Sark is a part of the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France. It is a royal fief, which forms part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, with its own set of laws based on Norman law and its own parliament, it has a population of about 500. Sark has an area of 2.10 square miles. Sark is one of the few remaining places in the world where cars are banned from roads and only tractors and horse-drawn vehicles are allowed. In 2011, Sark was designated as the first Dark Sky Island in the world. Sark consists of two main parts, Greater Sark, located at about 49°25′N 2°22′W, Little Sark to the south, they are connected by a narrow isthmus called La Coupée, 300 feet long and has a drop of 330 feet on each side. Protective railings were erected in 1900. There is a narrow concrete road covering the entirety of the isthmus, built in 1945 by German prisoners of war under the direction of the Royal Engineers. Due to its isolation, the inhabitants of Little Sark had their own distinct form of Sercquiais, the native Norman dialect of the island.

The highest point on Sark is 374 feet above sea level. A windmill, dated 1571, is found there, the sails of which were removed during World War II; this high point is named Le Moulin, after the windmill. The location is the highest point in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Little Sark had a number of mines accessing a source of galena. At Port Gorey, the ruins of silver mines may be seen. Off the south end of Little Sark are the Venus Pool and the Adonis Pool, both natural swimming pools whose waters are refreshed at high tide; the whole island is extensively penetrated at sea level by natural cave formations that provide unique habitats for many marine creatures, notably sea anemones, some of which are only safely accessible at low tide. Sark is made up of amphibolite and granite gneiss rocks, intruded by igneous magma sheets called quartz diorite. Recent geological studies and rock age dating by geologists from Oxford Brookes University shows that the gneisses formed around 620–600 million years ago during the Late Pre-Cambrian Age Cadomian Orogeny.

The quartz diorite sheets were intruded during metamorphic event. All the Sark rocks formed during geological activity in the continental crust above an ancient subduction zone; this geological setting would have been analogous to the modern-day subduction zone of the Pacific Ocean plate colliding and subducting beneath the North and South American continental plate. Sark exercises jurisdiction over the island of Brecqhou, only a few hundred feet west of Greater Sark, it is a private island, but it has been opened to some visitors. Since 1993, Brecqhou has been owned by David Barclay, one of the Barclay brothers who are co-owners of The Daily Telegraph, they contest Sark's control over the island. The candidates endorsed by their various business interests on the island failed to win any seats in the elections held in 2008 and 2010; the etymology of Sark is unknown. Richard Coates has suggested that in the absence of a Proto-Indo-European etymology it may be worthwhile looking for a Proto-Semitic source for the name.

This is because the British Isles were repopulated from the Iberian Peninsula following the last Ice Age. He proposes a comparison between the probable root of Sark, *Sarg-, Proto-Semitic *śrq "redden. In ancient times, Sark was certainly occupied by the Veneti; these people were subdued by the Roman Empire about the island annexed. After the Roman retreat during the fifth century AD, Sark was an outpost of one or other Breton-speaking kingdoms until 933, when it became part of the Duchy of Normandy. Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the island was united with the Crown of England. In the thirteenth century, the French pirate Eustace the Monk, having served King John, used Sark as a base of operations. During the Middle Ages, the island was populated by monastic communities. By the 16th century, the island was uninhabited and used by pirates as a refuge and base. In 1565, Helier de Carteret, Seigneur of St. Ouen in Jersey, received letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I granting him Sark as a fief in perpetuity on condition that he kept the island free of pirates and occupied by at least forty men who were of her English subjects or swore allegiance to the Crown.

This he duly did, leasing 40 parcels of land at a low rent to forty families from St. Ouen, on condition that a house was built and maintained on each parcel and that "the Tenant" provided one man, armed with a musket, for the defence of the island; the 40 tenements survive to this day, albeit with minor boundary changes. A subsequent attempt by the families to endow a constitution under a bailiff, as in Jersey, was stopped by the Guernsey authorities who resented any attempt to wrest Sark from their bailiwick. In 1844, desperate for funds to continue the operation of the silver mine on the island, the incumbent Seigneur, Ernest le Pelley, obtained Crown permission to mortgage Sark's fief to local privateer John Allaire. After the company running the mine went bankrupt, le Pelley was unable to keep up the mortgage payments and, in 1849, his son Pierre Carey le Pelley, the new Seigneur, was forced to sell the fief to Marie Collings for a total of £1,383

Our Pathetic Age

Our Pathetic Age is the sixth studio album by American music producer DJ Shadow, released through Mass Appeal Records on November 15, 2019. It features the singles "Rocket Fuel" and "Rosie", it features collaborations with Run the Jewels, Ghostface Killah and Raekwon, among others DJ Shadow said that "despite the title, it's a hopeful, vibrant album", elaborating that "People are addicted to, addled by, distraction. There's songs that seek to harness it, to make sense of it. In some cases, there's attempts to salve the wound; the album contains two sections: the first contains instrumental tracks, while the second features song with guest vocalists. On Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 71, based on 12 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Thomas Hobbs of Pitchfork wrote, "Shadow deserves credit for spotlighting so many enigmatic underground characters, something he has done throughout his career, but the overabundance of ideas and conflicting styles becomes jarring."

Theodore A. Parker III

Theodore Albert "Ted" Parker III was an American ornithologist who specialized in the Neotropics. He "was considered the finest field birder / ornithologist that the world had seen." Parker grew up in Lancaster and became interested in birdwatching at an early age. In 1971 he broke the North American Big Year record. In that year he enrolled at the University of Arizona and began to accompany ornithological expeditions to South America with Louisiana State University, he was associated with LSU for the rest of his life. He supported himself by leading birding tours for Victor Emanuel Nature Tours, until the last few years of his life, when he went to work for Conservation International. According to Zimmer, "Voice and behavior are the keys in neotropical forests, Ted was not only the first to recognize this, but honed his discrimination of these essential cues to a finer degree than anyone else." Zimmer adds that as knowledge of these matters was limited, "any field problems… took weeks of patient effort for Ted to work out for himself."If another ornithologist played Parker a tape of an unknown bird, he could recognize it and could identify other species in the background noise.

He might by his knowledge of bird ranges, state where the tape had been made—Zimmer gives the example of "south bank of the Amazon between the Rios Madeira and Tapajos". He could identify bird calls and songs in the presence of many other birds, as when the bird was a member of a mixed-species flock. On more than one occasion, he identified a bird new to him by its call, since he recognized the genus and knew what species lived in the area. Once, hearing a recording of a dawn chorus in Bolivia, he realized that one of the sounds was an antwren of the genus Herpsilochmus—but since he knew all the sounds of those birds, he knew he was hearing a unknown species; the following year, the new species was discovered. The scale of this knowledge is given by the presence of over two thousand bird species in the Andes and Amazon, where Parker did most of his field work, he kept them straight not only from each other but from the region's monkeys and insects as well. Don Stap describes Parker's method: walking down a trail, pausing after every step, watching and listening.

In this way he gained his knowledge of both detail and "common patterns in behavior or vocalizations or community structure across the continent", which led Jon Fjeldså and Niels Krabbe to call him "by far the greatest specialist on the life histories of neotropical birds there was". Stap notes that Parker did not shoot birds for study, a normal method of field ornithology; when leading tours, Parker would lure flocks in by recording their sounds as he heard them and immediately playing the tape back. The flock would appear. Parker willingly shared his knowledge with others informally, published extensively, contributed over 10,000 recordings to the Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology; when he went to work for Conservation International, he conceived of an interdisciplinary program to provide scientific information in South America's conservation crises. This Rapid Assessment Program has led to the creation of many reserves. Parker was doing a survey for it in western Ecuador when he was killed in a plane crash along with three others, including the botanist Alwyn Howard Gentry.

The Theodore A. Parker III Natural Area in Lancaster County and the Parker/Gentry Award for Conservation Biology are named for him. Bancroft, G. Thomas and J. V. Remsen. Studies in Neotropical Ornithology Honoring Ted Parker. American rnologضظ٩٣ض١١نر٨٧ists' Union. ISBN 978-0-935868-93-7. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list According to Bates and Schulenberg, it contain a complete bibliography and a full memorial. Parker, T. A. III. "An to foliage-gleaner identification". Continental Birdlife. 1: 32–37. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ١خخطعخخخشخعخخ٩٩خطتهم * Template:Cit٠م٨ e book Introduces the young Ted Parker as a friend of the author and describes some of their mutual birding experiences. Illustrates the beginnings of Parker's field techniques and interest in neotropical birds and conservation