SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sari

A sari, saree or shari is a women's garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of an unstitched drape varying from 4.5 to 8 metres in length and 600 to 1,200 millimetres in breadth, wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring a portion of the midriff. There are various styles of sari manufacture and draping, the most common being the Nivi style, which originated in the Deccan region; the sari is worn with a fitted bodice called a choli and a petticoat called ghagra, parkar or ul-pavadai. In the modern Indian subcontinent, the sari is considered a cultural icon; the word sari described in Sanskrit शाटी śāṭī which means'strip of cloth' and शाडी śāḍī or साडी sāḍī in Pali, which evolved to sāṛī in modern Indian languages. The word'Sattika' is mentioned as describing women's attire in ancient India in Sanskrit literature and Buddhist literature called Jatakas; this could be equivalent to modern day'Sari'. The term for female bodice, the choli evolved from ancient Stanapatta.

Rajatarangini, a tenth-century literary work by Kalhana, states that the choli from the Deccan was introduced under the royal order in Kashmir. The petticoat is called parkar in Marathi, ulpavadai in Tamil and shaya in Bengali and eastern India. Apart from the standard "petticoat", it may be called "inner skirt" or an inskirt. History of sari-like drapery is traced back to the Indus Valley Civilisation, which flourished during 2800–1800 BCE around the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Cotton was first cultivated and woven in Indian subcontinent around 5th millennium BCE. Dyes used during this period are still in use indigo, red madder and turmeric. Silk was woven around 2450 BCE and 2000 BCE; the word'sari' evolved from'sattika' mentioned in earliest Hindu literature as women's attire. The Sari or Sattika evolved from a three-piece ensemble comprising the lower garment; this ensemble is mentioned in Sanskrit literature and Buddhist Pali literature during the 6th century BCE. This complete three-piece dress was known as generic term for costume.

Ancient Antriya resembled dothi wrap in the "fishtail" version, passed through legs, covered the legs loosely and flowed into a long, decorative pleats at front of the legs. It further evolved into Bhairnivasani skirt, today known as lehenga. Uttariya was a shawl-like veil worn over the shoulder or head, it evolved into what is known today known as dupatta and ghoonghat. Stanapatta evolved into choli by 1st century CE; the ancient Sanskrit work, Kadambari by Banabhatta and ancient Tamil poetry, such as the Silappadhikaram, describes women in exquisite drapery or sari. In ancient India, although women wore saris that bared the midriff, the Dharmasastra writers stated that women should be dressed such that the navel would never become visible. By which for some time the navel exposure became a taboo and the navel was concealed. In ancient Indian tradition and the Natya Shastra, the navel of the Supreme Being is considered to be the source of life and creativity, hence the midriff is to be left bare by the sari.

It is accepted that wrapped sari-like garments for lower body and sometimes shawls or scarf like garment called'uttariya' for upper body, have been worn by Indian women for a long time, that they have been worn in their current form for hundreds of years. In ancient couture the lower garment was called'nivi' or'nivi bandha', while the upper body was left bare; the works of Kalidasa mentions'Kurpasika' a form of tight fitting breast band that covered the breasts. It was sometimes referred to as'Uttarasanga' or'Stanapatta'. Poetic references from works like Silappadikaram indicate that during the Sangam period in ancient Tamil Nadu in southern India, a single piece of clothing served as both lower garment and head covering, leaving the midriff uncovered. Similar styles of the sari are recorded paintings by Raja Ravi Varma in Kerala. Numerous sources say that everyday costume in ancient India and till recent times in Kerala consisted of a pleated dhoti or wrap, combined with a breast band called'Kurpasika' or'Stanapatta' and a wrap called'Uttariya' that could at times be used to cover the upper body or head.

The two-piece Kerala mundum neryathum is a survival of ancient clothing styles. The one-piece sari in Kerala is derived from neighboring Tamil Nadu or Deccan during medieval period based on its appearance on various temple murals in medieval Kerala. Early Sanskrit literature has a wide vocabulary of terms for the veiling used by women, such as Avagunthana, meaning cloak-veil, Uttariya meaning shoulder-veil, Mukha-pata meaning face-veil and Sirovas-tra meaning head-veil. In the Pratimānātaka, a play by Bhāsa describes in context of Avagunthana veil that "ladies may be seen without any blame in a religious session, in marriage festivities, during a calamity and in a forest"; the same sentiment is more generically expressed in Sanskrit literature. Śūdraka, the author of Mṛcchakatika set in fifth century BCE says that the Avagaunthaha was not used by women everyday and at every time. He says; this may indicate that it was not necessary for

Thomas Coats

Thomas Coats was a Scottish thread manufacturer. Coats was born at Paisley 18 October 1809, he was the fourth of a family of ten sons. His father, James Coats, was one of the founders of the Coats Group of Paisley. In the hands of Thomas and his surviving brother, Sir Peter Coats, the Ferguslie Thread Works became substantial. Coats in 1868 presented to the town of Paisley a public park, called the'Fountains Gardens,' as a place of recreation, he took an interest in education, in 1873 was elected chairman of the school board, an office he continued to hold until his death. He gave large sums to improve the school accommodation, provided a playground. From 1862 to 1864 he was president of the Paisley Philosophical Institution, in 1882 he presented to the society the Coats Observatory. Coats was a collector of Scottish coins, his collection became the largest and most valuable of its kind, he wanted a catalogue of the specimens, entrusted the work to Edward Burns, a Scottish numismatist. But in Burns's hands the catalogue swelled into an elaborate Coinage of Scotland.

It was unfinished at the time of Coats's death. Burns himself died and the task of completion was entrusted to George Sim. In November 1881 Coats and his brother Sir Peter were entertained at a banquet at Paisley, presented with their portraits, painted by Sir Daniel Macnee, P. R. S. A. Coats died of an affliction of the heart on 15 October 1883, he is buried in Woodside Cemetery in the West End of Paisley. The grave stands at the summit west of the statue to James Fillans and paired with the grave of Peter Coats, east of the statue. A statue was erected at Paisley to his memory. In religion Coats was a Baptist, in politics a Liberal; the Thomas Coats Memorial Baptist Church in Paisley is named in his honour. He was married to Margaret Glen, his daughter Janet Coats, set up one of the first literary prizes in Scotland, the James Tait Black Memorial Prize, in memory of her late husband. Other children included James Coats, Peter Coats, Thomas Glen Coats

Voxtrot (album)

Voxtrot is the first full-length album by the Texas-based indie pop band Voxtrot. It was released worldwide on May 22, 2007. Ramesh Srivastava, lead singer of the band, announced in December 2006 that the band was starting work on its long-awaited full-length record; the album was leaked in its entirety to the Internet on March 16, 2007. "Kid Gloves" can be heard on the band's MySpace and an MP3 of the track was made available as a free download through Pitchfork Media's Forkcast on March 19, 2007. The MP3 has since been added to Voxtrot's website. All songs written by Ramesh Srivastava. "Introduction" - 3:32 "Kid Gloves" - 4:23 "Ghost" - 4:48 "Steven" - 3:27 "Firecracker" - 3:43 "Brother in Conflict" - 4:04 "Easy" - 3:35 "The Future Pt. 1" - 3:41 "Every Day" - 4:25 "Real Life Version" - 4:00 "Blood Red Blood" - 4:13 "Loan Shark" - 4:08 "New Love" - 4:06 Voxtrot's MySpace