Hungarians known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture and language. Hungarians belong to the Uralic-speaking peoples. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries Slovakia, Romania, Croatia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; the Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from Oghur-Turkic On-Ogur. Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian "Yugra".
It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881; the Magyars/Hungarians belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, it is possible that they became its ethnic majority. In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians had many names, including "Węgrzy", "Ungherese", "Ungar", "Hungarus"; the "H-" prefix is a addition of Medieval Latin. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian". "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer".
The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. "Magyar" may derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel". The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD 950, though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars; this was a misnomer, as while the Magyars had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people. The historical Latin phrase "Natio Hungarica" had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up; some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, of which the ancestors of the Magyars, being located farther south, were the most numerous.
Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers. Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241; the Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds; the names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate; as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River.
The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin against the Eastern Frankish Empire and Great Moravia, but against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin; the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time, due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and by their old enemies the Pechenegs; the Bulgarians won the decisive b
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most inhabited the Altai region from where they expanded over the following centuries, first as part of the Kimek Khanate and as part of a confederation with the Cumans. There were groups of Kipchaks in the Pontic -- Syr Darya and Siberia; the Cuman–Kipchak confederation was conquered by the Mongols in the early 13th century. The Kipchaks described their name as meaning'hollow tree'. Németh points to the Siberian qıpčaq "angry, quick-tempered" attested only in the Siberian Sağay dialect. Klyashtorny links Kipchak to qovı, qovuq "unfortunate, unlucky". Regardless, Golden notes that the ethnonym's original form and etymology "remain a matter of contention and speculation"Their name appears transliterated in other languages, such as Arabic: قفجاق, translit. Qifjāq. Qabčāq/Qabcâq. Qıpçaq. Qıpşaq.
Qıpçaq. Qıpçaq. Other English transliteration include Qipchaks. In the Kipchak steppe, a complex ethnic assimilation and consolidation process took place between the 11th and 13th centuries; the western Kipchak tribes absorbed people of Oghuz, ancient Bashkir and other origin. They were all identified by the ethnonym Kipchak. According to Ukrainian anthropologists, Kipchaks had racial characteristics of Caucasians and Mongoloids, namely a broad flat face and protruding nose. Researcher E. P. Alekseeva drew attention to the fact that European Kipchak stone images have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid faces. However, in her opinion, most Kipchaks, who settled in Georgia in the first half of the 12th century, were predominantly Caucasoid with some admixture of Mongoloid traits, they were joined by Cumans. In the course of the Turkic expansion they migrated into Siberia and further into the Trans-Volga region; the Kipchaks appear in the 8th-century Moyun Chur inscription as Türk-Qïbchaq, mentioned as having been part of the Turkic Khaganate for fifty years.
It is unclear if the Kipchaks could be identified as the Chueh-Yueh Shih in Chinese sources or, according to Klyashtorny, the Syr in the Orkhon inscriptions. The relationship between the Kipchaks and Cumans is unclear. While part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most inhabited the Altai region; when the Khaganate collapsed, they became part of the Kimek confederation, with which they expanded to the Irtysh and Tobol rivers. They appeared in Islamic sources. In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated, they entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, were one of seven original tribes. In the 10th-century Hudud al - ` Alam it is said; the Kimek confederation spearheaded by the Kipchaks, moved into Oghuz lands, Sighnaq in Syr Darya became the Kipchak urban centre. Kipchak remnants remained in Siberia; as a result, three Kipchak groups emerged: Kipchaks of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Kipchaks of the Syr Darya, associated with the Khwarazmian dynasty. Kipchaks of Siberia composing the Siberian Tatars.
The early 11th century saw a massive Turkic nomadic migration towards the Islamic world. The first waves were recorded in the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 1017–18, it is unknown whether the Cumans conquered the Kipchaks or were the leaders of the Kipchak–Turkic tribes. By the 12th century, the two separate confederations of Cumans and Kipchaks merged; the Mongols defeated the Alans after convincing the Kipchaks to desert them through pointing at their likeness in language and culture. Nonetheless, the Kipchaks were defeated next. Under khan Köten, Kipchaks fled to the Grand Principality of Kiev, where the Kipchaks had several marriage relations, one of, Köten's son-in-law Mstislav Mstislavich of Galicia; the Ruthenians and Kipchaks forged an alliance against the Mongols, met at the Dnieper to locate them. After an eight-day pursuit, they met at the Kalka River; the Kipchaks, who were horse archers like the Mongols, scouts. The Mongols, who appeared to retreat, tricked the Ruthenian–Kipchak force into a trap after emerging behind the hills and surrounding them.
The fleeing Kipchaks were pursued, the Ruthenian camp was massacred. The nomadic Kipchaks were the main targets of the Mongols when they crossed the Volga in 1236; the defeated Kipchaks entered the Mongol ranks, while others fled westward. Köten led 40,000 families into Hungary, where King Bela IV granted them refuge in return for their Christianization; the refugee Kipchaks fled Hungary. After their fall and Cumans were known to have become mercenaries in Europe and taken as slave warriors. In Egypt, the Mamluks were in part drawn from Cumans; the Kipchak–Cuman confederation spoke a Turkic language. Mongolian ethno-linguistic elements in the Kipchak–Kimek remain unproven. Kipchaks and Cumans spoke a Turkic language whose most impor
Khagan or Qaghan is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and some other languages, equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate. The female equivalent is Khatun, it may be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings. In modern Turkic, the title became Khaan with the'g' sound becoming silent or non-existent. Since the division of the Mongol Empire, emperors of the Yuan dynasty held the title of Khagan and their successors in Mongolia continued to have the title. Kağan and Kaan are common Turkish names in Turkey; the common western rendering as Great Khan, notably in the case of the Mongol Empire, is translation of Yekhe Khagan. The term is of unknown origin and a loanword from the Ruanruan language. According to Vovin the term comes from qaγan and was used in several languages in Turkic and Mongolic. Turkic and Para-Mongolic origin has been suggested by a number of scholars including Ramstedt, Shiratori and Doerfer, was first used by the Xianbei. While Sinor believes "qaγan/qapγan" is an intensification of "qan" just as qap-qara is an intensification of "qara" - black, in Turkic, with the eventual loss of the "p".
Shiratori rejects a Turkic etymology, instead supporting a Mongolic origin for both "qan" and the female form "qatun". According to Vovin, the word *qa-qan "great-qan" is of non-Altaic origin, but instead linked to Yeniseian *qε> "big" or "great". The origin of qan itself is harder according to Vovin, he says that the origin for the word qan is not found in any reconstructed proto-language and was used by Turkic, Mongolic and Korean people with variations from kan, qan and hwan. A relation exists to the Yeniseian words *qij or *qaj meaning "ruler", it maybe impossible to prove the ultimate origin of the title, but Vovin says: "Thus, it seems to be quite that the ultimate source of both qaγan and qan can be traced back to Xiong-nu and Yeniseian". The title was first seen in a speech between 283 and 289, when the Xianbei chief Tuyuhun tried to escape from his younger stepbrother Murong Hui, began his route from the Liaodong Peninsula to the areas of Ordos Desert. In the speech one of Murong's generals, addressed him as kehan.
The Rouran Khaganate was the first people to use the titles Khagan and Khan for their emperors, replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, whom Grousset and others assume to be Turkic. The Rouran are assumed to be a "non-Altaic" group; the Avar Khaganate, who may have included Rouran elements after the Göktürks crushed the Rouran ruling Mongolia used this title. The Avars invaded Europe, for over a century ruled the Carpathian region. Westerners Latinized the title "Khagan" into "Gaganus", "Cagan", or "Cacano"; the Secret History of the Mongols, written for that dynasty distinguishes Khagan and Khan: only Genghis Khan and his ruling descendants are called Khagan, while other rulers are referred to as Khan. Khagan or Khaan refers to Emperor or King in the Mongolian language, Yekhe Khagan means Great Khagan or Grand Emperor; the Mongol Empire began to split politically with the Toluid Civil War during 1260–1264 and the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, but the term Ikh Khagan was still used by the emperors of the Yuan dynasty, who assumed the role of Emperor of China, after the fall of the Yuan in China it continued to be used during the Northern Yuan dynasty in Mongolia homeland.
Thus, the Yuan is sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan, coexisting with the independent Mongol khanates in the west, including the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde. Only the Ilkhanate recognized the Yuan's overlordship as allies; because Kublai founded the Yuan, the members of the other branches of the Borjigin could take part in the election of a new Khagan as the supporters of one or other of the contestants, but they could not enter the contest as candidates themselves. Yuan emperors made peace with the three western khanates of the Mongol Empire and were considered as their nominal suzerain; the nominal supremacy, while based on nothing like the same foundations as that of the earlier Khagans, did last for a few decades, until the Yuan dynasty fell in China. After the breakdown of Mongol Empire and the fall of the Yuan dynasty in the mid-14th century, the Mongols turned into a political turmoil. Dayan Khan once revived Emperor's authority and recovered its reputation in Mongolia, but with the distribution of his empire among his sons and relatives as fiefs it again caused decentralized rule.
The last Khagan of the Chahars, Ligdan Khan, died in 1634 while fighting the Qing dynasty founded by the Manchu people. In contemporary Mongolian language the words "Khaan" and "Khan" have different meanings, while English language does not differentiate between them; the title is used as a generic term for a king or emperor, as in "Испанийн хаан Хуан Карлос". The early Khagans of the Mongol Empire were: Genghis Khan Ögedei Khan Güyük Khan
Chersonesus, in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson is an ancient Greek colony founded 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula. The colony was established in the 6th century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica; the ancient city is located on the shore of the Black Sea at the outskirts of Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula, where it is referred to as Khersones. It has been nicknamed the "Ukrainian Pompeii"; the site is now part of the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos. The name Chersonesos in Greek means "peninsula", aptly describes the site on which the colony was established, it should not be confused with the Tauric Chersonese, the name applied to the whole of the southern Crimea. During much of the classical period Chersonesus was a democracy ruled by a group of elected Archons and a council called the Demiurgoi; as time passed the government grew more oligarchic, with power concentrated in the hands of the archons. A form of oath sworn by all the citizens since the 3rd century BC has survived to the present day.
In 2013, Chersonesus was listed as a World Heritage Site. In the late 2nd century BC Chersonesus became a dependency of the Bosporan Kingdom, it was subject to Rome from the middle of the 1st century BC until the 370s AD, when it was captured by the Huns. It became a Byzantine possession during the Early Middle Ages and withstood a siege by the Göktürks in 581. Byzantine rule was slight: there was a small imperial garrison more for the town's protection than for its control, it was useful to Byzantium in two ways: as an observation point to watch the barbarian tribes, its isolation made it a popular place of exile for those who angered the Roman and Byzantine governments. Among its more famous "inmates" were Pope Clement I and Pope Martin I, the deposed Byzantine Emperor Justinian II. According to Theophanes the Confessor and others, Chersonesus was the residence of a Khazar governor in the late 7th century. Between 705 and 840, the city's affairs were managed by elected officials called babaghuq, meaning "father of the city.
In 833 Emperor Theophilus sent the nobleman Petronas Kamateros, who had overseen the construction of the Khazar fortress of Sarkel, to take direct control over the city and its environs, establishing the theme of Klimata/Cherson. It remained in Byzantine hands until the 980s, when it fell to Kiev. Vladimir the Great agreed to evacuate the fortress only if Basil II's sister Anna Porphyrogeneta would be given him in marriage; the demand caused a scandal in Constantinople. As a pre-condition for the marriage settlement, Vladimir was baptized here in 988, thus paving the way to the Baptism of Kievan Rus'. Thereafter Korsun' was evacuated. Since this campaign is not recorded in Greek sources, historians have suggested that this account refers to the events of the Rus'-Byzantine War and to a different Vladimir. In fact, most valuables looted by the Slavs in Korsun' made their way to Novgorod, where they were preserved in the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom until the 20th century. One of the most interesting items from this "Korsun Treasure" is the copper Korsun Gate captured by the Novgorodians in Korsun' and now part of the St. Sophia Cathedral.
After the Fourth Crusade, Chersonesus became dependent on the Byzantine Empire of Trebizond as the Principality of Theodoro. After the Siege of Trebizond the Principality of Theodoro became independent; the city fell under Genoese control in the early 13th century. In 1299, the town was sacked by the Mongol armies of Nogai Khan's Golden Horde. Chersonesus had been a Roman pre-Great Schism Greek/Orthodox, episcopal see for centuries, elevated early to the rank of archbishopric, since it is mentioned as such in the Notitiae Episcopatuum. In the late 19th century, the grand Russian Orthodox St Vladimir's Cathedral was built on a small hill overlooking the site. In 1333 a Latin Church diocese of Chersonesus was established, but it appears that it had only a bishop, a Dominican called Richard the Englishman. No longer a residential diocese, Chersonesus in Zechia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular archbishopric, since the early 20th century called Cherson or Chersonesus, since 1933 Chersonesus in Zechia, avoiding confusion with other sees called Chersonesus by specifying it is Crimean.
It is vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, all of the intermediary rank: Donald Louis Mackintosh Alexis-Armand Charost as Coadjutor Archbishop of Rennes, succeeding as Metropolitan Archbishop of Rennes, created Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria della Vittoria. A. M. (1971.03.03 – 19
The Rus' people are understood in English-language scholarship as ethnically or ancestrally Scandinavian people trading and raiding on the river-routes between the Baltic and the Black Seas from around the eighth to eleventh centuries CE. Thus they are referred to in English-language research as "Viking Rus'"; the scholarly consensus is that Rus' people originated in what is coastal Middle Sweden around the eighth century and that their name has the same origin as Roslagen in Sweden. Basing themselves among Slavic and Finnic peoples in the upper Volga region, they formed a diaspora of traders and raiders exchanging furs and slaves for silk and other commodities available to the east and south. Around the ninth century, on the river routes to the Black Sea, they had an unclear but significant role in forming the principality of Kievan Rus assimilating with local Slavic populations, they extended their operations much further east and south, among the Turkic Bulgars and Khazars, on the routes to the Caspian Sea.
By around the eleventh century, the word Rus' was associated with the principality of Kiev, the term Varangian was becoming more common as a term for Scandinavians traveling the river-routes. Little, however, is certain about them; this is to a significant extent because, although Rus' people were active over a long period and vast distances, textual evidence for their activities is sparse and never produced by contemporary Rus' people themselves. It's believed that writing was brought to the Rus by the Slavs for religious reasons, which arrived to the area much than they did; the word Rus' in the primary sources does not always mean the same thing as it does when used by today's scholars. Meanwhile, archaeological evidence and researchers' understanding of it is accumulating only gradually; as a trading diaspora, Rus' people intermingled extensively with Finnic and Turkic peoples and their customs and identity seem correspondingly to have varied over time and space. The other key reason for dispute about the origins of Rus' people is the likelihood that they had a role in ninth- to tenth-century state formation in eastern Europe, making them relevant to what are today seen as the national histories of Russia, Sweden, Belarus and Baltic states.
This has engendered fierce debate as different political interest groups promote their own stories as to who the Rus' were, in the belief that the politics of the ancient past legitimize policies in the present. The etymology and semantic history of the word Rus' has been a contentious topic, on which debate is ongoing; this is because of a widespread assumption that by identifying the linguistic origin of the name Rus', scholars can identify the origins of the people whom it described. This assumption has, been criticized in twenty-first-century scholarship. According to the prevalent theory, the name Rus', like the Finnish name for Sweden, is derived from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen or Roden, as it was known in earlier times; the name Rus' would have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden: Ruotsi and Rootsi. The earliest Slavonic-language narrative account of Rus' history is the Primary Chronicle and adapted from a wide range of sources in Kiev at the start of the thirteenth century.
It has therefore been influential on modern history-writing, but it is much than the time it describes, historians agree it reflects the political and religious politics of the time of Mstislav I of Kiev. However, the chronicle does include the texts of a series of Rus'–Byzantine Treaties from 911, 945, 971; the Rus'–Byzantine Treaties give a valuable insight into the names of the Rus'. Of the fourteen Rus' signatories to the Rus'–Byzantine Treaty in 907, all had Norse names. By the Rus'–Byzantine Treaty in 945, some signatories of the Rus' had Slavic names while the vast majority had Norse names; the Chronicle presents the following origin myth for the arrival of Rus' in the region of Novgorod: the Rus' were a group of Varangians'who imposed tribute upon the Chuds, the Slavs, the Merians, the Ves', the Krivichians'. The tributaries of the Varangians drove them back beyond the sea and, refusing them further tribute, set out to govern themselves. There was no law among them. Discord thus ensued among them, they began to war one against the other.
They said to themselves, "Let us seek a prince who may rule over us, judge us according to the Law". They accordingly went overseas to the Varangian Russes: these particular Varangians were known as Russes, just as some are called Swedes, others Normans and Gotlanders, for they were thus named; the Chuds, the Slavs, the Krivichians and the Ves' said to the people of Rus', "Our land is great and rich, but there is no order in it. Come to rule and reign over us", thus they selected three brothers, with their kinsfolk, who took with them all the Russes and migrated. The oldest, located himself in Novgorod. On account of these Varangians, the district of Novgorod became known as the land of Rus'; the Primary Chronicle claims, they conquered Kiev and created the state of Kievan Rus' (which, most historians agree, was precede
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
Samosdelka is a fishing village in southern Russia near which archaeologists reported in September 2008 that they had found the remains of Atil, the capital of the medieval Khazar kingdom. The team of archaeologists, led by Dmitry Vasilyev of Astrakhan State University, had been excavating for nine years. According to Vasilyev, they found the remains of an ancient brick fortress in the newly found 9th and 10th century layers, which contained characteristic Khazar yurts; the investigated area covered more than 2 square kilometers. "This is a hugely important discovery... We can now shed light on one of the most intriguing mysteries of that period – how the Khazars lived. We know little about the Khazars – about their traditions, their funerary rites, their culture." The layout of the city conforms to the written sources. As reported by Norman Finkelshteyn, it was "a city bisected by riverbeds with a central island citadel of fired brick"; the central portion of Samosdelka was located on an island between dried-up river beds.
Old documents said. The fortress at Samosdelka had a triangular shape, it is known from written sources. Traces of a widespread fire were found at Samosdelka in an Atil layer; the fire was set during the conquest of Atil by Kievan Rus' prince Sviatoslav I in 968 or 969 CE. Layers of 11th-12th centuries are associated with Saqsin; the Khazar Capital City of Atil Russian archaeologists find long-lost Jewish capital Scholar claims to find medieval Jewish capital Yahoo