Joseph William Drexel
Joseph William Drexel was a banker and book collector. He was the son of Francis Martin Catherine Hookey, his siblings were Francis Anthony Drexel. Through his brother Francis, he was the uncle of Saint Katharine Drexel. Drexel attended the Central High School in Philadelphia, traveled through Spain, Syria and Greece. Joseph Drexel was a partner in the firm of Drexel and Company, where his brother, was senior partner. In 1876, tired of battling the brusque J. Pierpont Morgan, Joseph retired from the business and devoted his life to philanthropic and civic organizations, he owned a 200-acre farm near New York City, where people without work were housed, clothed and taught agriculture until they could find a job. He owned a large tract of land in Maryland, developed into Klej Grange, a planned community, where the lots are sold to poor people at cost. About 7,000 acres in Michigan were bought for the same purpose, he was chairman of New York Sanitary Commission, the commissioner of education, president of the New York Philharmonic Society, trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, founding trustee of the American Museum of Natural History, trustee of the U.
S. National Academy of Sciences, director of the Metropolitan Opera house. In 1887, he donated a painting made by Edward Gay, that cost $2,000, to the State of New York to be placed in the Executive Mansion, which Governor David B. Hill was about to move into. Drexel was an avid collector of music amassing a collection of over 6,000 items. Upon his death, the Drexel Collection was accepted by the Lenox Library; when the Lenox Library was joined with those of John Jacob Astor and Samuel Tilden to form The New York Public Library, Drexel's collection became the basis for the Library's Music Division, housed today in the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. The Concordia Polka composed by Theodore Gundlach was dedicated to Drexel. In 1881, Drexel acquired title to Mount McGregor near New York, he constructed the Hotel Balmoral at the summit and built the Saratoga, Mount McGregor and Lake George Railroad narrow gauge railway from Saratoga Springs. In 1885, Drexel loaned his private summer cottage on Mount McGregor to ex-president Ulysses S. Grant.
Grant completed his memoirs. The cottage is now the Grant Cottage State Historic Site, he married the daughter of Thomas Lloyd Wharton and Sarah Ann Smith. Together, they had four children: Katherine Drexel, who married Dr. Charles Bingham Penrose, the brother of U. S. Senator Boies Penrose, Spencer Penrose, Richard A. F. Penrose, Jr. and the grandson of Charles B. Penrose, Solicitor of the United States Treasury, in 1892, they had two children. Lucy Wharton Drexel, who married Eric Bernard Dahlgren, Sr. a son of John A. Dahlgren, had eight children, they divorced in 1913. Elizabeth Wharton Drexel, who married John Vinton Dahlgren, another son of John A. Dahlgren, in 1889, with whom she had one son. After his death, she married New York Society leader Harry Lehr. After Lehr's death, she married John Beresford, 5th Baron Decies and thereafter was known as Lady Decies. Josephine Wharton Drexel, who married Dr. John Duncan Emmet, the son of prominent physician, Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet, in 1904, they divorced in 1914 and in 1915, she married Seton Henry, the son of Gen. Guy Vernor Henry and brother of Guy Henry, Jr. with whom she had children.
Drexel died at his home, 103 Madison Avenue in New York City, on March 25, 1888. He had been suffering from Bright's Disease for a half before then, he was buried in The Woodlands Cemetery in Pennsylvania. John Quincy Adams Ward's 1889 bust of Drexel is located on the third-floor vestibule of the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Drexel Collection Correspondence and bills from J. Sabin & Sons, 1877-1878 in the Music Division of the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Joseph William Drexel at Find a Grave
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or a supercapacitor. Electric locomotives with on-board fueled prime movers, such as diesel engines or gas turbines, are classed as diesel-electric or gas turbine-electric and not as electric locomotives, because the electric generator/motor combination serves only as a power transmission system. Electric locomotives benefit from the high efficiency of electric motors above 90%. Additional efficiency can be gained from regenerative braking, which allows kinetic energy to be recovered during braking to put power back on the line. Newer electric locomotives use AC motor-inverter drive systems that provide for regenerative braking. Electric locomotives are quiet compared to diesel locomotives since there is no engine and exhaust noise and less mechanical noise; the lack of reciprocating parts means electric locomotives are easier on the track, reducing track maintenance.
Power plant capacity is far greater than any individual locomotive uses, so electric locomotives can have a higher power output than diesel locomotives and they can produce higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration. Electric locomotives are ideal for commuter rail service with frequent stops. Electric locomotives are used on freight routes with high traffic volumes, or in areas with advanced rail networks. Power plants if they burn fossil fuels, are far cleaner than mobile sources such as locomotive engines; the power can come from clean or renewable sources, including geothermal power, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, solar power and wind turbines. The chief disadvantage of electrification is the high cost for infrastructure: overhead lines or third rail and control systems. Public policy in the U. S. interferes with electrification: higher property taxes are imposed on owned rail facilities if they are electrified. The EPA regulates exhaust emissions on locomotive and marine engines, similar to regulations on car & freight truck emissions, in order to limit the amount of carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxides, soot output from these mobile power sources.
Because railroad infrastructure is owned in the U. S. railroads are unwilling to make the necessary investments for electrification. In Europe and elsewhere, railway networks are considered part of the national transport infrastructure, just like roads and waterways, so are financed by the state. Operators of the rolling stock pay fees according to rail use; this makes possible the large investments required for the technically and, in the long-term economically advantageous electrification. The first known electric locomotive was built in 1837 by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen, it was powered by galvanic cells. Davidson built a larger locomotive named Galvani, exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841; the seven-ton vehicle had two direct-drive reluctance motors, with fixed electromagnets acting on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder on each axle, simple commutators. It hauled a load of six tons at four miles per hour for a distance of one and a half miles, it was tested on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in September of the following year, but the limited power from batteries prevented its general use.
It was destroyed by railway workers. The first electric passenger train was presented by Werner von Siemens at Berlin in 1879; the locomotive was driven by a 2.2 kW, series-wound motor, the train, consisting of the locomotive and three cars, reached a speed of 13 km/h. During four months, the train carried 90,000 passengers on a 300-metre-long circular track; the electricity was supplied through a third insulated rail between the tracks. A contact roller was used to collect the electricity; the world's first electric tram line opened in Lichterfelde near Berlin, Germany, in 1881. It was built by Werner von Siemens. Volk's Electric Railway opened in 1883 in Brighton. In 1883, Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram opened near Vienna in Austria, it was the first in the world in regular service powered from an overhead line. Five years in the U. S. electric trolleys were pioneered in 1888 on the Richmond Union Passenger Railway, using equipment designed by Frank J. Sprague. Much of the early development of electric locomotion was driven by the increasing use of tunnels in urban areas.
Smoke from steam locomotives was noxious and municipalities were inclined to prohibit their use within their limits. The first electrically-worked underground line was the City and South London Railway, prompted by a clause in its enabling act prohibiting the use of steam power, it opened in 1890, using electric locomotives built by Platt. Electricity became the power supply of choice for subways, abetted by the Sprague's invention of multiple-unit train control in 1897. Surface and elevated rapid transit systems used steam until forced to convert by ordinance; the first use of electrification on a main line was on a four-mile stretch of the Baltimore Belt Line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1895 connecting the main portion of the B&O to the new line to New York through a series of tunnels around the edges of Baltimore's downtown. Parallel tracks on the Pennsylvania Railroad had shown that coal smoke from steam locomotives would be a major operating issue and a public nuisance. Three Bo+Bo units were used, at the south end of the electrified section.
Mount McGregor (mountain)
Mount McGregor is a mountain in Saratoga County, New York in the towns of Wilton and Corinth. It is one of the principal peaks of the Palmertown Range. There are two lakes on the mountain, Lake Bonita and Lake Anna, which were used for fishing; the mountain was called Palmertown Mountain, named by a band of Native Americans who moved to the area from Massachusetts escaping from the aftermath of King Philip's War. It was renamed after Duncan McGregor purchased it for back taxes and built a hotel called the Mountain House in 1876. In 1881 McGregor sold the mountain to the Saratoga, Mount McGregor and Lake George Railroad, owned by Joseph William Drexel. Drexel constructed a narrow-gauge railroad from Saratoga Springs and built the Hotel Balmoral at the summit with accommodation for 300 guests. In 1897 the hotel burned to the ground. In 1885 Drexel loaned his friend ill former president Ulysses S. Grant, the use of his personal cottage on the mountain. Here Grant spent the last six weeks of his life struggling to finish his memoirs.
The cottage, preserved as it was at his death, is now the Grant Cottage State Historic Site and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company purchased the 1,200 acres of Mt. McGregor to build a tuberculosis sanitarium for up to 350 patients comprising 30 buildings costing around $3 million; the sanitarium opened in 1914. In 1945 New York State purchased the facility from Metropolitan for convalescing veterans of World War II. With the decline in the need for veterans' services the facility was converted for use of the developmentally disabled, in 1976 converted again to a prison, the Mount McGregor Correctional Facility. In 2013 Governor Andrew Cuomo announced plans to close the prison; the Mount McGregor Correctional Facility closed in July 2014. Grant Cottage State Historic Site continues to operate, but access to the area is restricted to Historic Site visitors during operating hours only. Over 700 acres of former corrections property was transferred to Moreau Lake State Park and there are new trails that access the new Lake Bonita parcel.
The 325 acre former Correctional Facility property is open to redevelopment proposals. Report for an Adaptive Re-Use Plan Mount McGregor Correctional Facility New York State Department of Economic Development
Mount McGregor Correctional Facility
Mt. McGregor Correctional Facility was a medium security prison for male inmates in the Town of Moreau, Saratoga County, New York, United States, it included 100 structures on over 1,000 acres. Before updating security, it was called "Camp Walkaway" due to the number of breakouts, it became a prison in 1976 and closed on July 26, 2014. The peak, Mt. McGregor, was called "Palmertown Mountain", named after a local native tribe, it was renamed after Duncan McGregor, who purchased the land in a tax sale and constructed a small resort along with a restaurant for summer visitors. The Saratoga, Mount McGregor and Lake George Railroad bought the property and opened a more sumptuous resort at the end of a rail line; when the Hotel Balmoral burned in 1897, the resort faded in popularity. The "Sanatorium on the Mountain" at Mount McGregor was opened in 1913 by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company for the benefit of its employees suffering from tuberculosis; this sanatorium staffed by doctors and a nursing staff, had a goal of restoring the health of all the company's employees.
A labyrinth of underground passages still exist that were used to transport the bodies of patients who died to the church and crematorium. The sanitorium closed in 1945. After World War II, the sanatorium served as a facility for military veterans returning to civilian life. Local stories suggest Playboy magazine founder Hugh Hefner looked into purchasing the property in the 1960s or early 1970s. In 1960 the facility was taken over by the State of New York as a school for the developmentally disabled. At first the school was the Mount McGregor division of Rome State School and became Wilton State School; the New York State Department of Corrections assumed control in 1976. At first the complex was a minimum-security prison adding medium-security facilities, it consisted of 100 structures on over 1,000 acres, including dormitories, a 1915 Mission-style chapel with a pipe organ, a dining hall with large windows, a newly-built gymnasium, a lake. The buildings covered 550,000 square feet and ranged in age from 1913 to 2007.
The prison, which used only the central cluster of buildings, closed in 2014. Neighboring Moreau Lake State Park will incorporate 750 undeveloped acres of the former facility. In 2015, the state began considering proposals for the sale of an additional 325 acres, including all the buildings, for redevelopment; as of 2016 the prison has not been sold and the site is still closed to the public. Conspiracy theorists believe the prison is being retained by the federal government to be used as a secret detention center in case of "civil disturbances or plague outbreaks." Grant Cottage State Historic Site, where former U. S. president and army general Ulysses S. Grant spent the last six weeks of his life, was within the grounds of the correctional facility and visitors had to pass a checkpoint. Grant spent the last weeks of his life there; the historic site is not part of the area to be sold. List of New York state prisons Report for an Adaptive Re-Use Plan Mount McGregor Correctional Facility New York State Department of Economic Development
3 ft gauge railways
Three foot gauge railways have a track gauge of 3 ft or 1 yard. This gauge is a narrow gauge and is found throughout North and South America. In Ireland, many secondary and industrial lines were built to 3 ft gauge, it is the dominant gauge on the Isle of Man, where it is known as the Manx Standard Gauge. Modern 3 ft gauge railways are most found in isolated mountainous areas, on small islands, or in large-scale amusement parks and theme parks; this gauge is popular in model railroading, model prototypes of these railways have been made by several model train brands around the world, such as Accucraft Trains, Aristo-Craft Trains, Bachmann Industries, Delton Locomotive Works, LGB, PIKO. Heritage railway List of track gauges Swedish three foot gauge railways
Saratoga Springs, New York
Saratoga Springs is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census; the name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area, which has made Saratoga a popular resort destination for over 200 years. Saratoga Springs was ranked tenth in the list of the top 10 places to live in New York State for 2014 according to the national online real estate brokerage Movoto; the picturesque area was occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican Natives before they were forced out by Dutch and British colonists. The Mahicans moved east, allied with other remnant peoples, settled near Stockbridge, where they became known as the Stockbridge Natives; the British built Fort Saratoga in 1691 on the west bank of the Hudson River. Shortly thereafter, British colonists settled the current village of Schuylerville about a mile south. Native Americans believed the springs about 10 miles west of the village — today called High Rock Spring — had medicinal properties. In 1767, William Johnson, a British soldier, a hero of the French and Indian War, was brought by Native American friends to the spring to treat his war wounds.
The first permanent European-American settler built a dwelling about 1776. The springs attracted tourists, Gideon Putnam built the first hotel for travelers. Putnam laid out the roads and donated land for use as public spaces; the Battle of Saratoga, the turning point of the Revolutionary War, did not take place in Saratoga Springs. Rather, the battlefield is 15 miles to the southeast in the Town of Stillwater. A museum dedicated to the two battles sits on the former battlefields; the British encampment before the surrender at Saratoga took place 10 miles east of the city, in Schuylerville, where several historical markers delineate points of interest. The surrender of the sword of battle took place where Fort Saratoga had been, south of Schuylerville. Saratoga Springs was established as a settlement in 1819 from a western portion of the Town of Saratoga, its principal community was incorporated as a village in 1826 and the entire region became a city in 1915. Tourism was aided by the 1832 arrival of the Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad, which brought thousands of travelers to the famous mineral springs.
Resort hotels developed to accommodate them. Patronage of the railroad increased after the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company assumed control in 1870 and began running the Empire State Express directly between New York City and the resort. In the 19th century, noted doctor Simon Baruch encouraged developing European-style spas in the United States as centers for health. With its wealth of mineral waters, Saratoga Springs was developed as a spa, generating the development of many large hotels, including the United States Hotel and the Grand Union Hotel; the latter was, in its day, the largest hotel in the world. In 1863, Saratoga Race Course opened. Horse racing and its associated betting increased the city's attraction as a tourist destination at a time when horse racing was a popular national spectator sport. In addition, the Saratoga Springs area was known for its gambling, which after the first years of the 20th century was illegal, but still widespread. Most gambling facilities were located on the southeast side of the city.
During the 1950s, the state and city closed the famed gambling houses in a crackdown on illegal gambling. The closing and demolition in the 1950s of some premier hotels, including the Grand Union and United States hurt tourism to Saratoga Springs; the city started to prosper again in the 1960s with the completion of the Adirondack Northway, which allowed visitors from the north and south much easier access. In addition, the construction of the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in the late 1960s, which features classical and popular music and dance, furthered the city's renaissance; the New York City Ballet and the Philadelphia Orchestra have summer residencies there, together with other high-quality dance groups and musicians. Since the early 1990s, there has been a boom of building, both residential and retail, in the west side and downtown areas of the city. According to legend, the creation of the potato chip is associated with Saratoga Springs; the legend holds that a diner visiting the restaurant Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs in 1853 was unsatisfied with the texture of the fried potatoes he had ordered and sent them back to the kitchen multiple times in protest.
The chef, George Crum became so annoyed with the customer that he sliced the potatoes much thinner than he would, covered them in salt, deep fried them. The customer was satisfied. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.1 square miles, of which 28.4 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. The Adirondack Northway and US Route 9 pass through the city, respectively. New York State Route 29, New York State Route 50, New York State Route 9N, New York State Route 9P lead into Saratoga Springs. NY 9N has its southern terminus and NY 9P has its northern terminus in the city. US 9 and NY 50 overlap in the city, joined by NY 29. Saratoga Lake is southeast of the city. According to the 2010 U. S. Census Bureau: 92.5% Whit
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i