Gwinner, North Dakota
Gwinner is a city in Sargent County, North Dakota, United States. The population was 753 at the 2010 census. Gwinner was founded in 1900. Gwinner is located at 46°13′34″N 97°39′43″W. Gwinner is the site of a manufacturing facility of Bobcat Company and was once the location of its American headquarters. Bobcat, which produces a skidsteer, track loader, mini-excavator and is one of the largest employers in North Dakota and provides a wealth of economic stability to Gwinner, the North Sargent School District, the entire region. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.08 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 753 people, 322 households, 203 families residing in the city; the population density was 362.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 370 housing units at an average density of 177.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.3% White, 0.8% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.8% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population. There were 322 households of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.0% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 37.4 years. 27.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.8% male and 46.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 717 people, 298 households, 202 families residing in the city; the population density was 560.2 people per square mile. There were 329 housing units at an average density of 257.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.33% White, 0.42% Native American, 0.84% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.12% of the population. There were 298 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,000, the median income for a family was $48,250. Males had a median income of $39,150 versus $20,417 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,272. About 8.2% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over.
Gwinner, 1900-1975 from the Digital Horizons website
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.
Richland County, North Dakota
Richland County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 16,321, its county seat is Wahpeton. Richland County is part of the Wahpeton, ND–MN Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Fargo-Wahpeton, ND-MN Combined Statistical Area; the Dakota Territory legislature created the county on January 4, 1873, with area partitioned from Pembina County. It was named for Morgan T. Rich, who settled on the site of the future Wahpeton in 1869; the county organization was completed on November 25 of that same year. Its boundaries were altered in 1883 and 1885, it has maintained its present configuration since 1885. Richland County lies at the SE corner of North Dakota, its eastern boundary line abuts the western boundary line of the state of Minnesota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of South Dakota. The Red River flows northerly along its eastern boundary line on its way to the Hudson Bay; the Wild Rice River flows easterly and northerly through the county, discharging into the Red River north of Richland County, in Cass County.
The Sheyenne River flows northeasterly through the NW corner of the county discharging into the Red in Cass County. The Richland County terrain consists of verdant hills, sprinkled with ponds, it is devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the north and east, with its highest point near its SW corner, at 1,220' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,445 square miles, of which 1,436 square miles is land and 9.7 square miles is water. Sheyenne National Grassland As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 17,998 people, 6,885 households, 4,427 families in the county; the population density was 12.3/sqmi. There were 7,575 housing units at an average density of 5.28/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.83% White, 0.34% Black or African American, 1.66% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 46.5% were of German and 26.9% Norwegian ancestry. There were 6,885 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families.
29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.06. The county population contained 24.7% under the age of 18, 14.5% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.7 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 108.6 men. The median income for a household in the county was $36,098, the median income for a family was $45,484. Men had a median income of $30,829 versus $20,310 for women; the per capita income for the county was $16,339. About 6.1% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 16,321 people, 6,651 households, 4,171 families in the county; the population density was 11.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,503 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 95.0% white, 2.0% American Indian, 0.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 53.0% were German, 31.2% were Norwegian, 7.0% were Irish, 2.3% were American. Of the 6,651 households, 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families, 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 39.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,131 and the median income for a family was $64,636. Males had a median income of $42,597 versus $28,284 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,342. About 5.2% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over.
Richland County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In only one national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Richland County, North Dakota Richland County, North Dakota A history of Richland County and the city of Wahpeton ND from the Digital Horizons website
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Roberts County, South Dakota
Roberts County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 10,149, its county seat is Sisseton. The county was named either for S. G. Roberts of Fargo, North Dakota, or for Solomon Robar, an early local French fur trader, it was created on March 8, 1883, was organized by August 6 of that year. Its boundary was altered one time, in 1885. Roberts County is at the NE corner of South Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west line of the state of Minnesota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of North Dakota. The Cottonwood Slough flows southward; the terrain consists of rolling hills, devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the east. Roberts County has a total area of 1,136 square miles, of which 1,101 square miles is land and 35 square miles is water; the Traverse Gap is located in Eastern Roberts County along the Minnesota border. The Lake Traverse Indian Reservation is located in the county; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 10,016 people, 3,683 households, 2,618 families in the county.
The population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 4,734 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.29% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 29.86% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.03% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races. 0.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,683 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.50% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were non-families. 26.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.22. The county population contained 30.00% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,322, the median income for a family was $33,361. Males had a median income of $25,516 versus $19,464 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,428. About 16.60% of families and 22.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.10% of those under age 18 and 17.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,149 people, 3,823 households, 2,655 families residing in the county; the population density was 9.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,905 housing units at an average density of 4.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.7% white, 34.5% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 31.3% were German, 19.2% were Norwegian, 6.3% were Irish, 3.8% were American.
Of the 3,823 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age was 39.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,708 and the median income for a family was $46,146. Males had a median income of $34,080 versus $28,423 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,825. About 14.3% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Sisseton Wilmot Agency Village Goodwill Long Hollow Sleepy Eye, Sisseton Sioux chief Gene Okerlund, wrestling announcer Roberts County is politically a swing county. National Register of Historic Places listings in Roberts County, South Dakota Roberts County, South Dakota
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive