Raffaellino del Garbo
Raffaellino del Garbo was a Florentine painter of the early Renaissance. His real name was Raffaello Capponi, he has been called Raffaello de Florentia, Raffaello de Carolis or Karli. He was a pupil of Filippino Lippi, he accompanied Filippino to Rome, where he painted the ceiling of the chapel of St. Thomas Aquinas in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Vasari thought the artist had died at Florence in 1524; this was evidently a case of mistaken identity, since he was listed as fit for military duty in 1527. Raffaelino succumbed during the plague that ravaged Florence during 1527 to 1528. Among his works are a Resurrection for the church of the Benedictine monastery of Monte Oliveto, now in the Galleria dell'Accademia, he painted a Miracle of the Loaves in the refectory of the convent at Cesto. A Coronation of the Virgin is in the Louvre museum. A Madonna and child with Saints and donors was at the Berlin Museum. Another picture painted in the early part of his life is in the monastery of San Salvi, is commended by Moreni in his Notizie istoriclie dei Contorni di Firenze.
He painted a Virgin and Child between SS. Francis and Zenobius and two kneeling patrons, (1500, is in the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova, in Florence, he had a large family. The cares of a large family proved fatal to the growing reputation of Capponi, causing him to sink into a state of listlessness and apathy; the young Bronzino was his pupil. Portraits Religious works This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Raffaellino del Garbo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22. Cambridge University Press. P. 813. Bryan, Michael. Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London. P. 230. Zeri, F. & Gardner, E.. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Florentine School. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Angel Of The Annunciation Memorial Art Gallery: Madonna and Child with Angel Metropolitan Museum of Art: Madonna and Child with Saint Joseph and an Angel
Andrea del Castagno
Andrea del Castagno was an Italian painter from Florence, influenced chiefly by Masaccio and Giotto di Bondone. His works include frescoes in Sant'Apollonia in Florence and the painted equestrian monument of Niccolò da Tolentino in the Cathedral in Florence, he in turn influenced the Ferrarese school of Cosmè Tura, Francesco del Cossa and Ercole de' Roberti. Andrea del Castagno was born at a village near Monte Falterona, not far from Florence. During the war between Florence and Milan, he lived in Corella. In 1440 he moved to Florence under the protection of Bernadetto de' Medici. Here he painted the portraits of the citizens hanged after the Battle of Anghiari on the facade of the Palazzo del Podestà, gaining the nickname of Andrea degli Impiccati. Little is known about his formation, though it has been hypothised that he apprenticed under Fra Filippo Lippi and Paolo Uccello. In 1440–1441 he executed the fresco of Crucifixion and Saints in the Ospedale di Santa Maria Nuova, whose perspective-oriented construction and figures shows the influence of Masaccio.
In 1442 he was in Venice where he executed frescoes in the San Tarasio Chapel of the church of San Zaccaria. He worked in St Mark's Basilica, leaving a fresco of Death of the Virgin. Back in Florence, he designed a stained window with Deposition for the local Cathedral. On May 30, 1445 he became a member of the Guild of the Medicians. From the same year is the fresco of Madonna with Child and Santi in the Contini Bonacossi Collection. In 1447 he worked in the refectory of the Benedictine nuns at Sant'Apollonia in Florence, painting, in the lower part, a fresco of the Last Supper, accompanied above by other scenes portraying the Passion of Christ: Crucifixion and Resurrection, which are now damaged; this combination of scenes is not known to have been represented before. He painted a lunette in the convent's cloister, depicting a Pietà. Many important Florentine families had daughters in the convent at Sant'Apollonia, so painting there brought Andrea to their attention; the Last Supper displays Andrea del Castagno's talents at their best.
The detail and naturalism of this fresco portray the ways in which he departed from earlier artistic styles. It is that Leonardo da Vinci was familiar with this work before he painted his own Last Supper in a more dramatic form to contrast with the stillness of these works, so that more emotion would be displayed. In 1449–1450 he painted the Assumption with Saints Julian and Miniato for the main altar of the church of San Miniato fra le Torri in Florence. In the same years he collaborated with Filippo Carducci to paint a series of Illustrious People for the Villa Carducci at Legnaia; these include Pippo Spano, Farinata degli Uberti, Niccolò Acciaioli, Petrarca, the Cumaean Sibyl and Tomiri. From around 1450 is the Crucifixion in London, as well as the David with Goliath's Head and the Portrait of a Man, both in Washington. Between January 1451 and September 1453 he completed the frescoes with Scenes of the Life of the Virgin left unfinished by Domenico Veneziano in the Florentine church of Sant'Egidio, Florence.
In October Filippo Carducci commissioned him to paint frescoes for his villa at Soffiano, of which today an Eve and a ruined Madonna with Child survive. In 1455 Andrea del Castagno worked in the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata. In those years is attributed a Crucifixion for St. Apollonia. In 1456 he executed in the Florentine Cathedral the fresco of the Equestrian Statue of Niccolò da Tolentino, paralleling the similar painting by Paolo Uccello portraying John Hawkwood. Giorgio Vasari, an artist and biographer of the Italian Renaissance, alleged that Castagno murdered Domenico Veneziano, but this is impossible, since Veneziano died in 1461, four years after Castagno died of the plague, it has been suggested that Vasari was confusing this murder case with another one involving a "Domenico di Matteo", killed by an "Andreino" in 1448, but the archival record shows that this is a misreading: "A cursory examination reveals two things: first, that the name of the dead painter is not Domenico di Matteo, but Domenico di Marco.
From the series of Illustrious People for the Villa Carducci-Pandolfini Assumption of the Virgin between San Miniato and St. Julian, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin Castagno, Andrea. Andrea del Castagno: complete edition with a critical catalogue. Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1980. Horster, Marita. Andrea del Castagno: complete edition with a critical catalogue. Ithaca, N. Y: Cornell University Press, 1980. Spencer, John. Andrea del Castagno and his patrons. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. Media related to Andrea del Castagno at Wikimedia Commons
Giambologna — — was a Flemish sculptor based in Italy, celebrated for his marble and bronze statuary in a late Renaissance or Mannerist style. Jean de Boulogne was born in Douai, Flanders, in 1529. After youthful studies in Antwerp with the architect-sculptor Jacques du Broeucq, he moved to Italy in 1550 and studied in Rome, making a detailed study of the sculpture of classical antiquity, he was much influenced by Michelangelo, but developed his own Mannerist style, with less emphasis on emotion and more emphasis on refined surfaces, cool elegance, beauty. Pope Pius IV gave Giambologna his first major commission, the colossal bronze Neptune and subsidiary figures for the Fountain of Neptune in Bologna. Giambologna spent his most productive years in Florence, where he had settled in 1553. In 1563 he was named a member of the prestigious Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, just founded by the Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, on 13 January 1563, under the influence of the painter-architect Giorgio Vasari, becoming one of the Medicis' most important court sculptors.
He died in Florence at the age of 79. He was interred in a chapel. Giambologna became well known for a fine sense of action and movement, a refined, differentiated surface finish. Among his most famous works are the Mercury, poised on one foot, supported by a zephyr; the god raises one arm to point heavenwards in a gesture borrowed from the repertory of classical rhetoric, characteristic of Giambologna's maniera. His other most famous work is the Rape of the Sabine Women a marble sculpture, featured prominently in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence's Piazza della Signoria; this impressive sculpture which includes three full figures was carved from a single piece of marble. Giambologna carved it without a subject in mind, the name Rape of the Sabine Women was given after it was in place in the Loggia; the sculpture was produced for Grand Duke of Tuscany. Another of his marbles, Hercules Slaying a Centaur was placed in the Loggia dei Lanzi in 1599. Giambologna's several depictions of Venus established a canon of proportions, set models for the goddess' representation that were influential for two generations of sculptors in Italy and in the North.
He created allegories promoting Medicean political propaganda, such as Florence Defeating Pisa and, less overtly, Samson Slaying a Philistine, for Francesco de' Medici. The equestrian statue of Cosimo I de' Medici in Florence, was completed by his studio assistant Pietro Tacca. Giambologna provided as well as many sculptures for garden grottos and fountains in the Boboli Gardens of Florence and at Pratolino, the bronze doors of the cathedral of Pisa, he created the bronze sea-horses and some other sculptures for Bartolomeo Ammannati's Fountain of Neptune, Florence. For the grotto of the Villa Medicea of Castello he sculpted a series of studies of individual animals, from life, which may now be viewed at the Bargello. Small bronze reductions of many of his sculptures were prized by connoisseurs at the time and since, for Giambologna's reputation has never suffered eclipse. Giambologna was an important influence on sculptors through his pupils Adriaen de Vries and Pietro Francavilla who left his atelier for Paris in 1601, as well as Pierre Puget who spread Giambologna's influence throughout Northern Europe, in Italy on Pietro Tacca, who assumed Giambologna's workshop in Florence, in Rome on Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Alessandro Algardi.
Gloria Fossi, et al. Italian Art, Giunti Gruppo Editoriale, 2000, ISBN 88-09-01771-4. Giambologna, 1529-1608: sculptor to the Medici: an exhibition organised by the Arts Council of Great Britain etc. catalogue edited by Charles Avery and Anthony Radcliffe. London, Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978, ISBN 0-7287-0180-4. Biography with a portrait on kfki.hu Giambologna on mega.it "Model of a River God". Sculpture. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 2007-09-22. "Samson and a Philistine". Sculpture. Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original on 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2011-03-15. "The Flagellation of Christ". Red Wax Sculpture. Queensland Art Gallery. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. Retrieved 2011-03-15. "Rape of Proserpina". Bronze. Norton Simon Museum. Retrieved 2015-02-20. A Tour of the location of Giambologna's major works in Florence
Matteo Rosselli was an Italian painter of the late Florentine Counter-Mannerism and early Baroque. He is best known however for his populated grand-manner historical paintings, he first apprenticed with Gregorio Pagani. On 26 February 1599, he was inducted to the Accademia del Disegno, in 1605 traveled to Rome to work with Domenico Passignano for six months, he completed some frescoes on Lives of Servite Monks in the Palazzo Pitti and in the Cloister of the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata. He painted a Crucifixion now in the parish church at Scarperia, he painted a Last Supper now in Conservatorio di San Pier Martire. Upon the French monarch's death, he was commissioned two commemorative paintings of events in the life of Henry IV: his visit to Nantes and Gaudabec, he completed an Assumption for the church of San Domenico in Pistoia. He painted a number of frescoes for the Casa Buonarroti based on events of Michelangelo's life, including Fortifications of San Miniato and two others, all commissioned by his nephew, Michelangelo Buonarroti the younger.
In 1621, he was commissioned to paint a Triumph of David for the Pitti Palace, a Lot and his Daughters and Tobias and Angel for the Galleria Corsini in Florence. Further decorations were commissioned by Leopoldo de' Medici for the Casino di San Marco: Frederick II rebuilds the Port of Livorno and the Capture of Ippona. Leopoldo commissioned from Rosselli a series of allegorical paintings for the Sala della Stufa in Palazzo Pitti, he frescoed in reception rooms of the Villa di Poggio Imperiale with scenes portraying European emperors amid biblical and historical scenes. He painted a Madonna of the Rosary for the Cathedral of Pietrasanta and a canvas of the Mission of St Paul in Damascus (frame by Nero di Porta Venere, for the Duomo of Volterra; the largest collection of Rosselli drawings is contained within the Louvre Museum, with many being preliminary sketches for other works. Among his many pupils were Baldassare Franceschini, Lorenzo Lippi, Francesco Furini, Giovanni da San Giovanni, Jacopo Vignali.
Wittkower, Rudolf. Pelican History of Art and Architecture Italy, 1600–1750. 1980. Penguin Books Ltd. p. 344. Artnet biography from Grove Encyclopedia of Art Louvre Museum, Collection of works by Matteo Rosselli
The Gallerie dell'Accademia is a museum gallery of pre-19th-century art in Venice, northern Italy. It is housed in the Scuola della Carità on the south bank of the Grand Canal, within the sestiere of Dorsoduro, it was the gallery of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia, the art academy of Venice, from which it became independent in 1879, for which the Ponte dell'Accademia and the Accademia boat landing station for the vaporetto water bus are named. The two institutions remained in the same building until 2004, when the art school moved to the Ospedale degli Incurabili; the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia was founded on 24 September 1750. The first director was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, it was one of the first institutions to study art restoration starting in 1777 with Pietro Edwards, formalised by 1819 as a course. In 1807 the academy was re-founded by Napoleonic decree; the name was changed from Veneta Academia di Pittura, Scultura e Architettura to Accademia Reale di Belle Arti, "royal academy of fine arts", the academy was moved to the Palladian complex of the Scuola della Carità, where the Gallerie dell'Accademia are still housed.
The collections of the Accademia were first opened to the public on 10 August 1817. The Gallerie dell'Accademia became independent from the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia in 1879. Like other state museums in Italy, it falls under the Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, the Italian ministry of culture and heritage; the Napoleonic administration had disbanded many institutions in Venice including some churches and Scuole. The Scuola della Carità, the Convento dei Canonici Lateranensi and the church of Santa Maria della Carità thus became the home of the Accademia; the Scuola della Carità was the oldest of the six Scuole Grandi and the building dates back to 1343, though the scuola was formed in 1260. The Convento dei Canonici Lateranensi was started in 1561 by Andrea Palladio, though it was never completed; the facade of Santa Maria della Carità was completed in 1441 by Bartolomeo Bon. The Gallerie dell’Accademia contains masterpieces of Venetian painting up to the 18th century arranged chronologically though some thematic displays are evident.
Artists represented include: Antonello da Messina, Lazzaro Bastiani and Giovanni Bellini, Bernardo Bellotto, Pacino di Bonaguida,Canaletto, Giulio Carpioni, Rosalba Carriera, Cima da Conegliano, Pietro Gaspari, Michele Giambono, Luca Giordano, Francesco Guardi, Johann Liss, Charles Le Brun, Pietro Longhi, Lorenzo Lotto, Rocco Marconi, Michele Marieschi, Giambattista Pittoni, Tiepolo, Titian, Vasari, Leonardo da Vinci, Alvise Vivarini, Giuseppe Zais. Media related to Gallerie dell'Accademia at Wikimedia Commons
Bartolommeo Bandinelli Bartolommeo Brandini, was a Renaissance Italian sculptor and painter. Bandinelli was the son of a prominent Florentine goldsmith, first apprenticed in his shop; as a boy, he was apprenticed under Giovanni Francesco Rustici, a sculptor friend of Leonardo da Vinci. Among his earliest works was a Saint Jerome in wax, made for Giuliano de' Medici, identified as Bandinelli's by John Pope-Hennessy. Giorgio Vasari, a former pupil in Bandinelli's workshop, claimed Bandinelli was driven by jealousy of Benvenuto Cellini and Michelangelo. In... 1512, Piero Soderini was deposed and the... Medici reinstated. In the tumult, Baccio, being by himself, secretly cut the cartoon into several pieces; some said he did it that he might have a piece of the cartoon always near him, others that he wanted to prevent other youths from making use of it. The loss anyhow to the city was no small one, Baccio's fault great. Bandinelli's lifelong obsession with Michelangelo is a recurring theme in assessments of his career.
Bandinelli was a leader in the group of Florentine Mannerists who were inspired by the revived interest in Donatello attendant on the installation of Donatello's bas-relief panels for the pulpit in San Lorenzo, 1515. The artist presented his relief of the Deposition to Charles V at Genoa in 1529, his sculptures have never inspired the admiration given those of Michelangelo the colossal marble group of Hercules and Cacus in the Piazza della Signoria and Adam and Eve in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello, which both stand within sight of some of Michelangelo's masterworks. Vasari said of him "He did nothing but make bozzetti and finished little", modern commentators have remarked on the vitality of Bandinelli's terracotta models contrasted with the finished marbles: "all the freshness of his first approach to a subject was lost in the laborious execution in marble... A brilliant draughtsman and excellent small-scale sculptor, he had a morbid fascination for colossi which he was ill-equipped to execute.
His failure as a sculptor on a grand scale was accentuated by his desire to imitate Michelangelo."Hercules and Cacus was commissioned by the Medici pope Clement VII, shown a wax model. The supplied block of Carrara marble was not big enough to execute Bandinelli's wax model, he had to make new wax models, one of, chosen by the pope as the final draft. Bandinelli had carved the sculpture as far as the abdomen of Hercules, when during the 1527 Sack of Rome, the pope was taken prisoner. Meanwhile, in Florence, republican enemies of the Medici took advantage of the chaos to exile Ippolito de' Medici. Bandinelli, a supporter of the Medici, was exiled. In 1530 Emperor Charles V retook Florence after a long siege. Pope Clement VII subsequently installed his illegitimate son Alessandro de' Medici as duke of Tuscany. Bandinelli returned to Florence and continue work on the statue till completed in 1534, transported from the Opera del Duomo to its present marble pedestal, but from the moment it was unveiled, it faced ridicule.
Afterwards, the Bandinelli tried to sabotage Cellini's career. The statue was restored between February and April 1994. Bandinelli's drawings, which have in the past masqueraded as Michelangelos in connoisseurs' collections, have come into their own in the twentieth century. Among Bandinelli's pupils were Francesco de' Rossi, his sons Clemente, a collaborator in his studio, Michelangelo Bandinelli were sculptors. Baccio Bandinelli's works include: copy of the Laocoön group, at the time in the Cortile del Belvedere, commissioned by Pope Leo X as a gift to François I. Bandinelli boasted that he would exceed the original, when he was finished, after a hiatus during the pontificate of Adrian VI, the Medici Pope Clement VII could not bear to part with it, sent some antiquities to the King of France in its stead, sent Baccio's Laocoon to Florence, it remains at the Uffizi. Tombs of the Medici popes Leo Clement VII in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Bust of Cosimo I de' Medici This had been locked away in a vault in a Swiss bank until a dealer's tip led the curator Olga Raggio to its rediscovery.
Monument to Giovanni delle Bande Nere, a seated figure on a magnificent pedestal, in piazza San Lorenzo, Florence Pietà in the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata, where Bandinelli portrayed himself in the figure of Joseph of Arimathea. Bandinelli is buried with his wife Giacoma Doni. Ceres and Apollo for niches in the façade of Buontalenti's grotto in the Boboli Gardens Orpheus for Palazzo Vecchio, now in the courtyard of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. One of Bandinelli's few signed works. Works for the Duomo, including the high altar and its Adam and Eve, now in the Bargello and Pietà now in the crypt of Santa Croce.
Ludovico III Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua
Ludovico III Gonzaga of Mantua spelled Lodovico was the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua from 1444 to his death in 1478. Ludovico was the son of Gianfrancesco I Gonzaga and Paola daughter of Malatesta IV Malatesta of Pesaro. Ludovico followed the path of his father, fighting as a condottiero from as early as 1432, when Gianfrancesco was vice-commander of Francesco Bussone's army. In 1433, he married Barbara of niece of emperor Sigismund. Starting from 1436 he entered the service of the Visconti of the Duchy of Milan; the result was that Gianfrancesco exiled Ludovico from Mantua, together with his wife, naming Carlo Gonzaga as heir. However, in 1438 Gianfrancesco himself was hired by the Visconti, reconciled with Ludovico in 1441. Ludovico succeeded to the marquisate of Mantua in 1444, although part of the family fiefs went to his brothers Carlo and Alessandro. At the time, the Mantuan state was reduced in size and in poor conditions after years of war and large expenses. From 1445 to 1450 Ludovico served as condottiero for Milan, Florence and Naples, switching his allegiance in order to grant the higher level of peace for his lands.
In 1448 he took part in the battle of Caravaggio, was forced to flee. In 1449 he entered the service of Venice in the league formed with Florence against Milan. In 1450 he received permission to lead an army for King Alfonso of Naples in Lombardy, with the intent of gaining some possessions for himself. However, Francesco Sforza, the new duke of Milan, enticed him with the promise of Lonato and Asola Mantuan territories but part of Venice. Venice responded by hiring Ludovico's brother, Carlo. On 14 June 1453 Ludovico routed the troops of Carlo at Goito, but Venetian troops under Niccolò Piccinino thwarted any attempt to regain Asola; the Peace of Lodi obliged Ludovico to give back all his conquests, to renounce definitively his claim to the three cities. However, he obtained his brother's land after Carlo's childless death in 1456; the moment of highest prestige for Mantua was the Council, held in the city from 27 May 1459 to 19 January 1460, summoned by Pope Pius II to launch a crusade against the Ottoman Turks, who had conquered Constantinople some years earlier.
However, the pope was not satisfied with the host city, writing: "The place was marshy and unhealthy, the heat burnt up everything. However, the council ended on a note of great personal prestige for Ludovico with the elevation of his son Francesco to the purple. From 1466 Ludovico was more or less at the service of the Sforza of Milan, he died in Goito during a plague. He was buried in Mantua cathedral. On the orders of his father, Ludovico's education had been entrusted to the humanist Vittorino da Feltre. Vittorino undertook "the difficult enterprise in the interests of the commonwealth for... the education of a good prince would benefit the people he ruled." The teaching was markedly moral and religious and contained a "vein of laical asceticism almost." This, argues the arts scholar Franco Borsi, explains not only Ludovico's religious faith that led him to found churches and host Pius II's Council, but his concern for a humanistic culture and the growth in public works throughout the city, from the paving of the streets and building of a clock tower to the reorganisation of the city centre.
Among the famous humanists invited to the city was the Florentine Leon Battista Alberti, who designed the San Sebastiano church and the San' Andrea church. In 1460, Ludovico appointed Andrea Mantegna as court artist to the Gonzaga family. Ludovico is featured in the Treatise on Architecture, from circa 1465, by the Florentine sculptor-architect Antonio di Pietro Averlino, better known as Filarete; the treatise takes the format of a Platonic dialogue, featuring an unnamed architect, building a new city for a princely patron. During the dialogue interspersing the treatise they are visited by another lord, in the figure of Ludovico: his role in the dialogue is to persuade Sforza that he has seen the error of his ways in showing favour to "modern architecture", by, meant Gothic architecture, having seen the architecture of antiquity in Rome, now favours such architecture instead, what Filarete is trying to persuade his patron. Ludovico III and Barbara had fourteen children: Federico. Maddalena. Elisabetta.
Federico I, Marquis of Mantua. Francesco, created Cardinal by Pope Pius II. Paola Bianca, died in infancy. Gianfrancesco, Count of Sabbioneta and Lord of Bozzolo. Had issue Susanna, a nun at Santa Paola di Mantua. Dorotea, married to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. Cecilia, a nun at Santa Chiara di Mantua. Rodolfo, Lord of Castiglione delle Stiviere, Solferino and Poviglio, his great-grandson was Aloysius Gonzaga. Barbara, married in 1474 Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg. Ludovico, Bishop of Mantua. Paola, married Leonhard, Count of Gorizia. In addition, Ludovico III had two illegitimate daughters: Caterina (wife of Gianfrancesc