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Saprotrophic nutrition

Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed organic matter. It occurs in saprotrophs, is most associated with fungi and soil bacteria. Saprotrophic microscopic fungi are sometimes called saprobes; the process is most facilitated through the active transport of such materials through endocytosis within the internal mycelium and its constituent hyphae. Various word roots relating to decayed matter and nutrition, plants or life forms produce various terms, such as detritivore, saprotroph, saprophyte and saprobe. For example, usage distinctions can be made based on macroscopic swallowing of detritus versus microscopic lysis of detritus. A facultative saprophyte appears on stressed or dying plants and may combine with the live pathogens.. As matter decomposes within a medium in which a saprotroph is residing, the saprotroph breaks such matter down into its composites. Proteins are broken down into their amino acid composites through the breaking of peptide bonds by proteases.

Lipids are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol by lipases. Starch is broken down into pieces of simple disaccharides by amylases; these products are re-absorbed into the hypha through the cell wall by endocytosis and passed on throughout the mycelium complex. This facilitates the passage of such materials throughout the organism and allows for growth and, if necessary, repair. In order for a saprotrophic organism to facilitate optimal growth and repair, favourable conditions and nutrients must be present. Optimal conditions refers to several conditions which optimise the growth of saprotrophic organisms, such as. Presence of oxygen: Very few saprotrophic organisms can endure anaerobic conditions as evidenced by their growth above media such as water or soil. Neutral-acidic pH: The condition of neutral or mildly acidic conditions under pH 7 are required. Low-medium temperature: The majority of saprotrophic organisms require temperatures between 1 °C and 35 °C, with optimum growth occurring at 25 °C.

The majority of nutrients taken in by such organisms must be able to provide carbon, vitamins and in some cases, ions. Due to the carbon composition of the majority of organisms and organic matter provide rich sources of disaccharides and polysaccharides such as maltose and starch, of the monosaccharide glucose. In terms of nitrogen-rich sources, saprotrophs require combined protein for the creation of proteins, facilitated by the absorption of amino acids, taken from rich soil. Although both ions and vitamins are rare, thiamine or ions such as potassium and magnesium aid the growth of the mycelium. DecomposersDetritivoreChemoautotrophic nutrition Photoautotrophic nutrition Holozoic nutrition Parasitic nutrition Mycorrhizal fungi and soil carbon storage Wood-decay fungus Clegg, C. J.. G.. Advanced Biology: Principles and Applications. Hodder Publishing. Zmitrovich, I. V.. "Wood-inhabiting fungi". In Misra, J. K.. Fungi from Different Substrates. N. Y.: CRC Press and Francis group. Pp. 17–74

Cavendish, Prince Edward Island

Cavendish is an unincorporated rural community in the township of Lot 23, Queens County, Prince Edward Island, Canada. The community's primary industries are tourism and agriculture supporting a small year-round population. Cavendish is the largest seasonal resort area in Prince Edward Island with an average daily population in the months of July and August of 7,500 residents, it was home to Lucy Maud Montgomery, writer of Anne of Green Gables. She said she loved sitting by a window, writing Anne of Green Gables while looking out the windows onto the fields of Cavendish. Cavendish is located northwest of North Rustico and east of Stanley Bridge in the central part of the province on the north shore, fronting the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Administratively, it is part of the Resort Municipality of Stanley Bridge, Hope River, Bayview and North Rustico. Cavendish was founded in 1790 by three families who emigrated from Scotland – the MacNeils, the Clarks and the Simpsons. Lacking a harbour, Cavendish was a small farming community throughout the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries.

Cavendish traces its name to Field Marshal Lord Frederick Cavendish, Colonel of the 34th Regiment of Foot. It was given by local resident William Winter, an ex-British Army officer, who named the community in honour of his patron. Author Lucy Maud Montgomery was born in nearby New London during the late Victorian era, after her mother's death was brought to Cavendish to be raised in the home of her maternal grandparents, who had a house and small farm east of the Cavendish United Presbyterian Cemetery at the intersection of the Cavendish Road and Cawnpore Lane. Montgomery would frequently visit her cousins, the MacNeill family, who owned a farm named Green Gables located west of the intersection, she would find work in the community with the federal Post Office Department as a postmaster at the Cavendish Post Office. Montgomery's experiences in the community formed a strong impression on her and she would include much of her experiences in this part of rural Prince Edward Island at the turn of the 20th century in the literary blockbuster Anne of Green Gables and subsequent works.

Prior to Montgomery's writings, Cavendish's primary claim to fame came on July 22, 1883, when the three-masted world-record holding clipper ship Marco Polo grounded and broke apart on Cavendish Beach. Following the critical acclaim of Montgomery's writing, as well as coincident with the increase in vehicle-based tourism throughout North America during the first half of the century, Cavendish began to evolve into a resort community. In 1937, Prince Edward Island National Park was established along 60 kilometres of the province's Gulf of St. Lawrence shoreline – part of the park expropriation included the MacNeill family's Green Gables farm; the national park boasted many of Prince Edward Island's best beaches, of which Cavendish Beach was one of the most popular. To increase the tourist draw to the area, the national park developed an 18-hole golf course and opened the Green Gables farmhouse for tours; the site of Montgomery's childhood home is a popular tourist destination. Subsequent development between the 1950s-1990s saw motels, amusement parks and other attractions, shopping facilities, bars and restaurants built.

During any given week in July and August, the community's population expands as tens of thousands of tourists flock to the national park and local attractions. In 1990, Cavendish became part of the Municipality of Stanley Bridge, Hope River, Bayview and North Rustico. Cavendish Beach- A beach located in Prince Edward Island National Park. Prince Edward Island National Park- One of Canada's national parks containing Cavendish Beach. Cavendish is a 2019 CBC sitcom set in this rural area. Cavendish Statistics Cavendish History at, PEI Online Tourism Information Official website Government of PEI Profile

Holden Nova

The Holden Nova is a compact car, produced by the Holden-Toyota alliance, known as United Australian Automobile Industries in Australia between August 1989 and 1996. The alliance, therefore the car, was a result of the Button car plan which attempted to rationalise the Australian car manufacturing industry; the Nova was sold and marketed under the Holden nameplate, although it was a badge engineered version of the Toyota Corolla, with any input from General Motors, although they referred to it as the GM S platform. However it received minor stylistic changes; the Nova was sold only as five-door hatchback. In all years, the Nova was outsold by the Toyota Corolla in Australia, the car was replaced by the Holden Astra in 1996; the LE and LF series, based on the Corolla E90 were sold between August 1989 and September 1994. The LE was offered with Toyota's 1.4-litre 60-kilowatt engine and 1.6-litre 67-kilowatt engine, in Holden's traditional SL, SLX and SLE trims. The LF Nova, available from October 1991, added fuel injection to the 1.6-litre unit, now rated at 75 kilowatts.

The SLE hatchback was replaced by a GS model, although SLE continued as a trim on the sedan in October 1992, a fuel-injected 1.8-litre 85-kilowatt engine was offered for the GS hatchback. The 1.4-litre option and the SLEs were unavailable from 1993. The LG Nova was sold between 1996, although a smaller range was offered; the SLX trim level was equipped with a 1.6-litre 78-kilowatt engine, while the GS trim level denoted the fitment of the 1.8-litre engine. Four-door sedan and five-door hatchback options were offered for both levels, all engines featured fuel injection

Rock Star (TV series)

Rock Star is a television series produced by Mark Burnett, David Goffin, Lisa Hennessy, Al Berman in which aspiring singers from around the world competed to become the lead singer of a featured group. It debuted on CBS on July 2005, to mediocre ratings; the show was hosted by television personality and commercial spokeswoman Brooke Burke and Jane's Addiction lead guitarist Dave Navarro. In season one Australian rock band INXS chose J. D. Fortune as their new lead singer. For season two, the newly formed supergroup hard rock band, Rock Star Supernova chose Lukas Rossi as the lead singer. Alice in Chains was approached by the producers of Rock Star for the show's second season, but the band turned the offer down. In the final episode of season two auditions were announced for a third season. However, CBS announced in May 2007 the series would not be renewed for a third season due to the premiere of another Burnett series, Pirate Master. Burnett has made a statement. Velvet Revolver was a potential candidate.

The show is notable for having future season 5 American Idol contestant Chris Daughtry audition for its first season. Daughtry did not make the cut for Rock Star: INXS. Rock Star aired on CBS in the United States, Sky One in the UK, FOX8 in Australia, TV3 in New Zealand, Skjár einn in Iceland and Global Television in Canada. Supernova are no longer active, their last appearance together was in 2008. First season winner J. D. Fortune had been the lead singer of INXS for about six years from 2005 to 2011; the band decided not to renew the expiring contract for him after the Original Sin tour ended in August 2011. INXS released the album Switch following the first series with J. D. Fortune on lead went on tour. Switch was released on 29 November 2005. and peaked at number 17 on the Billboard 200, appeared on the Canadian Hot 100 and Top Internet Albums charts at numbers two and 56, respectively. The album has sold 391,000 copies in the U. S. since release. The single "Pretty Vegas" received gold certification from the Recording Industry Association of America on 26 January 2006.

In Canada, both the album and the single, "Pretty Vegas", went platinum and reached number one on the charts. The album received platinum certification in December 2005 by the Canadian Recording Industry Association, Canadian sales of the album have exceeded 170,000 units; the album peaked at number 18 on the ARIA Charts. Rock Star Supernova released their debut self-titled album following the second series and went on tour; the album was released on November 21, 2006 and charted at #101 on the Billboard 200 and #4 on the Canadian Albums Chart. and was certified Platinum. Contestants performed with a house band known as The House Band; the members of the House Band were Paul Mirkovich, Jim McGorman, Rafael Moreira, Nate Morton, Sasha Krivtsov. The House Band toured throughout 2006 with lead guitarist of Kiss, Paul Stanley. Official website Premiere Date Set For Reality TV Series ROCK STAR: SUPERNOVA Rock Star: Supernova at ROCKBANDLOUNGE. COM Rock Star on TV Squad Rock Star: Supernova on IMDb

Hilde Gueden

The Austrian soprano Hilde Gueden, or Güden, was one of the most appreciated Straussian and Mozartian sopranos of her day. Her youthful and lively interpretations made her an ideal interpreter of roles like Zerbinetta in Ariadne auf Naxos and Susanna in Le nozze di Figaro, she was born Hulda Geiringer in Vienna, studied singing with Otto Iro, piano with Maria Wetzelsberger, dancing at the Vienna Music Academy. She debuted, as Hulda Gerin, in 1937 in Benatzky's operetta Herzen im Schnee at the Vienna Volksoper, her operatic debut came in 1939. In 1941, the famous conductor Clemens Krauss engaged her for the Munich State Opera, where she sang with much success. From this time she used Hilde Gueden as her stage name. However, she had some Jewish ancestry, this forced her to leave Germany under the Nazis. Rumour has it that she was arrested by the Gestapo in Munich, but she had by obtained a fake passport showing that she was a Roman Catholic Polish woman and could avoid arrest. In Italy, Tullio Serafin invited her to sing Sophie in Florence.

From on, she gained great successes in Paris, London, Venice and other major cities. She made her debut at Salzburg Festival in 1946 by singing Zerlina in Mozart's Don Giovanni in 1946. In 1947, she started a long membership with the Vienna Staatsoper, where she was still of the greatest stars up to 1973. In December 1951, she debuted at the Metropolitan Opera as Gilda in Rigoletto. In 1953, she sang Ann Trulove in the first U. S. performance of Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress at the Metropolitan Opera. From late 1950s, she moved from light parts to lyric parts in the same operas, she was praised for her performances of Violetta in La traviata, Marguerite in Faust, Micaela in Carmen. She was a most accomplished singer. Besides her usual Mozart and Richard Strauss, she was an ideal operetta singer, her Rosalinde in Die Fledermaus is considered one of her best roles. In the bel canto repertoire, she became a famous Gilda in Adina in L'elisir d'amore, she was noted for her Lieder and oratorio work. She died, aged 71, in Klosterneuburg.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Hilde Gueden made dozens of recordings with the best artists of her generation for the Decca/London label. Following is a selection of her recorded works: 1. Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro with Lisa della Casa, Cesare Siepi, Erich Kleiber. Mozart: Don Giovanni with Lisa della Casa, Cesare Siepi, Walter Berry, Suzanne Danco and Josef Krips. Mozart: Die Zauberflöte with Wilma Lipp, Leopold Simoneau, Kurt Boehme and Karl Böhm. Johann Strauss: Die Fledermaus with Wilma Lipp, Anton Dermota, Julius Patzak and Clemens Krauss. Johann Strauss: Die Fledermaus with Erika Köth, Walter Berry, Regina Resnik and Herbert von Karajan. Johann Strauss: Der Zigeunerbaron with Karl Terkal, Walter Berry, Anneliese Rothenberger and Heinrich Hollreiser. Richard Strauss: Daphne with Fritz Wunderlich, James King, Paul Schoffler and Karl Böhm. Richard Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier with Maria Reining, Sena Jurinac and Erich Kleiber. Richard Strauss: Die schweigsame Frau with Hermann Prey, Fritz Wunderlich, Hans Hotter, Karl Böhm.

Richard Strauss: Ariadne auf Naxos with Lisa della Casa, Irmgard Seefried, Rudolph Schock and Karl Böhm. Richard Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg with Paul Schöffler, Günther Treptow, Karl Dönch, Anton Dermota and Hans Knappertsbusch. Giacomo Puccini: La bohème with Renata Tebaldi, Giacinto Prandelli, Fernando Corena and Alberto Erede. Giuseppe Verdi: Rigoletto with Aldo Protti, Mario Del Monaco, Cesare Siepi and Alberto Erede; the DVD is published by Inc.. Catalog number DVD 4519. D. Brook, Singers of Today, 100–103; the Countess


Nitrilimines or nitrile amides are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure R-CN-NR corresponding to the conjugate base of an amine bonded to the N-terminus of a nitrile. The dominant structure for the parent compound nitrilimine is that of the propargyl-like 1 in scheme 1 with a C-N triple bond and with a formal positive charge on nitrogen and two lone pairs and a formal negative charge on the terminal nitrogen. Other structures such as hypervalent 2, allene-like 3, allylic 4 and carbene 5 are of lesser relevance. Nitrilimines were first observed in the thermal decomposition of 2-tetrazoles releasing nitrogen: Nitrilimines are linear 1,3-dipoles represented by structures 1 and 3. A major use is in heterocyclic synthesis. E.g. with alkynes they generate pyrazoles in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. Due to their high energy, they are generated in situ as a reactive intermediate