In Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is any person, on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it. In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so. In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. In early Buddhism, the term bodhisatta is used in the early texts to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. During his discourses, to recount his experiences as a young aspirant he uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being, "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is described as someone, still subject to birth, death, sorrow and delusion.
Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jataka tales. According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant; the oldest known story about how Gautama Buddha becomes a bodhisattva is the story of his encounter with the previous Buddha, Dīpankara. During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha. Dīpankara confirms that they will attain Buddhahood. Early Buddhist authors saw this story as indicating that the making of a resolution in the presence of a living Buddha and his prediction/confirmation of one's future Buddhahood was necessary to become a bodhisattva. According to Drewes, "all known models of the path to Buddhahood developed from this basic understanding."The path is explained differently by the various Nikaya schools.
In the Theravāda Buddhavaṃsa, after receiving the prediction, Gautama took four asaṃkheyyas and a hundred thousand, shorter kalpas to reach Buddhahood. The Sarvāstivāda school had similar models about, they held it took him three asaṃkhyeyas and ninety one kalpas to become a Buddha after his resolution in front of a past Buddha. During the first asaṃkhyeya he is said to have encountered and served 75,000 Buddhas, 76,000 in the second, after which he received his first prediction of future Buddhahood from Dīpankara, meaning that he could no longer fall back from the path to Buddhahood. Thus, the presence of a living Buddha is necessary for Sarvāstivāda; the Mahāvibhāṣā explains that its discussion of the bodhisattva path is meant to “stop those who are in fact not bodhisattvas from giving rise to the self-conceit that they are.”The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames: Natural, one first plants the roots of merit in front of a Buddha to attain Buddhahood.
Resolution, one makes their first resolution to attain Buddhahood in the presence of a Buddha. Continuing, one continues to practice. Irreversible, at this stage, one cannot fall back; the Sri Lankan commentator Dhammapala in his commentary on the Cariyāpiṭaka, a text which focuses on the bodhisatta path, notes that to become a bodhisatta one must make a valid resolution in front of a living Buddha, which confirms that one is “irreversible” from the attainment of Buddhahood. The Nidānakathā, as well as the Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyāpiṭaka commentaries makes this explicit by stating that one cannot use a substitute for the presence of a living Buddha, since only a Buddha has the knowledge for making a reliable prediction; this is the accepted view maintained in orthodox Theravada today. The idea is that any resolution to attain Buddhahood may be forgotten or abandoned during the aeons ahead; the Burmese monk Ledi Sayadaw explains that though it is easy to make vows for future Buddhahood by oneself, it is difficult to maintain the necessary conduct and views during periods when the Dharma has disappeared from the world.
One will fall back during such periods and this is why one is not a full bodhisatta until one receives recognition from a living Buddha. Because of this, it was and remains a common practice in Theravada to attempt to establish the necessary conditions to meet the future Buddha Maitreya and thus receive a prediction from him. Medieval Theravada literature and inscriptions report the aspirations of monks and ministers to meet Maitreya for this purpose. Modern figures such as Anagarika Dharmapala, U Nu both sought to receive a prediction from a Buddha in the future and believed meritorious actions done for the good of Buddhism would help in their endeavor to become bodhisattas in the future. Over time the term came to be applied to other figures besides Gautama Buddha in Theravada lands due to the influence of Mahayana; the Theravada Abhayagiri tradition of Sri Lanka practiced Mahayana Buddhism and was influential until the 12th century. Kings of Sri Lanka
Candi Bahal known as Biaro Bahal or Candi Portibi is Vajrayana Buddhist candi complex in Bahal village, Padang Bolak, Padang Lawas Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located about three hours journey with car from 400 km from Medan; the complex includes three candis: Candi Bahal I, Candi Bahal II, Candi Bahal III. The temple site is linked to Pannai Kingdom circa 11th to 13th century CE. Candi Bahal are one of a group of temples discovered in Padang Lawas. Padang Lawas is a grassy flat plain located between the Barisan Mountains and the highlands of northern Sumatra; the plain is kept free of tall vegetation by the prevailing dry winds sweeping through the gap between the two highlands. There were no major settlements in Padang Lawas, but the area provided a strategic route for people moving between the east and west coast of Sumatra; the flow of people in the area might provide the reason for the establishment of 11th and 13th century shrines found in the area. At least 25 brick shrines have been discovered in the plain of Padang Lawas, including Candi Pulo, Candi Barumun, Candi Singkilon, Candi Sipamutung, Candi Aloban, Candi Rondaman Dolok, Candi Bara, Candi Magaledang, Candi Sitopayan and Candi Nagasaribu.
No kingdoms were associated with these temples, at least according to inscriptions discovered in the site, however the religion is identical to that practiced by Adityawarman. Candi Bahal are the only temples, restored, the other were still in ruins. Construction of the temples of Padang Lawas were estimated to be between the 11th to 13th century CE, they were linked with Pannai Kingdom, one of the trading ports on the coast of Strait of Malacca under Srivijayan mandala. Restoration of Candi Bahal I occurred in 1977-1978 and 1982-1983. Candi Bahal II has been restored between 1991-1992; the three temples of Bahal are separated by a distance of about 500 meter. The complex of the temple is known locally as biaro indicating a clue to its original use; the names of three of the Bahal temples indicate connections with Sri Lanka. Bahal is a term still used in Nepal to refer the two-storied temples of the Vajrayana, a major sect which influenced Buddhism in Indonesia. Rampant lions carved flanking the temple of Biaro Bahal I was similar to carvings at Polonaruva, the 11th-century capital of Sri Lanka.
The complex is the largest in North Sumatra. All three temples of Bahal were constructed of red bricks, while the sculptures were constructed of sand stones; each temple are surrounded with a perimeter red brick wall 1 meter tall. A gate on the eastern wall provide entrance gateway into the temple; the main temple of each complexes is located in the center. The architecture of this temple is similar to Jabung temple located in East Java. Despite its rich archaeological value, unlike the popular temples of Java, the Padang Lawas temples are neglected and in the state of ruins due to its isolated location. There are some attempts to promote the temples as a tourism attraction, however because of its remote location and poor infrastructure and tourism activity is limited. Jabung, a Majapahit Buddhist temple with architecture style similar to Bahal temple Muara Takus, a Buddhist stupa in Riau Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds, a temple complex in Jambi
Batujaya is an archeological site located in the village of Batujaya, Karawang in West Java, Indonesia. The site is five square kilometers in area and comprises at least 30 structural in what Sundanese call hunyur or unur. Unur is similar to the manapo found at the Muara Jambi archaeological site; the site was first found and examined by archaeologists from the University of Indonesia in 1984. Excavations have since uncovered 17 unur; the structures found are made of bricks composed of a mixtures of clay and rice husks, not volcanic rock, difficult to find in Batujaya. Two structures recovered are in the form of temples, one of which, known as Jiwa Temple, has been restored. According to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archeology Agency, Jiwa was built in the 2nd century; as local Indonesian governments do not maintain the site, Ford provides funds for research and excavation of the Batujaya complex as part of its Conservation and Environmental Grants. The discovery of this archaeological site was important as although it was the location of Tarumanagara, the oldest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Indonesia, West Java lacks ancient temple remains.
Before the discovery, only four temple sites have been found in West Java, namely they are Cangkuang temple, Ronggeng Temple, Pamarican Temple, Pananjung Temple. Preliminary research at Jiwa found that the temple was built between the sixth centuries; this is based on the inscriptions found on numerous votive tablets discovered in the area, small clay tablets with inscriptions and pictures of Buddha used in prayer. Prof. Dr. Budihartono proposed carrying out pollen analysis for examining both the paleoenvironment and cultural records, including evidence of diet and food processing. In and around the site is discovered the fragments of Buni culture clay pottery, which suggests Buni prehistoric clay culture spread across West Java northern coast was the predecessor of Batujaya site. Advance technology has been applied for the construction with some of the floor and other parts of the temple which require hardening made of unreinforced concrete with marble size stones and some of the temple is coated with a thick enough of stucco.
Indonesia portal The Spice Islands History Bambang Budi Utomo. 2004. Arsitektur Bangunan Suci Masa Hindu-Budha di Jawa Barat. Kementrian Kebudayaan dan pariwisata, Jakarta. ISBN 979-8041-35-6 Percandian Batujaya, from Indonesian Wikipedia on 19 September 2005
Jawi temple is a syncretic Hindu-Buddhist candi dated from late 13th century Singhasari kingdom. The temple is located on the eastern slope of Mount Welirang, Candi Wates village, Kecamatan Prigen, East Java, Indonesia 31 kilometers west of Pasuruan city or 41 kilometers south of Surabaya; the temple located on the main road between Kecamatan Pandaan - Kecamatan Prigen and Pringebukan. The temple was thought to be a Hindu-Buddhist place of worship, however the temple was dedicated as mortuary temple to honor King Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari, it is believed that the ashes of the late king was placed in two more temples, the Singhasari and Jago temple. The Nagarakretagama canto 56 mentioned this temple as Jajawa. King Kertanegara of Singhasari ordered the construction of this temple to provide a place of worship for the adherents of Shiva-Buddha sect, a syncretic religion patronage by the king; the temple compound measured 40 x 60 square meters, enclosed within 2 meters high red brick wall.
The temple is surrounded by a moat filled with flowering lotus plants. The temple measures 24.5 meters high with the base of the structure measured 14.2 x 9.5 meters. The temple structure is tall and slender with the tall receding towering roof crowned with the combination pinnacle of cube and stupa; the door of the main cella and the main stairs faces east. According to Nagarakretagama, in the year 1359 CE, on his return from an extended tour of the eastern provinces, King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit stopped off at the temple of Jajawa at Pandaan, in the foothills of Mount Welirang, his purpose was to place offerings at the shrine of his great-grandfather Kertanagara, last king of Singhasari, in whose memory the temple had been built. The Nagarakretagama describes in great detail the magnificence of the sacred compound; the principal monument, in particular, was unique in that it was a Shivaite sanctuary crowned with a Buddhist ornament. It thus reflected the advanced religious philosophy expounded by Kertanagara, said on his death, have returned to the realm of'ShivaBuddha'.
The shrine further contained two mortuary statues of the king, representing the essence of both religions. Yet, as Prapanca explains in his poem, the image of the Buddha Akshobya had mysteriously disappeared at a time when the monument had been struck by lightning in 1331. While regretting that the statue had vanished, it was accepted as a sign of the Buddha's supreme manifestation, Śūnyatā that of non-being or nothingness. There were other Shivaite statues discovered in temple's niches, such as the image of Nandisvara, Ganesha and Brahma, however these statues has been removed and stored in the museums; the statue of Durga is stored in Mpu Tantular Museum, while the rest are stored in Trowulan Museum. The Brahma statue however is missing broken to pieces since fragments of the statue can be found in temple's store room; the temple had undergone restoration projects twice, the first was conducted between 1938-1941 and the second was in 1975-1980. The temple reconstruction project completed in 1982.
Historical sites in Malang
Muara Takus is a Buddhist temple complex, thought to belong to the Srivijaya empire. It is situated in Kampar Regency in Riau province, Indonesia, its surviving temples and other archaeological remains are thought to date to the eleventh and twelfth century AD. It is one of best-preserved ancient temple complexes in Sumatra. Candi Muara Takus was constructed by the maritime-based Sriwijaya Empire in the eleventh century; the architecture and design of the temples indicates that they are of Mahayana Buddhist origin. It has been suggested by Schnitger that the major temples at Muara Takus may have undergone major renovations in the twelfth century, it is thought. The site was abandoned for many centuries before it was rediscovered by Cornet De Groot in 1860; the site was explored and surveyed by W. P Groenveld in 1880 and excavations have been conducted periodically since; the research on the Muara Takus archaeological site was carried out in 1983 and it resulted in mapping of the ancient embankment remnants, the Mahligai Temple compound, other ancient structures.
The site is now protected as a national monument. The temple complex of Candi Muara Takus is surrounded by a 1 metre tall stone perimeter wall that measures 74 x 74 metres; the outer wall is penetrated by a gateway on the northern side. Within the walls are the remains of four substantial Buddhist temples; the most unusual of these is Candi Mahligai. This lotus-shaped Buddhist stupa is unique in Indonesia though there are numerous similar ancient structures in Thailand and Myanmar; this structure reaches a height of 14.30 metres. The uppermost level of the stupa is decorated with lion figures that are discernible from below. On the east side of Candi Mahligai is the base of Candi Palangka, it is constructed from red stone and now only reaches a height of 1.45 metres. It was much taller at the time of the earliest colonial expeditions to the site but the upper terraces have long since collapsed. A third structure within the complex is Candi Bungsu; the most striking thing about this temple is that it was built from two different kinds of stone.
One part is built from the other section from sandstone. This temple now reaches a height of 6.20 metres. The largest structure at Candi Muara Takus is Candi Tua, its base measures 32.80 metres x 21.80 metres and it reaches a height of 8.50 metres. This temple is terraced and it bears some resemblance in its design to the much larger stupa, Candi Borobudur, in Java. Like all the temples at Candi Muara Takus, Candi Tua features only minimal decoration; the most notable decorative feature are the seated lion figures on the upper terraces. Candi of Indonesia History of Buddhism Indonesian architecture Gugusan Dan Sejarah Candi Muara Takus. Department of Education and Culture, Riau Province. November 1992. Schnitger, F M. Forgotten Kingdoms in Sumatra. Oxford University Press. Muara Takus Compound Site - UNESCO world heritage tentative list
Lumbini Natural Park
Lumbini Natural Park is a Buddhist temple located at Desa Dolat Rayat, Berastagi in North Sumatra. It was inaugurated with a great ceremony in October 2010; the ceremony was attended by more than 1300 monks and more than 200 lay people from around the world. Taman Alam Lumbiniis a replica of "Shwedagon Pagoda" in Myanmar; the architecture is similar to a Myanmar pagoda, covered in gold. It hosts the door appears like an India craft; the temple is based on the Shwedagon Pagoda in Myanmar. Construction began in 2007; the project was completed in 2010. It is 68 meters in length and 68 meters in width; the replica is the second highest among pagodas outside of Myanmar. This replica consists of: 1 unit Large Pagoda, with the scale of 42 meters in height, 25.8 meters in length, 25.8 meters in width. 8 units Small Pagoda with the scale of 7.18 meters in height, 5.38 meters in length, 5.38 meter in width. 1 unit Ashoka Pillar with the scale of 19.8 meters in height and 0.8 meters in diameter pole. 4 units Sakyamuni Buddha Statue made from the green Jade of Myanmar
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile