Sarin is an toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound. A colourless, odorless liquid, it is used as a chemical weapon due to its extreme potency as a nerve agent. Exposure is lethal at low concentrations, where death can occur within one-to-ten minutes after direct inhalation of a lethal dose, due to suffocation from lung muscle paralysis, unless antidotes are administered. People who absorb a non-lethal dose, but do not receive immediate medical treatment, may suffer permanent neurological damage. Sarin is considered a weapon of mass destruction. Production and stockpiling of sarin was outlawed as of April 1997 by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, it is classified as a Schedule 1 substance. Like some other nerve agents that affect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, sarin attacks the nervous system by interfering with the degradation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions. Death will occur as a result of asphyxia due to the inability to control the muscles involved in breathing.
Initial symptoms following exposure to sarin are a runny nose, tightness in the chest, constriction of the pupils. Soon after, the person will have difficulty breathing and they will experience nausea and drooling; as they continue to lose control of bodily functions, they may vomit and urinate. This phase is followed by jerking; the person becomes comatose and suffocates in a series of convulsive spasms. Moreover, common mnemonics for the symptomatology of organophosphate poisoning, including sarin gas, are the "killer Bs" of bronchorrhea and bronchospasm because they are the leading cause of death, SLUDGE – salivation, urination, gastrointestinal distress, emesis. Death may follow in one to ten minutes after direct inhalation. Sarin has a high volatility relative to similar nerve agents, therefore inhalation is easy and vapor may penetrate the skin. A person's clothing can release sarin for about 30 minutes after it has come in contact with sarin gas, which can lead to exposure of other people.
Treatment measures have been described. Treatment is with the antidotes atropine and pralidoxime. Atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, is given to treat the physiological symptoms of poisoning. Since muscular response to acetylcholine is mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, atropine does not counteract the muscular symptoms. Pralidoxime can regenerate cholinesterases if administered within five hours. Biperiden, a synthetic acetylcholine antagonist, has been suggested as an alternative to atropine due to its better blood–brain barrier penetration and higher efficacy. Sarin is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine after it is released into the synaptic cleft. In vertebrates, acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction, where signals are transmitted between neurons from the central nervous system to muscle fibres. Acetylcholine is released from the neuron to stimulate the muscle, after which it is degraded by acetylcholinesterase, allowing the muscle to relax.
A build-up of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, means the neurotransmitter continues to act on the muscle fibre, so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted. Sarin acts on acetylcholinesterase by forming a covalent bond with the particular serine residue at the active site. Fluoride is the leaving group, the resulting phosphoester is robust and biologically inactive, its mechanism of action resembles that of some used insecticides, such as malathion. In terms of biological activity, it resembles carbamate insecticides, such as Sevin, the medicines pyridostigmine and physostigmine. Controlled studies in healthy men have shown that a nontoxic 0.43 mg oral dose administered in several portions over a 3-day interval caused average maximum depressions of 22 and 30% in plasma and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase levels. A single acute 0.5 mg dose caused mild symptoms of intoxication and an average reduction of 38% in both measures of acetylcholinesterase activity.
Sarin in blood is degraded either in vivo or in vitro. Its primary inactive metabolites have in vivo serum half-lives of 24 hours; the serum level of unbound isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, a sarin hydrolysis product, ranged from 2–135 µg/L in survivors of a terrorist attack during the first four hours post-exposure. Sarin or its metabolites may be determined in blood or urine by gas or liquid chromatography, while acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by enzymatic methods. A newer method called "fluoride regeneration" or "fluoride reactivation" detects the presence of nerve agents for a longer period after exposure than the methods described above. Fluoride reactivation is a technique, explored since at least the early 2000s; this technique obviates some of the deficiencies of older procedures. Sarin not only reacts with the water in the blood plasma through hydrolysis, but reacts with various proteins to form ‘protein adducts’; these protein adducts are not so removed from the body, remain for a longer period of time than the free metabolites.
One clear advantage of this process is that the period, post-exposure, for determination of sarin exposure is much longer five to eight weeks according to at least one study. As a nerve gas, sarin in its purest form is estimated to be 26 times more deadly than cyanide; the LD50
Brian L. Ott is professor of Communication Studies and Director of the Texas Tech University Press at Texas Tech University, he is an author and communications expert in the field of study of rhetoric and media. Ott earned his bachelor's degree from George Mason University, a master's degree and Ph. D from The Pennsylvania State University, he is a contributor for Newsweek, The Hill, USA Today and other publications. The Twitter presidency: Donald J. Trump and the politics of White Rage with Greg Dickinson. Routledge, New York, 2019. ISBN 978-0367149758 Critical Media Studies: An Introduction with Robert Mack. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, 2014. ISBN 978-1118553978 The Routledge Reader in Rhetorical Criticism with Greg Dickinson. Routledge, New York, 2013. ISBN 978-0415517553 Places of public memory: The rhetoric of museums and memorials with Carole Blair and Greg Dickinson. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 2010. ISBN 978-0817356132 It's Not Tv: Watching HBO in the Post-Television Era with Cara Louise Buckley and Mark Leverette.
Routledge, New York, 2010. ISBN 978-0415960380 The small screen: How television equips us to live in the Information Age. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, 2007. ISBN 978-1405161558
No. 42 Squadron of the Royal Air Force has served during World War I as an army co-operation squadron and during World War II in various roles. In recent years, it was the Operational Conversion Unit for the Nimrod MR.2, based at RAF Kinloss, until the Nimrod MR2's retirement in 2010. Formed on 1 April 1916 from crews of 19 Squadron Royal Flying Corps at Filton, 42 Squadron spent the First World War flying reconnaissance sorties. Using BE2s, the squadron spent time on both the Austro-Italian Front. On returning to England after the war, the squadron was disbanded at RAF Netheravon on 26 June 1919. On 14 December 1936'B' flight of No. 22 Squadron RAF was expanded into a new No. 42 Squadron. In 1939 No. 42 Squadron was based at RAF Bircham Newton. The unit was equipped with Vickers Vildebeests before re-equipping with Bristol Beauforts in January 1940; the squadron operated a bomber unit in the Burma campaign flying Blenheims during 1942 and as a fighter-bomber unit flying Hurricanes during 1943.
The squadron disbanded on 30 June 1945 but on the following day 146 Squadron was renumbered to No. 42 Squadron and flew Thunderbolts. The squadron fought on with these until the Burma campaign ended and thereafter the squadron disbanded on 30 December 1945 at Meiktela. On 1 October 1946 254 Squadron at RAF Thorney Island was renumbered to No. 42 Squadron. Equipped with Bristol Beaufighter, it was a strike unit in RAF Coastal Command until disbanded on 15 October 1947. On 28 June 1952, No. 42 Squadron was reformed, flying Avro Shackletons in the maritime reconnaissance role. The squadron converted to Nimrods in April 1971; the squadron served in Gulf 1 Operation Granby where one of its crew was credited with having achieved the highest number of "Assisted Kills", achieved operating in a High Air Threat environment. The same crew subsequently received the Arthur Barratt Memorial Award. Disbanded as a front-line unit in October 1992, it was reformed as No. 42 Squadron at RAF Kinloss, taking over from No. 236 OCU as the Nimrod Operational Conversion Unit.
The squadron flew its last Nimrod MR.2 flight on 30 March 2010, was formally disbanded on 26 May 2011. List of accidents and incidents involving the Avro Shackleton The History of No 42 Squadron at raf.mod.uk World War II bases of No. 42 Squadron History of No.'s 41–45 Squadrons at RAF Web Rickard, J. No. 42 Squadron: Second World War No 42 Reserve Squadron, RAF
"Sleeping Bag" is a song performed by the band ZZ Top from their 1985 album Afterburner. The song was released as a single in 1985 and became their most successful single, reaching #8 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States, equaling the peak of their previous single "Legs". However, unlike "Legs", it reached No. 1 on the U. S. Mainstream Rock Tracks chart, a first for the band. "Sleeping Bag" - 4:02 "Party on the Patio" - 2:48 "Sleeping Bag" - 6:12 "Party on the Patio" - 2:48 A music video was made to promote the song. The video revolves around a couple being chased by two wheel loaders and the Bear Foot monster truck; the video shows the destruction of the "Eliminator" vehicle featured in the videos of the album Eliminator and introduces the space shuttle on the cover of the Afterburner album. Actors Heather Langenkamp and John Dye appear as the male leads. Directed by Steve Barron; the early scenes in the video inspired the video to the Foo Fighters' "Everlong". Billy Gibbons - guitar, vocals Dusty Hill - bass, keyboards Frank Beard - drums
Winding Hills Park is located off NY 17K in the Comfort Hills two miles west of the village of Montgomery, New York, United States, straddling the Montgomery-Crawford town line. It is a 502-acre area centered on 40-acre Diamond Lake, used for outdoor recreation. Much of the park is wooded, with some clear areas around the roads; the hills slope up to the east, the terrain to the north and west remains rolling. Elevations range from 500 feet above sea level at the west, where Pine Swamp drains toward the Wallkill River via a short unnamed tributary, to 780 feet at the USGS Kimball benchmark; the lake is available for paddleboat rental and angling in season, two smaller ponds on the property are open to fishermen. There are 51 campsites available for overnight use, between May and October, with payment of an adequate reservation fee. A 10-mile trail system is open to hikers and horseback riders, as well as snowshoers and snowmobilers in winter. A 20-acre picnic area with 40 individual picnic sites is available for use.
Each individual picnic site contains a charcoal grill. A picnic shelter for group use is available; the rental fee for use of the shelter is $150, for both Orange Non-County groups. Orange County Parks and Recreation: Winding Hills Park
The Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines, abbreviated as CHED, is a government agency attached to the Office of the President of the Philippines for administrative purposes. It covers both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary educational institutions in the country; the CHED was established on May 18, 1994 through Republic Act No. 7722 or the Higher Education Act of 1994, authored by Senator Francisco Tatad. The creation of CHED was part of a broad agenda for reforms in the country's education system, outlined by the Congressional Commission on Education in 1992. Part of the reforms is the trifocalization of the education sector; the three governing bodies in the education sector are the Commission on Higher Education for tertiary and graduate education, the Department of Education for basic education, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority for technical-vocational and middle level education.
The Chairman of CHED is the Chairperson of the Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines System. Carlito Puno was the chairman from 2005. In 2007, Romulo Neri was appointed Chairman, he was the Director General of the National Economic Development Authority and Socioeconomic Secretary and a former Budget Secretary. On July 9, 2008, Arroyo named Neri as head of the SSS. Nona Ricaforte was appointed acting Chair. On August 20, 2008, Manny Angeles was appointed new Chairman. Angeles was former chancellor of the Angeles University Foundation and president of the Clark Development Corporation. William Medrano was appointed commissioner of the CHED on August 29, 2008. Patricia Licuanan was appointed by President Benigno Aquino III as Chair. In January 2018, Licuanan resigned. Commissioner Prospero De Vera III was designated as OIC. After 9 months De Vera was appointed as Chairman Centers of Excellence are higher education institutions both public and private which have demonstrated the highest degree or level of standards along the areas of instruction and extension of their particular fields or courses.
Centers of Development on the other hand, are educational disciplines that have been considered to improve over the course of the previous year. These provide institutional leadership in all aspects of development in specific areas of discipline in the various regions by providing networking arrangements to help ensure the accelerated development of Higher Educational Institutions in their respective service areas. CHED disseminates information by a variety of means. For information specific to a particular institution, a letter is sent to that institution, or an officer is invited to collect it at CHED main office; the institution may place a copy of the order on one of its own noticeboards, if the order is favorable. CHED maintains a website where some of its policy documents are made available. CHED issues CMOs - CHED Memorandum Orders; these are of national significance. St john technological college of the philippines.inc not accredited college in philippines since 1955-present Higher education in the Philippines Professional Regulation Commission 10.
St john technological college of the philippines.inc not accredited college in philippines since 1955-present CHED Philippines official website