SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sarajevo

Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo Canton, East Sarajevo and nearby municipalities, is home to 555,210 inhabitants. Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of the Balkans. Sarajevo is the political, financial and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with region-wide influence in entertainment, media and the arts. Due to its long history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo is sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans", it is one of only a few major European cities to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is home to the Balkans’ first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic madrasa, today part of the University of Sarajevo.

Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by local Young Bosnia activist Gavrilo Princip that sparked World War I, which ended Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II, the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Second Yugoslavia led to a massive expansion of Sarajevo the constituent republic's capital, which culminated with the hosting of the 1984 Winter Olympics marking a prosperous era for the city. However, after the start of the Yugoslav Wars, for 1,425 days, from April 1992 to February 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare, during the Bosnian War and the breakup of Yugoslavia.

Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The travel guide series Lonely Planet has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the 2014 European Capital of Culture and in 2019, it hosted the European Youth Olympic Festival. In October 2019, Sarajevo was designated as a UNESCO Creative City for placing culture at the center of its development strategies, is one of the world's eighteen Cities of Film; the earliest known name for the small central Bosnian region of today's Sarajevo is Vrhbosna. The name Sarajevo derives from the Turkish noun saray, meaning "palace" or "mansion"; the letter "j" in the Bosnian language is equivalent soundwise to the English letter "y" as in "boy" and "yet". The evo portion may come from the term saray ovası first recorded in 1455, meaning "the plains around the palace" or "palace plains".

However, in his Dictionary of Turkish loanwords, Abdulah Škaljić maintains that the "evo" ending is more to have come from the widespread Slavic suffix "evo" used to indicate place names, than from the Turkish ending "ova", as proposed by some. The first mention of name Sarajevo was in 1507 letter written by Feriz Beg; the official name during the 400-year Ottoman period was Saraybosna, it is still known by that name in modern Turkish. Sarajevo has had many nicknames; the earliest is Šeher, the term Isa-Beg Ishaković used to describe the town he was going to build. It is a Turkish word meaning an advanced city of key importance which in turn comes from Persian: شهر‎ shahr; as Sarajevo developed, numerous nicknames came from comparisons to other cities in the Islamic world, i.e. "Damascus of the North". The most popular of these was "European Jerusalem". Sarajevo is near the geometric center of the triangular-shaped Bosnia-Herzegovina and within the historical region of Bosnia proper, it is situated 518 meters above sea level and lies in the Sarajevo valley, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps.

The valley itself once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the post-World War II era. The city is surrounded by forested hills and five major mountains; the highest of the surrounding peaks is Treskavica at 2,088 meters Bjelašnica mountain at 2,067 meters, Jahorina at 1,913 meters, Trebević at 1,627 meters, with 1,502 meters Igman being the shortest. The last four are known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo; the city itself has its fair share of hilly terrain, as evidenced by the many steeply inclined streets and residences perched on the hillsides. The Miljacka river is one of the city's chief geographic features, it flows through the city from east through the center of Sarajevo to west part of city where meets up with the Bosna river. Miljacka river is "The Sarajevo River", with its source 2 kilometres south of the town of Pale at the foothills of Mount Jahorina, several kilometers to the east of Sarajevo center; the Bosna's source, Vrelo Bosne near Ilidža, is another notable natural landmark and a popular destination for Sarajevans and other tourists.

Several smaller rivers and stream

Benito Lopez

Benito Lopez is an American mixed martial artist. He competes in the Bantamweight division in the Ultimate Fighting Championship. In April 2014, Lopez won his debut MMA debut fight against Oscar Ramirez at Bellator 115 event at Reno, United States. In September, Lopez signed to WFC and won two MMA matches versus Drey Mitchell at the WFC 11 - Mitchell vs. Major event and against Matt Wagy at the WFC 13 - Huckaba vs. Mitchell event. In 2016 and the first half of the 2017, Lopez signed a multi-fight contract with the King of the Cage, winning all three fights against Rick James, Journey Newson and Benjamin Vinson, respectively. After the fight against Steven Peterson at the Dana White's Tuesday Night Contender Series - Season 1, Episode 7, Lopez was awarded with UFC contract, together with Joby Sanchez. On 9 December 2019, Lopez was scheduled to face Martin Day at UFC Fight Night: Ortega; however Day pulled out of the event due to a knee injury and he was replaced by Albert Morales. He won his UFC debut fight via unanimous decision.

Lopez was scheduled to face Manny Bermudez on January 26, 2019 at UFC 233. As a result of the cancellation of UFC 233, the pair was rescheduled to UFC on ESPN: Ngannou vs. Velasquez on February 17, 2019, he lost the fight via guillotine choke submission in round one. Lopez was scheduled to face Ricky Simon at UFC 227 on August 4, 2018. However, it was reported that Lopez pulled out from the bout for undisclosed reason and he was replaced by Montel Jackson. Lopez faced Vince Morales on 13 July 2019 at UFC Fight Night: de Randamie vs. Ladd, he won the fight via unanimous decision. List of current UFC fighters List of male mixed martial artists Benito Lopez at UFC Professional MMA record for Benito Lopez from Sherdog

Gentilhombres de cámara con ejercicio

The Gentilhombres de cámara con ejercicio was a palatial class of honorary royal servants of the Royal Household and Heritage of the Crown of Spain, who acceded to that class as an honor awarded by the Monarch. The members of this class neither had specific functions inside the ceremonial scheme of the Court, nor exercised active service with a few exceptions, being their appointment a sign of the royal appreciation; this way, prominent men were nominated during the reign of the last King before the Second Spanish Republic, Alfonso XIII. As said few of them had specific functions at the service to the King and few of them belonged to the nobility. In fact, at the moment of the suppression of this Office, they remained 520 “Gentilhombres de cámara con ejercicio y servidumbre”. Among them, only 155 belonged to the titled nobility; this Court class was just behind the category of “Gentilhombres Grandes de España con ejercicio y servidumbre”. Their badge was a golden gilded key with bangs of gold.

The key was placed horizontally in the waist to the right side in uniforms, dress-coat or frock coat. They were formally under the command of the “Sumiller de Corps” and, for their condition, they had free entrance to the Royal Palace of Madrid up to the Chamber, they were styled “Ilustrísimos señores Gentilhombres de cámara con ejercicio”. This Office was suppressed after the Second Spanish Republic was declared on April 14, 1931, it was never re-created after the restoration of Monarchy in 1975. Among the 520 “Gentilhombres de camara” at that time, there were famous Army officers like the successful during Rif War, General Francisco Franco, the General Francisco Gómez-Jordana, 1st Count of Jordana, the General Joaquín Milans del Bosch and the General José Enrique Varela or the Air Commanders of the Plus Ultra Ramón Franco and Julio Ruiz de Alda Miqueleiz, active politicians like Eugenio Espinosa de los Monteros y Bermejillo, José Luis Goyoaga Escario, Guillermo de Osma y Scull, Manuel González-Hontoria y Fernández-Ladreda and Juan Antonio Suanzes Fernández, physicians like the doctor Mariano Gómez Ulla, prominent businessmen like Fernando María de Ybarra, 1st Marquess of Arriluce de Ybarra and Carlos Godó Valls, prestigious engineers like Emilio Herrera, José Ortiz-Echagüe, Eduardo Torroja or Jose Moreno Osorio, 4th Count of Fontao, well-known writers like José María Pemán, art curators like Manuel Escrivá de Romaní 10th Count of Casal or loyal employees of the Royal Household like Dámaso Berenguer, 1st Count of Xauen, former General Commander of the Halberdiers, Emilio de Torres, 1st Marquess of Torres de Mendoza private Secretary to the King and Miguel González de Castejón, 1st Count of Aybar, General Comptroller of the Royal Household.

Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana. Volume 49. Hijos de J. Espasa, Editores.1923 Guia Oficial de España. Sucesores de Ribadeneyra. Madrid. 1930]