Autol is a village in the province and autonomous community of La Rioja, Spain. River Cidacos flows by the town. There are original rock formations close to Autol; the municipality covers an area of 85.28 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 4458 people. Ayuntamiento de Autol Autol, Rioja Cofradia del Santísimo - Autol
Albelda de Iregua
Albelda de Iregua is a village in the province and autonomous community of La Rioja, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 23.03 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 3339 people. Albelda is located south of Logroño in the lower Iregua valley; this provides a fertile land for growing fruit. The village is bounded on the north by Lardero and Alberite, to the east by Clavijo, to the south by Nalda and to the west by Sorzano and Entrena. Within its terrains were the unpopulated communities of Longares, depopulated in the 12th century, deserted in the 14th century and Mucrones. In 1063 the Bishop of Nájera approved a Town Charter under the name Longares; the town had a Jewish community since the 10th century till the Spanish Jewish Inquisition in 1492. During that period of time, about 35 families lived in the town. Several Jews acquire the surname of the town, such as Moses Albelda, a bible commentator who lived in Turkey and assumed to have ancestors from the town, who escaped to Turkey during the Inquisition.
Its name may come from the Arabic term with the article Bayda Al, which means'The White'. On the other hand, the etymology of the word Albelda proposed by the historian Urbano Espinosa points to the toponym Albalda/Albeilda, the village, as recorded in the Christian chronicles and consolidated during the Muslim rule, its meaning has to do with the set of three monasteries located in the townships of Nalda and Albelda: San Pantaleon, the monasteries of Albelda and Las Tapias, in Albelda itself. As at 1 January 2010 the population of Albelda de Iregua was 1727 men and 1564 women. San Martín Church, constructed in 1970. Santa Isabel Hermitage. Nuestra Señora de Bueyo Hermitage, romanesque, it was declared Bien de Interés Cultural in the category of monuments on 13 June 1983. Santa Fe de Palazuelos Hermitage, it was declared Bien de Interés Cultural in the category of monuments on 25 October 1984. Pilgrimage to San Marcos: 25 April. Saint Prudencio Feast day: 28 April. Feasts of Triumph: last Sunday in August.
Isidore the Laborer: 15 May. Saint James: 25 July. Virgen de Bueyo: 25 March. María Bueyo Díez Jalón, first Ombudsman of the Autonomous Community of La Rioja. Javier Cámara, actor. Salva Díez, Basketball player. Carlos Coloma Nicolás, Cyclist. Ángel Ochagavia, Claretian Missionary. Serafín Abeytua, Dulzaina player. Ángel Ruiz-Bazan, Documentarian. Miguel Ángel Calleja, Notary. San Martín de Albelda Monastery Battle of Albelda Photos of Albelda
Santo Domingo de la Calzada Cathedral
Not to be confused with the Cathedral of Santo Domingo, in Peru. The Cathedral of Santo Domingo de la Calzada is a Roman Catholic church located in the village of Santo Domingo de la Calzada, in La Rioja, Spain, it is dedicated to the St Mary. Its facade contains statues of Celedonius; the altar was sculpted in 1537-40 by Damián Forment in the Renaissance style
Agoncillo, La Rioja
Agoncillo is a town and municipality in La Rioja province in northern Spain. Club Deportivo Agoncillo is a football team based in Agoncillo, it is believed that the name comes from an ancient Celtic settlement named Egon whose ruins lie near the town. The area was populated in Ancient Roman times. A military aerodrome was built in Recajo, a town within Agoncillo municipal term, in 1923, it was first known as Aeródromo de Recajo, but in 1932 at the time of the Second Spanish Republic its official name was changed to Aeródromo de Agoncillo. Located about 10 km from Logroño, since 1939 it housed the Maestranza Aérea de Logroño of the Spanish Air Force with the Regimiento de Bombardeo Nº 15, Escuadrón 110 that operated Heinkel He 111 bombers until the late 1950s. After the bomber squadrons were phased out, the aerodrome reverted to civilian use as the Logroño-Agoncillo Airport, it houses a museum. Ayuntamiento de Agoncillo Aeródromo de Agoncillo. Proyecto de la torre de mando. 1943. AHEA - sig. A 13489
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Anguciana is a village in the province and autonomous community of La Rioja, Spain. It is situated in the northwest of the province, it depends on the judicial administration of Haro. The municipality covers an area of 5.05 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 471 people. In 1121, Toda López de Haro y Álvarez, daughter of Lope Iñiguez, Anguciana lady of, donated to the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Nájera Cihuri all her inheritance in and post mortem nostram, casam nostram quae est in Angunciana sicut tenuimos et habuimus in vita nostra. Diego López de Haro I, brother of Toda, endorsed the writing, he added this endorsement Regnante rege Aldefonso in Castella, et in Alava, et in Pampilona, et in Aragone, et i Ribacurta. This is the King Alfonso I of Aragon, called the Batallador. From the fourteenth century it was the domain of the Salcedos, who inhabited the strong tower located near the River Tirón bridge and on which, there are still some loopholes and the south entrance.
The Lordship was conferred on Juan Alfonso de Salcedo by Henry III of Castile by privilege dated March 8, 1394, in consideration and compensation for many good services rendered to Juan I of Castile, in the guard of his body. As a further privilege on February 12, 1397, he granted license to build in this location a house so strong and accomplished, as the King himself would have commanded to be built for himself; until the creation of the province of Logroño in 1833 and its partition into nine judicial districts, it belonged to the party of Santo Domingo de la Calzada, in the province of Burgos. In the population census of Corona de Castilla in the sixteenth century it appears incorrectly with the name Anguiana, with a total of 61 neighborhoods, 305 inhabitants. In the nineteenth century census it appears under Oreca, which belonged to the Padres Bernards de Herrera and today it is the district of Anguciana to the left of the Tirón River, on the road to Cihuri; the census for the formation of the province of Logroño, 1840 indicates "106 neighborhoods, 474 souls."
The municipality has been one that, has shown an increased population growth in La Rioja. Between 2004 and 2006 it gained 112 inhabitants, this increase was strong between 2005 and 2006. On 1 January 2010 the population was 281 men and 229 women. Torre Fuerte A good example of military architecture, construction of the Gothic tower started in 1397 by Juan Alfonso de Salcedo along the Tirón River Bridge, after Henry III of Castille granted him the lordship of Anguciana for his services to the crown, granted him permission, to build the fort, it is built in stone. Its plan is rectangular; the top is crowned with turrets and battlements, although those at the second level are a recent addition. There are still some arrow loops from the original building, its walls have been experimented on in recent times with various warhead windows and embrasures besides having been divided into several floors. In 1920 it was sold to a Franciscan community from Peru, it was subsequently acquired by a private individual.
It remains in good condition. San Martin ChurchConstruction of the church began in the early sixteenth century; the two chapels of the first section, the bottom of the tower, the cover and the remodelled headboard are seventeenth century. The chapel of the second section is from the eighteenth century; the rest is from the nineteenth century, except for the upper sections of the tower from the twentieth century. Bridge above the Tirón river Santa María de Oreca HermitageFrom the eighteenth century. Concepción and the Esclavitud Hermitage Located next to the cemetery, eighteenth century, consists of a single nave with rectangular head. April 29, San Pedro de Verona martyr: Procession to the Purísima Concepción Hermitage with the Virgen de la Concepción. Passing of the zurracapote bowl and cheese. August 24, San Bartolomé and thanksgiving. Manuel Pablo Salcedo y Ortes de Velasco, descendant of Juan Alfonso de Salcedo and thirteenth Lord of the castle, he belonged to the Royal House of Castile. José Salcedo, brother of Manuel Pablo, was senior chaplain of the Reyes Nuevos de Toledo in the eighteenth century.
Julian Cantera Orive, La Rioja historian and author of "La Batalla de Clavijo, died in 1972. A bit of history on Anguciana's Torre Fuerte
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party is a social-democratic political party in Spain. The PSOE has been in government for a longer time than any other political party in modern democratic Spain: from 1982 to 1996 under Felipe González; the PSOE was founded in 1879, which makes it the oldest party active in Spain. The PSOE played a key role during the Second Spanish Republic, being part of coalition government from 1931 to 1933 and from 1936 to 1939, when the Republic was defeated by Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. A Marxist party, it abandoned Marxism in 1979; the PSOE has had strong ties with the General Union of Workers, a Spanish trade union. For decades, UGT membership was a requirement for PSOE membership. However, since the 1980s UGT has criticized the economic policies of PSOE calling for a general strike against the PSOE government on 14 December 1988; the PSOE is a member of the Party of European Socialists, Progressive Alliance and the Socialist International. In the European Parliament, PSOE's 14 Members of the European Parliament sit in the Socialists and Democrats European parliamentary group.
PSOE was founded by Pablo Iglesias on 2 May 1879 in the Casa Labra tavern in Tetuán Street near the Puerta del Sol at the centre of Madrid. Iglesias was a typesetter who had become in contact in the past with the Spanish section of the International Working Men's Association and with Paul Lafargue; the first program of the new political party was passed in an assembly of 40 people, on 20 July of that same year. The bulk of the growth of the PSOE and its affiliated trade union, the Unión General de Trabajadores was chiefly restricted to the Madrid-Biscay-Asturias triangle up until the 1910s; the obtaining of a seat at the Congress by Pablo Iglesias at the 1910 legislative election, in which the PSOE candidates presented within the broad Republican–Socialist Conjunction, became a development of great symbolical transcendence, gave the party more publicity at the national level. The party and the UGT took a leading role in the general strike of August 1917, in the context of the events of the 1917 Crisis during the conservative government of Eduardo Dato.
The strike was crushed by the army with the result of further undermining of the constitutional order. Sent to the prison of Cartagena, they were released a year after being elected to the Cortes in the 1918 general election. During the 1919−1921 "Crisis of the Internationals" the party experienced tensions between the members endorsing the Socialist International and the advocates for joining the Third International. Two consecutive splits of dissidents willing to join the Komintern, namely the Spanish Communist Party in 1920, the Spanish Communist Workers' Party in 1921, broke away from the PSOE and soon merged to create the Communist Party of Spain; the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1923 and 1940. After the death of Pablo Iglesias in 1925, Julián Besteiro replaced the at the presidency of the PSOE and the UGT. During the 1923–1930 dictatorship of Primo de Rivera corporativist PSOE and UGT elements were willing to engage into limited collaboration with the regime, against the political stance defended by other socialists such as Indalecio Prieto and Fernando de los Ríos, who instead vouched for a closer collaboration with republican forces.
The last years of the dictatorship saw a divergence emerge among the "corporativists". The opposition of Besteiro to participate in the "Revolutionary Committee" led to his resignation as president both of the party and the trade union in February 1931, he was replaced as president of the party by Remigio Cabello. After the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic on 14 April 1931, three PSOE members were included in the cabinet of the provisional government: Indalecio Prieto, Fernando de los Ríos and Francisco Largo Caballero; the socialist presence remained in the rest of cabinets of the "Social-Azañist Biennium". After the November 1933 general election, which marked a win for the right-of-centre forces, in a climate of increasing polarization and growing unemployment along a desire to mend the mistake of not having sided along the republicans in the election against the united right, Largo Caballero adopted a revolutionary rhetoric. Indalecio Prieto had participated in the aggressive rhetoric, having condemned the heavy-hand repression of the December 1933 anarchist uprising by the government, cheered on by the CEDA parliamentary fraction leaders.
The Socialist Youth of Spain engaged into a shrilling revolutionary rhetoric, while Besteiro opposed the insurrectionary drift of the militancy. The formation of a new cabinet including CEDA ministers in October 1934 was perceived among the Left as a reaction, with the CEDA party being indistinguishable from contemporary Fascism to most workers, while CEDA leader Gil-Robles had vouched for the establishment of a corporative state in the 1933 electoral campaign. Having the UGT called for a general strike in the country for 5 October, the strike developed into a full-blown insurrection