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Saratoga Springs, New York

Saratoga Springs is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census; the name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area, which has made Saratoga a popular resort destination for over 200 years. It is home to the Saratoga Race Course, a thoroughbred horse racing track, Saratoga Performing Arts Center, a music and dance venue. Saratoga Springs was ranked tenth in the list of the top 10 places to live in New York State for 2014 according to the national online real estate brokerage Movoto; this picturesque area was occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican Natives before they were forced out by Dutch and British colonists. The Mahicans moved east, allied with other remnant peoples, settled near Stockbridge, where a mission had been established for the native people. There they became known as the Stockbridge Indians; the British built Fort Saratoga in 1691 on the west bank of the Hudson River. Shortly thereafter, British colonists settled the current village of Schuylerville about a mile south.

Native Americans believed the springs about 10 miles west of the village—today called High Rock Spring—had medicinal properties. In 1767, William Johnson, a British soldier, a hero of the French and Indian War, was brought by Native American friends to the spring to treat his war wounds; the first permanent European-American settler built a dwelling about 1776. The springs attracted tourists, Gideon Putnam built the first hotel for travelers. Putnam laid out the roads and donated land for use as public spaces; the Battle of Saratoga, the turning point of the Revolutionary War, did not take place in Saratoga Springs. Rather, the battlefield is 15 miles to the southeast in the Town of Stillwater. A museum dedicated to the two battles sits on the former battlefields; the British encampment before the surrender at Saratoga took place 10 miles east of the city, in Schuylerville, where several historical markers delineate points of interest. The surrender of the sword of battle took place where Fort Saratoga had been, south of Schuylerville.

Saratoga Springs was established as a settlement in 1819 from a western portion of the Town of Saratoga. Its principal community was incorporated as a village in 1826 and the entire region became a city in 1915. Tourism was aided by the 1832 arrival of the Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad, which brought thousands of travelers to the famous mineral springs. Resort hotels developed to accommodate them. Patronage of the railroad increased after the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company assumed control in 1870 and began running the Empire State Express directly between New York City and the resort. In the 19th century, noted doctor Simon Baruch encouraged developing European-style spas in the United States as centers for health. With its wealth of mineral waters, Saratoga Springs was developed as a spa, generating the development of many large hotels, including the United States Hotel and the Grand Union Hotel; the latter was, in its day, the largest hotel in the world. In 1863, Saratoga Race Course opened.

Horse racing and its associated betting increased the city's attraction as a tourist destination at a time when horse racing was a popular national spectator sport. In addition, the Saratoga Springs area was known for its gambling, which after the first years of the 20th century was illegal, but still widespread. Most gambling facilities were located on the southeast side of the city. By 1870 it was the nation's top upscale resort relying on natural mineral springs, horse racing and luxury hotels. World War II imposed severe travel restrictions. During the 1950s, the state and city closed the famed gambling houses in a crackdown on illegal gambling; the closing and demolition in the 1950s of some premier hotels, including the Grand Union and United States hurt tourism. However, since 1970 there has been a revival with a renovated racetrack, a 28-day exclusive racing season, a new interstate, winter sports emphasis, an influx of young professionals; the city became more accessible with the completion of the Adirondack Northway, which allowed visitors from the north and south much easier access.

In addition, the construction of the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in the late 1960s, which features classical and popular music and dance, furthered the city's renaissance. The New York City Ballet and the Philadelphia Orchestra have summer residencies there, together with other high-quality dance groups and musicians. Since the early 1990s, there has been a boom of building, both residential and retail, in the west side and downtown areas of the city, Skidmore College has flourished. According to legend, the creation of the potato chip is associated with Saratoga Springs; the legend holds that a diner visiting the restaurant Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs in 1853 was unsatisfied with the texture of the fried potatoes he had ordered and sent them back to the kitchen multiple times in protest. The chef, George Crum became so annoyed with the customer that he sliced the potatoes much thinner than he would, covered them in salt, deep fried them; the customer was satisfied. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total

Cowen, West Virginia

Cowen is a town in Webster County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 541 at the 2010 census. Cowen was named for a president of the Ohio Railroad. Camp Caesar was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009; the West Virginia Baptist Camp is just on the Williams River Road. It has been in continuous use each summer since then. Cowen is located at 38°24′38″N 80°33′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.63 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 541 people, 230 households, 156 families living in the town; the population density was 858.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 275 housing units at an average density of 436.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.3% White, 0.2% Native American, 1.5% from two or more races. There were 230 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 17.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.2% were non-families.

26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the town was 41.7 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 513 people, 224 households, 148 families living in the town; the population density was 819.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 264 housing units at an average density of 421.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.61% White, 0.19% African American, 0.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.39% of the population. There were 224 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.80. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $21,250, the median income for a family was $30,147. Males had a median income of $26,389 versus $15,139 for females; the per capita income for the town was $10,893. About 19.1% of families and 27.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.7% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over

National Writers' Union of Ukraine

The National Writers' Union of Ukraine is a voluntary social-creative association of professional writers, prosaists, playwrighters and translators. Today the NSPU has over 1,800 members, including 84 writers living abroad; the majority of NSPU members write in the Ukrainian language, while others write in Russian, Yiddish, Greek, etc. Regional organizations of the Union are situated in every oblast centre of large cities; the supreme body of the NSPU is the Congress of Ukrainian Writers, gathered in five years. In the between time, the Union is managed by the Council and Presidium of the NSPU. Executive functions are delegated to the Secretariat; the NSPU has special literary awards to honour the best achievements in corresponding fields, among which are Lesia Ukrainka Prize, the Ivan Franko Prize, the Pavlo Tychyna Prize, the Maksym Rylsky Prize, "Blahovist", others. The headquarters of the Union is located at 2 Bankova Street, the former residence of Trepov and Liebermann. In 1997 the Union split, losing some of its members who created a new organization, the Association of Ukrainian Writers.

The NSPU was founded in 1934 as a part of the Writers' Union of the former USSR. In post-communist time, the Writers' Union of Ukraine declared its independence from any Soviet structures. Anatoly Kasheida NSPU official website

Bikaner Camel Corps

The Bikaner Camel Corps was a unit of Imperial Service Troops from India that fought for the Allies in World War I and World War II. The Corps was founded by Maharaja Ganga Singh of the Indian state of Bikaner, as the Ganga Risala after the British government of India accepted his offer to raise a force of 500 soldiers; the state of Bikaner had a long tradition of using soldiers mounted on camels. For instance, in 1465 Rao Bika led a force of 300 sowar to conquer neighbouring territories. Ganga Singh led the Ganga Risala when it fought in the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, in Somaliland in 1902-1904 to quell the Somali Uprising and in Egypt in World War I. At the Suez Canal in 1915 the corps routed the opposing Turkish forces in a camel cavalry charge; the Corps fought in the Middle East in World War II, when it was supported by the camel-mounted Bijay Battery, which became a mule team battery. After India's Independence the Bikaner Camel Corps was merged with camel troops from Jaisalmer in 1951 to become the Ganga Jaisalmer Risala and joined the Grenadiers as the 13th Battalion.

It took part in the actions to foil Pakistani raiders in the Bikaner and Jaisalmer regions during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. After 1975 all of the Indian Military Camel Corps, including the Ganga Jaisalmer Risala, were disbanded. A brief attempt was made to resurrect them but the plan never came to fruition; the Ganga Risala still survives though as a part of the Border Security Force, retaining the name Bikaner Camel Corps. While employed for ceremonial purposes, it is one of the few camel cavalry units still retained by present-day armed forces; the Ganga Jaisalmer Risala underwent conversion into standard infantry. It continues to serve as a regular infantry battalion under the name 13 Grenadiers. Post 1971 the unit has seen action in counter insurgency operations in the states of Punjab and Assam, it has to its credit one Kirti Chakra and one Shaurya Chakra among numerous other awards

Tota Singh

Tota Singh is an Indian politician and belongs to the ruling Shiromani Akali Dal. He was Minister for Agriculture in the previous Punjab Government, his father's name is Babu Singh. He was elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly in 1997 on an Akali Dal ticket from Moga, he was made Minister for Education during 1997-2002. He was re-elected from Moga in 2002. In 2012, he contested from Dharamkot, he was cabinet minister and held portfolio of Agriculture. In 2017, he lost the Dharamkot constituency seat to Sukhjit Singh Kaka Lohgarh by a crushing 22,218 vote margin. In 2007, he lost the Moga constituency seat to Joginder Pal Jain

Ernest Anthony Lowe

Ernest Anthony Lowe was a British economist, Professor of Accounting and Financial Management at the University of Sheffield, known for his work on management control, management control systems. Lowe started his career as chartered accountant and received his BSc in Economics at the London School of Economics. In the beginning of his academic career he held appointments at the Durham University, the University of Leeds, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University and the University of California and back in England mid-1960s at the University of Bradford, as senior lecturer in management accounting at Manchester Business School. In 1971 Lowe was appointed Professor of Accountancy and Financial Administration, Professor of Accounting and Financial Management at the University of Sheffield, where he held the university’s first chair in accounting. From 1997 to 2012 he was director of the Management Control Association. Lowe was one of the first authors to define management control systems.

In his 1972 article "On the idea of a management control system" he listed the following four reasons for the need for a planning and control system: The need for a planning and control system within a business organization flows from certain general characteristics of the nature of business enterprises, the chief of which are follows: firstly, the enterprise has organizational objectives, as distinct from the separable and individual ones of the members constituting the'managerial coalition'. Fourthly, there is a necessity to economize, in human endeavours we are invariably concerned with an allocation of effort and resources so as to achieve a given set of objectives... The term ‘management control’ was given of its current connotations by Robert N. Anthony. David Cooper recounted Tony Lowe's publications are important contributions to the intellectual beginnings of critical accounting and a fitting memorial to his recent death. This... Tony's conceptualization of management control as a system...

Rob Gray added: the most important academic the field of accounting has produced... He was crucial in the development of wider perspectives on accounting drawing from economic, decision theory, systems science and operations research to set in motion the accounting we know these days as interpretative and critical, his influence on modern management accounting is incalculable. More I have always been in awe of his creation of the ‘Sheffield School’ and his critical influence on its principal members such as Wai Fong Chua, David Cooper, Richard Laughlin, Tony Puxty, Tony Tinker, Prem Sikka, Dick Wilson... Lowe, Tony Puxty, Wai Fong Chua, eds. Critical perspectives in management control. Macmillan Press, 1989. Articles, a selection: Lowe, E. A. and Richard Wright Shaw. "An analysis of managerial biasing: Evidence from a company's budgeting process." Journal of Management Studies 5.3: 304-315. Lowe, E. A. "On the idea of a management control system: integrating accounting and management control." Journal of management Studies 8.1: 1-12.

Lowe, E. A. and J. M. McInnes. "Control in Socio- Economic Organizations: A Rationale for the Design of Management Control Systems. "Journal of Management Studies 8: 2 1: 3-27.. Lowe, E. A. and A. M. Tinker. "Siting the accounting problematic: towards an intellectual emancipation of accounting." Journal of Business Finance & Accounting 4.3: 263-276. Lowe, E. Anthony, Anthony G. Puxty, R. C. Laughlin. "Simple theories for complex processes: accounting policy and the market for myopia." Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 2.1: 19-42. Berry, A. J. Capps, T. Cooper, D. Ferguson, P. Hopper, T. & Lowe, E. A.. "Management control in an area of the NCB: rationales of accounting practices in a public enterprise." Accounting and Society, 10, 3-28. Laughlin, E. A. Lowe. "A critical analysis of accounting thought: prognosis and prospects for understanding and changing accounting systems design." Critical Accounts, London: 15-43. Professor Tony Lowe, obituary