and 1640. During this time, Portuguese territories in Brazil were controlled by the Spanish crown, which did object to the spread of Portuguese settlement into parts of the Amazon Basin that the treaty had awarded to Spain. Still, Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera, 4th Count of Chinchón sent out a third expedition to explore the Amazon River, under Cristóbal de Acuña; some Pacific islands and archipelagoes were visited by Spanish ships in the sixteenth century, but they made no effort to trade with or colonize them. These included New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas Islands by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira.
The first Jesuit reduction to Christianize the indigenous population was founded in 1609, but some areas occupied by Brazilians as bandeirantes extended their activities through much of the basin and adjoining Mato Grosso in the 17th and 18th centuries. These groups had the advantage of remote geography and river access from the mouth of the Amazon, in Portuguese territory. Meanwhile, the Spanish were barred by their laws from enslaving indigenous people, leaving them without a commercial interest deep in the interior of the basin. A famous attack upon a Spanish mission in 1628 resulted in the enslavement of 60,000 indigenous people. In fact, as time passed, they were used as a self-funding occupation force by the Portuguese authorities in what was a low-level war of territorial conquest. In 1617, viceroy Francisco de Borja y Aragón divided the government of Río de la Plata in two, Buenos Aires and Paraguay, both dependencies of the Viceroyalty of Peru, he established the Tribunal del Consulado, a court and administrative body for commercial affairs in the viceroyalty.
Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar, reformed the fiscal system and stopped the interfamily rivalry, bloodying the domain. Other viceroys, such as Fernando Torres, Fernández de Cabrera, Fernández Córdoba expanded the colonial navy and fortified the ports to resist pirate attacks, such as those led by the Englishman Thomas Cavendish. Fernández de Cabrera suppressed an insurrection of the Mapuche Indians. Viceroys had to protect the Pacific coast from English and Dutch pirates, they expanded the naval forces, fortified the ports of Valdivia, Valparaíso, Arica and Callao and constructed city walls in Lima and Trujillo. The famous English privateer Henry Morgan took Chagres and captured and sacked the city of Panama in the early part of 1670. Peruvian forces repelled the attacks by Edward David, Charles Wager and Thomas Colb; the Peace of Utrecht allowed the British to send ships and merchandise to the fair at Portobello. In this period, revolts were common. Around 1656, Pedro Bohórquez crowned himself Inca of the Calchaquí Indians, inciting the indigenous population to
Tucumán is the most densely populated, the second-smallest by land area, of the provinces of Argentina. Located in the northwest of the country, the province has the capital of San Miguel de Tucumán shortened to Tucumán. Neighboring provinces clockwise from the north: Salta, Santiago del Estero and Catamarca, it is nicknamed El Jardín de la República, as it is a productive agricultural area. The word Tucumán originated from the Quechua languages, it may represent a deformation of the term Yucumán, which denotes the "place of origin of several rivers". It can be a deformation of the word Tucma, which means "the end of things". Before Spanish colonization, the region lay in the outer limits of the Inca empire. Before the Spanish colonization, this land was inhabited by the Tonocotes. In 1533, Diego de Almagro explored the Argentine Northwest, including Tucumán. In 1549 the Peruvian governor Pedro de la Gasca granted Juan Núñez de Prado the territory of Tucumán. Prado established the first Spanish settlement at the town of Barco on the Dulce River.
Prado named his province "Tucumán" after Tucumamahao, one of the leaders of the local people who formed an alliance with him. In 1552, Francisco de Aguirre was dispatched to take possession of the territory for Chile. Aguirre followed a repressive policy. Outnumbered, the colonists were forced to move in 1553 to a new location, where they founded the town of Santiago del Estero. By 1565, Diego de Villaroel founded San Miguel de Tucumán and the Provincia de Tucumán, Juríes y Diaguitas was organized; because of frequent attacks by the indigenous peoples, the Malones, in 1685, San Miguel de Tucumán was moved by Miguel de Salas some 65 km from its first location, where it was redeveloped. The aborigines of the region presented a strong resistance to the Spanish, who decided to move the defeated tribes toward Buenos Aires; the most noted of these relocations was the case of the Quilmes, who were moved to the city of Quilmes. Tucumán was a midpoint for shipments of gold and silver from the Viceroyalty of Peru to Buenos Aires.
It produced cattle and wood products that provided supplies for the convoys on their way to Buenos Aires. Because of its important geographical position, as head of the civil and Catholic governments, it acquired special importance during the 18th century; the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 meant the end of the convoys from Perú to Buenos Aires. Tucumán, with 20,000 inhabitants by that time, suffered from the British imports from the newly opened customs of Buenos Aires, no longer under the monopoly of the Spanish Crown. In 1783, the Intendency of Tucumán was divided. José de San Martín installed the military school. In 1814, the Intendency of Salta was divided into the present provinces. On July 9, 1816, at the Congress of Tucumán, the Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata declared their independence from Spain. Internal conflicts delayed the final fusion of the provinces into the República Argentina. Following the failure of Argentina's first independence-era government, the Directorio, Governor Bernabé Aráoz on March 22, 1820, proclaimed the creation of the Federal Republic of Tucumán.
The experiment collapsed, when the neighboring provinces of Catamarca and Santiago del Estero withdrew the following year. The beginning of the 20th century, with the customs restrictions and the arrival of the railway, brought prosperous economic times for the province and its sugarcane production. Numerous landmarks were built, such as Ninth of July Park and the Tucumán Government Palace, a daily newspaper founded in 1912, La Gaceta, became the most circulated Argentine daily outside Buenos Aires, but the sugar price crisis of the 1960s and President Juan Carlos Onganía's order to have 11 large state-owned sugar mills closed in 1966, hit Tucumán's economy hard, ushered in an era of instability for the province. In 1975, President Isabel Perón declared a state of emergency in the province; the decree led to Operation Independence, an official military campaign at least as brutal on local magistrates and faculty as it was on its stated target, the ERP. Violence did not abate until the appointment of General Antonio Domingo Bussi, the operation's commander, as governor at the behest of the dictatorship that deposed Perón in 1976.
Efficient as well as ruthless, Bussi oversaw the completion of several stalled public works, but presided over some of the worst human rights abuses during that painful 1976-77 period. Retaining a sizable following, Bussi was elected governor in his own right in 1995, but lost much of his earlier popularity during his four-year tenure. Life in Tucumán has since returned to a certain normality, its economy has recovered during the expansive period Argentina has had in the decade since 2002. José Alperovich, elected governor in 2003, has presided over record investment in public works while reaping criticism for attempts to eliminate term limits for his office. Despite Tucumán's small size, it has two main different geographical systems; the east is associated with the Gran Chaco flat lands, while the west presents a mixture of the Sierras of the Pampas to the south and the canyons of the Argentine Northwest to the north. The Cerro del Bolsón is the highest peak at an elevation of 5,550 metres.
The Salí is the province's main river. Tucumán has four dams that are used for hydroelectricity and irrigation: El Cadillal on Salí River, the province's most important dam.
The Province of Chaco is a province in north-eastern Argentina. It is bordered by Salta and Santiago del Estero to the west, Formosa to the north, Corrientes to the east, Santa Fe to the south, it has an international border with the Paraguayan Department of Ñeembucú. The capital, largest city, is Resistencia. With an area of 99,633 km2, a population of 1,055,259 as of 2010, it is the twelfth most extensive, the ninth most populated, of the twenty-three Argentine provinces. Chaco Province has been among Argentina's poorest regions, presently ranks last by per capita GDP and on the Human Development Index. Chaco derives from chacú, the Quechua word used to name a hunting territory or the hunting technique used by the people of the Inca Empire. Annually, large groups of up to thirty thousand hunters would enter the territory, forming columns and circling their prey. Jesuit missioner Pedro Lozano wrote in his book Chorographic Description of the Great Chaco Gualamba, published in Cordoba, Spain in 1733: "Its etymology indicates the multitude of nations that inhabit that region.
When they go hunting, the Indians gather from many parts the guanacos. However, the earliest known mention of the term in a document was in a letter written to Fernando Torres de Portugal y Mesía, Viceroy of Peru, dated in 1589, by the Governor of Tucumán, Juan Ramírez de Velasco, who referred to the region as Chaco Gualamba; the province of Chaco lies within the southern part of the Gran Chaco region, a vast lowland plain that covers territories in Argentina and Bolivia. Chaco Province ranks as the twelfth largest Argentinian province; the highest ground in the province is the most western, near the municipality of Taco Pozo, at an elevation of 272 m above sea level. The Paraná and Paraguay rivers separate Chaco province from Corrientes Province and the Republic of Paraguay. To the north, the river Bermejo forms another natural border, dividing Chaco Province from Formosa Province. In the south, the border follows the 28th parallel south, separating the region from Santa Fe Province, while in the west it borders Salta and Santiago del Estero.
Other important rivers include: the Negro, Tapenagá, Salado, all tributaries or anabranches of the river Paraná. The province has a subtropical climate, it is divided in two different climate zones: a more humid one in the east and a drier subtropical climate in the center and west. The eastern parts of the province have a humid subtropical climate with no dry season. In the west where precipitation is lower, it has a subtropical climate with a dry winter and is classified as a semi-arid climate due to potential evapotranspiration exceeding precipitation. In the most humid parts of the province, precipitation falls throughout the year with no dry season; these areas receive around 1,400 millimetres of precipitation per year. Precipitation decreases become more concentrated in the summer months. Mean annual temperatures range between 21 to 23 °C north to south. Summers are hot with temperatures that can reach up to 38 to 41 °C in the eastern parts of the province; the western parts experience more variation in temperatures due continental influences.
During winters, incursions of cold, polar air from the south can lead to frosts and temperatures that fall below freezing. Being under an area of high solar radiation during summer, a consequence is that a low pressure system forms over the province during summer. Humidity in the province is high due to its climate in the north, the wettest portion of the province. Most of the winds that transport humid air come from the east. Winters are the most humid seasons due to this season being characterized by frequent fogs; the area was inhabited by various hunter-gatherers speaking languages from the Mataco-Guaicru family. Native tribes including the Toba, Wichí survive in the region and have important communities in this province as well as in Formosa Province. In 1576, the governor of a province in Northern Argentina commissioned the military to search for a huge mass of iron, which he had heard that natives used for their weapons; the natives called the area Heavenly Fields, translated into Spanish as Campo del Cielo.
This area is now a protected region situated on the border between the provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero where a group of iron meteorites fell in a Holocene impact event some four to five thousand years ago. In 2015, Police arrested four alleged smugglers trying to steal over a ton of protected meteoric iron; the first European settlement was founded by Spanish conquistador Alonso de Vera y Aragón, in 1585, was called Concepción de Nuestra Señora. It was abandoned in 1632. During its existence, it was one of the most important cities in the region, but attacks from local Indians forced the residents to leave. In the 17th century, the San Fernando del Río Negro Jesuit mission was founded in the area of the modern-day city of Resistencia, but it was abandoned fifteen years later; the Gran Chaco region remained unexplored, uninhabited, by either Europeans or Argentines until the late 19th century, after numerous confrontations between Argentina a