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Saprolite

Saprolite is a chemically weathered rock. Saprolites form in the lower zones of soil profiles and represent deep weathering of the bedrock surface. In most outcrops its color comes from ferric compounds. Weathered profiles are widespread on the continental landmasses between latitudes 35°N and 35°S. Conditions for the formation of weathered regolith include a topographically moderate relief flat enough to prevent erosion and to allow leaching of the products of chemical weathering. A second condition is long periods of tectonic stability; the third condition is humid tropical to temperate climate. Poorly weathered saprolite grit aquifers are capable of producing groundwater suitable for livestock. Deep weathering causes the formation of many secondary and supergene ores – bauxite, iron ores, saprolitic gold, supergene copper and heavy minerals in residual accumulations. Saprolite is a chemically weathered rock. More intense weathering results in a continuous transition from saprolite to laterite.

Saprolites form in the lower zones of soil horizons and represent deep weathering of the bedrock surface. In lateritic regoliths – regoliths are the loose layer of rocks that rest on the bedrock – saprolite may be overlain by upper horizons of residual laterite. Weathering formed thin kaolinitic saprolites 1,000 to 500 million years ago; the general structure of kaolinite has silicate sheets bonded to aluminium hydroxide layers. Iron compounds are the primary coloring agents in saprolites. At most outcrops the color comes from ferric compounds. Submicron-sized goethite is yellow. Sub-micron-sized hematite is red. Regoliths vary from a few meters to over 150 m thick, depending on the age of the land surface, tectonic activity, climate history and the composition of the bedrock. Although these weathered terrains now occur in a wide variety of climates ranging from warm humid to arid, tropical to temperate, they were formed under similar conditions in the past. In parts of Africa, South America and southeast Asia, regolith has been forming continuously for over 100 million years.

Weathered regoliths are widespread in the inter-tropical belt on the continental landmasses between latitudes 35°N and 35°S. Similar weathered regoliths exist at much higher latitudes – 35–42°S in southeast Australia, 40–45°N in the United States and 55°N in Europe – although these are not regionally extensive. In some localities it is possible to date saprolite by considering that the saprolite must be younger than the parent material and older than any thick cover unit such a lava or sedimentary rock; this principle is useful in some contexts but in others, like certain parts of Sweden where grus is formed from Precambrian rocks and overlain by Quaternary deposits, it is of little value. The regolith of a region is the product of its long weathering history. Saprolites form in high rainfall regions which result in chemical weathering and are characterised by distinct decomposition of the parent rock's mineralogy. Conditions for the formation of weathered regolith include a topographically moderate relief flat enough to allow leaching of the products of chemical weathering.

A second condition is long periods of tectonic stability. Weathering rates of 20 m per million years suggest that deep regoliths require several million years to develop; the third condition is humid tropical to temperate climate. Deep weathering can occur over longer periods of time. Sulfides are some of the most unstable minerals in oxidizing environments. Carbonates are soluble in acidic environments. Serpentiniteoxidized and hydrolized low-silicon, iron- and magnesium-rich oxide igneous rocks – are progressively weathered through this zone. Ferromagnesian minerals are the principal hosts for nickel, cobalt and zinc in sulfide-poor mafic and ultramafic rocks, are retained higher in the profile than sulfide-hosted metals, they are leached from the upper horizons and reprecipitate with secondary iron-manganese oxides in the mid- to lower saprolite. Aquifers in Western Australia are of saprolite grit. Poorly weathered saprolite grit aquifers are capable of producing groundwater suitable for livestock.

Yields depend on their depth from which the aquifer is derived. The distributions of gold and calcium carbonate or calcium magnesium carbonates are correlated and documented in the southern Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, in the top 1 to 2 m of the soil profile and locally as deep as 5 m; the gold-carbonate association is apparent in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. Supergene enrichment occurs near the surface and involves water circulation with its resulting oxidation and chemical weathering

List of Brazil national football team hat-tricks

Since Brazil's first international association football match in 1914, there have been 52 occasions when a Brazilian player has scored three or more goals in a game. The first hat-trick was scored by Arthur Friedenreich against Chile in 1919; the record for the most goals scored in an international by a Brazilian player is five, achieved only by Evaristo de Macedo against Colombia in 1957. Pelé holds the record for the most hat-tricks scored by a Brazilian player, with seven between 1958 and 1964. One of them in the World Cup finals. Besides Pelé, the only Brazilian players to have scored a hat-trick at the World Cup finals were Leônidas da Silva against Poland in 1938 and Ademir de Menezes against Sweden in 1950; the last Brazilian player to score a hat-trick was Paulinho, who scored three times against Uruguay in a World Cup qualifier in 2017. Brazil have conceded at least 11 hat-tricks in their history, 5 of them in matches against Argentina; the most recent, undoubtedly the most famous, was scored by Paolo Rossi during the 1982 World Cup, which eliminated Brazil in that competition

Roman Catholic Diocese of Northampton

The Diocese of Northampton is one of the 22 Roman Catholic dioceses in England and Wales and a Latin Rite suffragan diocese of Westminster. Its see; the Cathedral of Our Lady Immaculate and St Thomas of Canterbury is the mother church of the Diocese. The diocese now covers the counties of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire under its pre-1974 historic boundaries; until 1976, the counties of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk were included. When St Augustine came from Rome in 597 he concentrated on the areas of Kent and Essex, but thirty years the area that the Northampton Diocese covers received the Christian message, with the arrival of the missionary St Birinius and the foundation of his see at Dorchester-on-Thames in 636; the real evangelisation of the people who dwelt in the diocese was achieved through the labours and missionaries of the isle of Lindisfarne, off the Northumbrian coast. Notable amongst them was St Chad, whose see, established at Lichfield in 669, included the present diocese of Northampton.

From the time of the Reformation until 1850, Catholic dioceses ceased to exist in Britain. However, in 1688 England was divided into four Apostolic vicariates, with Northampton under the authority of the Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District. In 1840, the Apostolic Vicariate of the Eastern District was created out of the Midland District. On the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales by Pope Pius IX on 29 September 1850, most of the Eastern District became the Diocese of Northampton, its first bishop was William Wareing Vicar Apostolic of the Eastern District. On 13 March 1976, by decree Quod Ecumenicum, Pope Paul VI formed the Diocese of East Anglia for the counties of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk by detaching these counties from the Diocese of Northampton; the motto under the shield translates as'Do right and lead to charity'. On the shield are lilies and choughs, which are symbols of the two patrons of the Diocese, of the Cathedral, Blessed Virgin Mary and St Thomas of Canterbury.

Bishop Patrick Leo McCartie is a bishop emeritus of Northampton, having retired on 29 Mar 2001 after serving the diocese for 11 years. He was succeeded by bishop Kevin John Patrick McDonald, who went on to be appointed Archbishop of Southwark on 6 November 2003; the next Bishop of Northampton wss Peter John Haworth Doyle, born on 3 May 1944 at Wilpshire, near Blackburn in Lancashire. He retired on 8 January bc with David James Oakley being appointed at that time as successor. William Wareing Francis Kerril Amherst Arthur George Riddell Frederick William Keating Dudley Charles Cary-Elwes Laurence William Youens Thomas Leo Parker Charles Alexander Grant Francis Gerard Thomas Patrick Leo McCartie Kevin John Patrick McDonald Peter John Haworth Doyle David James Oakley The estimated Catholic population of the diocese in 2004 was 173,539 while the total population in the diocesan territory was 2,000,769; the diocese has 68 parishes. Below is a partial list of the schools located within the diocese: Bishop Parker Primary, Milton Keynes Cardinal Newman School, Luton Good Shepherd Primary, Northampton Holy Family Catholic School, Langley Our Lady of Walsingham Primary, Corby Our Lady's Infants, Wellingborough Our Lady of Peace Infants, Burnham Our Lady' of Peace Junior, Burnham Our Lady's Junior School, Wellingborough Our Lady's Primary School, Chesham Bois Sacred Heart Primary, Luton St Anthony's Primary, Slough St Bernadette's Primary, Milton Keynes St Bernard's Preparatory School, Slough St Brendan's Primary, Corby St Edwards Junior School, Aylesbury St Edwards Primary, Kettering [[St Ethelbert's Primary, Slough St Gregory's Middle School, Bedford St Gregory's Primary, Northampton St John Rigby Lower School, Bedford St Josephs High School, Slough St Josephs Infants School, Aylesbury St Josephs Infants School, Luton St Josephs Junior School, Luton St Joseph's Lower School, Bedford St Josephs Primary, Chalfont St Peter St Louis Primary, Aylesbury St Margaret's Primary, Luton St Martin de Porres Primary, Luton St Mary Magdalene Primary, Milton Keynes St Mary's Primary School, Dunstable St Mary's Primary School, Aston-le-Walls St Mary's Primary School, Northampton St Michael's Catholic School, High Wycombe St Monica's Primary School, Milton Keynes St Patricks Primary, Corby St Pauls Catholic School, Milton Keynes St Peter's Primary School, Marlow St Teresa's Independent School, Princes Risborough St Thomas Aquinas Primary School, Milton Keynes St Thomas More Primary, Kettering St Vincent's Primary, Houghton Regis - NEW Thornton College, near Buckingham St Bernard's Catholic Grammar School, Slough St Michael's Catholic School, High Wycombe St Thomas More Catholic School, Bedford Thomas Becket Catholic School, Northampton Thornton College, near Buckingham The Northampton Di